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    Australian Wetlands  resource Australian Wetlands resource Document Transcript

    • Discovering Wetlands in Australia A Primary classroom resource
    • All images in this publication are copyright of the Department of Sustainability,Environment, Water, Population and Communities (and associated photographers) unlessnoted below:Front cover:Green turtle on the Great Barrier Reef, QLD (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)Bar-tailed godwits on a Cairns beach, QLD (Brian Furby Collection)Giant burrowing frog (Steve Wilson)Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the non-Government internet resourcesUHIHUUHG WR DQG WKH HGXFDWLRQ FHQWUHV OLVWHG LQ WKLV SXEOLFDWLRQ GR QRW QHFHVVDULO UHÀHFW WKRVHof the Australian Government or the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populationand Communities.2
    • CONTENTSIntroductionWhy teach your class about wetlands? 4Using this resource 4Background informationWetland types 5Ramsar Convention 5World Wetlands Day 5Curriculum links 6Class activitiesActivity One - What is a wetland? 7Activity Two - Water and wetlands 7Activity Three - Types of wetlands 8Activity Four - Wetlands and forests 9Activity Five - Indigenous values and perspectives of wetlands 10Activity Six - What is a Ramsar site? 11AppendicesAppendix One – Teachers’ glossary 12Appendix Two – Students’ glossary 16Appendix Three – Teachers’ information on alpine wetlands 17Appendix Four– Teachers’ information on arid wetlands 18Appendix Five – Teachers’ information on coastal and marine wetlands 19Appendix Six – Teachers’ information on estuarine wetlands 21Appendix Seven – Teachers’ information on inland riverine wetlands 22Appendix Eight – Teaching online resources 24Appendix Nine – Paper animals 25Appendix Ten – Wetland education centres 26 33 3
    • INTRODUCTIONWhy teach your class about This unit is one way your students can be involvedwetlands? in thinking about the role of wetlands, their importance and why we should all hold someWetlands are everywhere in Australia, from the responsibility in their conservation.man-made ponds of your suburb, and the riversWKDW FULVVFURVV WKH FRQWLQHQW WR YDVW ÀRRGSODLQV Studies of wetlands can be incorporated into ain central Australia that only see water every range of curriculum areas, including Science,few years. We often pass them unnoticed and Geography, English and the Arts.without a thought to the important jobs theyperform each day. Using this resourceThe term ‘wetlands’ encompasses a vast The information and activities outlined in thisrange of water based areas including swamps, resource will assist classes to:marshes, billabongs, lakes, salt marshes, ‡ investigate Australia’s wetlandsPXGÀDWV PDQJURYHV FRUDO UHHIV IHQV DQG ‡ gain an understanding of the diversity of wetlandpeatlands. ecosystems in AustraliaWetlands are an important part of the Australian ‡ broaden teachers’ and students’ understandingODQGVFDSH 7KH DFW DV ¿OWHUV IRU RXU ZDWHUZDV of wetlands and their importance to thebreeding sites for hundreds of Australian animals Australian environmentand recreational centres for many communities. ‡ learn about the Ramsar Convention andThey protect our shores from wave action, internationally important wetlands in Australia,UHGXFH WKH LPSDFWV RI ÀRRGV DEVRUE SROOXWDQWV andand improve water quality. They provide habitatfor animals and plants and many contain a wide ‡ demonstrate understanding of Australia’sdiversity of life, supporting plants and animals wetlands and the ability to share andthat are found nowhere else in the world. communicate this information to an intended audience.Wetlands are vital habitats for internationalmigration by birds, demonstrating how habitatsaround the world are connected.Because of their unique ability to trap sedimentsDQG ¿OWHU QXWULHQWV ZHWODQGV KDYH EHHQ OLNHQHGto a cleansing ‘kidney’ within the river systems.They are essential for sustaining healthy rivers,on which communities throughout Australiadepend.All Australians rely on water and the qualityof our waterways to sustain life. Whetherit’s water for our households, industries orecosystems, wetlands play a central role andtheir conservation should be a priority for allAustralians.4
    • BACKGROUND INFORMATIONWetland Types ‡ establish nature reserves on wetlands and promote wetland training, andThere are many different types of wetlands inAustralia and also many ways to group wetlands. To ‡ consult with other member countries about theprovide a small sample of their diversity, we have implementation of the Ramsar Convention.VHOHFWHG ¿YH HFRVVWHP JURXSLQJV IRU WKLV OHDUQLQJ $XVWUDOLD ZDV RQH RI WKH ¿UVW FRXQWULHV WR MRLQ WKHunit. These are: &RQYHQWLRQ DQG GHVLJQDWHG WKH ZRUOG¶V ¿UVW :HWODQG‡ alpine wetlands of International Importance, Cobourg Peninsula, in‡ arid wetlands the Northern Territory in 1974. Australia currently has 64 Ramsar sites which cover approximately‡ coastal and marine wetlands 8.1 million hectares. This includes iconic places‡ estuaries, and such as Kakadu National Park and the Coorong.‡ inland riverine wetlands Appendix Eight provides a list of internet resourcesA fact sheet on each ecosystem is included as a for further information on wetlands and availablestarting point to support student research into these teaching resources that include wetland modules.wetland ecosystems types. Further information Two key internet resources for backgroundon these wetland ecosystems is also available at information on Australia’s Ramsar sites and theAppendix Three – Appendix Seven. Ramsar Convention are: ‡ www.environment.gov.au/wetlandsRamsar Convention ‡ www.ramsar.orgThe Convention on Wetlands of InternationalImportance holds the unique distinction of being World Wetlands DayWKH ¿UVW PRGHUQ WUHDW EHWZHHQ QDWLRQV DLPHG DW World Wetlands Day marks the anniversary ofconserving natural resources. The signing of the the signing of the Ramsar Convention. WorldConvention on Wetlands took place in 1971 at :HWODQGV D ZDV ¿UVW FHOHEUDWHG LQ  6LQFHthe small Iranian town of Ramsar. Since then, the then government agencies, non-governmentConvention on Wetlands of International Importance organisations and community groups havehas been known as the Ramsar Convention. celebrated World Wetlands Day by undertaking2011 marks the 40th anniversary of the signing of actions to raise public awareness of wetland valuesthe Convention. The Ramsar Convention’s mission DQG EHQH¿WV DQG SURPRWH WKH FRQVHUYDWLRQ DQGis ‘the conservation and wise use of wetlands by wise use of wetlands. These activities includenational action and international cooperation as seminars, nature walks, festivals, photographica means to achieving sustainable development and art exhibitions, launches of new policies,throughout the world.’ Countries that join the announcement of new Ramsar sites, newspaperConvention make a commitment to: articles, radio interviews and wetland rehabilitation.‡ designate at least one site that meets the Ramsar World Wetlands Day 2011 will be celebrated criteria for inclusion in the List of Wetlands of internationally on 2 February. The theme for 2011 International Importance is “wetlands and forests - forests for water and‡ promote the conservation and wise use of wetlands” and this looks at the bigger picture of wetlands forests and wetlands in our lives.‡ include wetland conservation within their national land-use planning 55
    • )RUHVWHG ZHWODQGV DQG WKH VSHFLDO EHQH¿WV WKH Curriculum for each subject includes contentbring. Mangroves, peatswamp forests, freshwater descriptions and achievement standards K-12.swamp forests: biologically diverse, helping us ACARA will with state and territory curriculummanage our freshwater, and providing us with many and school authorities to develop implementationother ‘services’ across the globe including vital roles plans to align State Curriculums with the Nationalin carbon storage – our allies in the face of climate Curriculum.change. Despite their utility, they are often underthreat from development, drainage and conversion. ScienceThe role of forests – wet or not – in our lives, and Year 3 ScienceZK ORRNLQJ DIWHU WKHP PDWWHUV. Vital to all humanlives, freshwater availability on a global scale ‡ Science Understanding / Life cycles S3SU2 Lifedepends on our forests. So too, to a large extent, Cycles and reproductive processes of plants anddoes freshwater quality. animals.The role of forests in how our wetlands function. It’s Year 4 Sciencesimple: the health of our wetlands, whether forested ‡ Science Understanding / Interactions of livingor not, is linked to the health of forests in our things S4SU2 Interactions between living thingscatchments. Losing and degrading forests means in a habitat, including simple food chains in alosing and degrading wetlands. local environment.Australia has over 900 wetlands recognised for Year 5 Sciencetheir national importance. Many of these wetlands ‡ Science as Human Endeavour / Collaboration inDUH PDQJURYH VZDPSV DQG IRUHVWHG ÀRRGSODLQV Science.S5SHE3 Teams of Scientists are oftenand rivers supporting stands of iconic wetland trees required to work together on projects.species such as river red gums. ‡ Science Understanding / Micro-organisms S5SU1, the role of micro-organismsin areas suchCurriculum Links as human health, food and the environment.This classroom unit is compatible with the new Year 6 ScienceAustralian National Curriculum K-12 which is ‡ Science as Human Endeavour / Science andcurrently being developed under the Australian CultureS6SHE6 / Science and culture canCurriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority LQWHUDFW WR LQÀXHQFH SHUVRQDO DQG FRPPXQLW(ACARA). choices (eg, making decisions about resourceACARA is working collaboratively with a wide range use and sustainable management of theof stakeholders including teachers, principals, environment).government, state and territory education ‡ Science Understanding / Relationships of livingauthorities, professional education associations, thingsS6SU1 Relationships between livingbusiness/industry, community groups and the things, including food webs, and suitability forbroader public. Writers are referencing the new particular habitats.curriculum to national and international curriculum ‡ Science Understanding / Using Earth’sand assessment research and to state and territory ResourcesS6SU2 / Human Activity, such as thecurriculum materials. use and management of water, energy resources7KH ¿UVW SKDVH RI GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH $XVWUDOLDQ and mineral resources, can have consequencescurriculum for English, mathematics, science and for the environment and other living things.history is well under way. A second phase of workhas begun to develop the Australian curriculum forlanguages, geography and the arts. 6
    • CLASS ACTIVITIESActivity One - What is a Activity Two - Water andWetland? WetlandsPurpose PurposeTo determine and benchmark your class’s To raise general knowledge and understanding ofcurrent level of understanding and knowledge of the importance of water for wetlands and stimulatewetlands. discussion and thought around activities that can be undertaken by students to conserve wetlands.ActionStep One: Introduce your class to the Actiontopic of wetlands by showing the Ramsar Step One: Introduce your class to the important roleConvention video ‘Wetlands: keeping our that water has for wetlands, select ‘Environmentalplanet alive and well’ from the DVD provided watering at Hattah-Kulkyne Lakes’ andin the classroom pack or online at http://www. ‘Environmental watering at Yanga National Park’ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-media-video/main/ from the DVD provided in the wetlands classroomramsar/1-25-331_4000_0__. Read ‘Wetlands kit or online at www.environment.gov.au/wetlands.and World Wetlands Day’ fact sheet and give Read the ‘Environmental Watering’ fact sheet andrelevant information to students. give students relevant information.Step Two: Now that your class has seen the Step Two: Now that your class has seen the videosvideo ask them to call out words, concepts on environmental watering, discuss with the classor ideas that they associate with wetlands. about why water is important for wetlands and howBrainstorm words associated with wetlands. For the water in rivers is connected to the water usedH[DPSOH ULYHU IURJ ¿VK PXG HWF E WKH VFKRRO LVFXVV ZK LW LV VRPHWLPHV GLI¿FXOW to balance the water we need for cities, towns andStep Three: Record all the class responses onto agriculture and the water we need to keep ourpaper shapes, suitable for sorting. wetlands healthy.Step Four: Get your class to suggest some Investigate waterways near the school. Where does‘topic headings’, use these headings as the water come from? Where does the water go?categories to sort previous responses. Glue in Google Earth (http://www.google.com/earth/index.place to create a structured mind-map. html) can be used to locate the school and searchStep Five: Word game. Give each student a for local waterways.copy of the Student Glossary (Appendix Two). Step Three: Divide your class into groups. GiveDiscuss some words and their meanings. Cut each group the name of a school participating in theRQH FRS LQWR VWULSV ZLWK ZRUG DQG GH¿QLWLRQ Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI).give one to each student. Put them all into a Each group is to locate relevant information on whatKRRS ,Q JURXSV VWXGHQWV ¿QG WKHLU ZRUG DQG their school is doing to work towards being moreGH¿QLWLRQ 5HSHDW ZLWK GLIIHUHQW ZRUG sustainable with their water use. Each group to thenExtension *LYH VWXGHQWV D ZRUG WR ¿QG WKH share the responses with the class.PDWFKLQJ GH¿QLWLRQ See http://www.environment.gov.au/education/5HÀHFW EDFN RQ WKLV PLQG PDS DW WKH aussi/ and www.sustainableschools.com.auFRPSOHWLRQ RI WKLV XQLW WR LGHQWLI ZKDW RXUFODVV KDV OHDUQW 77 7
    • For AuSSI schools in your state see: Activity Three: Types of Wetland‡ Australian Capital Territory: http://www. Identifying different wetland ecosystems and sustainableschools.act.gov.au/ WKHLU GH¿QLQJ FKDUDFWHULVWLFV‡ New South Wales: http://www. sustainableschools.nsw.edu.au/ This is a group activity (2-5 students) which can‡ Northern Territory: http://www.environment.gov. be broken down over a number of lessons. Fact au/education/aussi/aussi-school/nt.html sheets required for this activity can be found in‡ Queensland: http://www.sustainableschools.qld. your wetlands classroom kit or online at: www. edu.au/ environment.gov.au/wetlands.‡ South Australia: http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/efs/‡ Tasmania: http://www.aussietas.com/ Purpose‡ Victoria: http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/efs/ )RU VWXGHQWV WR LQYHVWLJDWH RQH RI WKH ¿YH ZHWODQG‡ Western Australia: http://www.det.wa.edu.au/ ecosystem groups (arid, alpine, coastal and marine, curriculumsupport/sustainableschools/detcms/ estuarine and inland riverine wetlands) and identify portal/ the unique characteristics of that wetland and share acquired knowledge with classmates.Learn about what schools are doing to usetheir water more wisely. See http://www. Students can also identify what factors aresustainableschools.com.au/sustainableschools/ threatening their chosen wetland ecosystem andthemes/water.html investigate what they can do to minimise these threats.Many of these schools are implementingsustainable water use through actions suchas installing rainwater tanks that have been Actionconnected to the school toilets or gardens or Step One H¿QH WKH ZRUG µHFRVVWHP¶ DQGworking with their communities to reduce pollution discover some local ecosystems. The school mightentering stormwater drains and impacting on local have a pond ecosystem, bushland ecosystem orwaterways. Some schools are partnering with their beach ecosystem nearby.local communities to conserve local wetlands. Step Two: Divide your class into groups and assignEncourage students to read the following case HDFK JURXS RQH RI WKH ¿YH ZHWODQG HFRVVWHPstudies for information. See : groups (arid, alpine, coastal and marine, estuarine‡ http://www.environment.gov.au/education/aussi/ and inland riverine wetlands). case-studies/tas.html Step Three: Provide each group with the‡ http://www.environment.gov.au/education/aussi/ appropriate student fact sheet. Direct each group to case-studies/sa.html a wetland that matches their wetland type, using the‡ http://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/ Australian Wetland Database. DVVHWVSGIB¿OH8UEDQB:HWODQGVB Detailed information of many of these wetlands book.pdf is available on the Australian Wetlands DatabaseStep Four: Discuss and implement a class project at www.environment.gov.au/wetlands. Teachersto conserve water within the school. This could fact sheets also include links to further internetinclude: water monitors; complete a water audit; resources where students can learn more aboutdesign reminder signs to turn off taps. wetlands.Step Five: Wetland ‘The-odd-word-out’ activity. 8
    • Step Four: Each group researches the following Activity Four - Wetlands andtopics for sharing with the class.‡ What type of ecosystem have you investigated? Forests‡ What does your wetland look like? Is it always wet? Purpose‡ Why are these wetlands important? 2011 is the United Nation’s International Year of‡ What animals and plants live in these wetlands? Forests. The Ramsar Convention has chosen Forests as the theme for World Wetlands Day‡ What threats face these wetlands? 2011. This activity will introduce students to theStep Five: Provide the class the origami templates characteristics of a forested wetland and focus onof the: where they are found in Australia.‡ northern corroboree frog‡ Australian pelican Background‡ pig-nosed turtle The Ramsar Convention recognises three types ofAfter the students have made the origami animals, forested wetland:ask the class which wetland ecosystem the animal Intertidal forested wetlands including mangroveis most likely found in, if it is only found in that swamps, nipah swamps and tidal freshwater swampwetland ecosystem or if it is found in many other forests.wetland ecosystems. Freshwater, tree-dominated wetlands includingAppendix Nine lists a collection of other do-it- IUHVKZDWHU VZDPS IRUHVWV VHDVRQDOO ÀRRGHGyourself wetland animals. forests and wooded swamps.Step Six: Appendix Ten outlines wetland education Forested peatlands including peat swamp forests.centres across Australia. Do a class virtual visit to In Australia the more common and obvious forestedseveral Wetland Centres across Australia. Discuss wetlands include:the location and the type of wetland represented. ‡ swamp paperbark swampsStep Seven: ‘Wetlands Find-a-Word’ activity. ‡ casuarina swamps5HÀHFW RQ WKH GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ WKH ZHWODQG ‡ river redgum forestsHFRVVWHPV IRU H[DPSOH ZK GLIIHUHQW DQLPDOV ‡ mangrove forests, andDQG SODQWV OLYH LQ GLIIHUHQW ZHWODQGV ZK VRPHWKUHDWV DUH WKH VDPH IRU DOO ZHWODQGV DQG ZK ‡ palm swamps.RWKHU WKUHDWV DUH GLIIHUHQW PD RQO DIIHFW Some examples of forested wetlands in AustraliaFHUWDLQ ZHWODQG HFRVVWHPV include: ‡ Barmah Forest on the Murray River in Victoria ‡ mangrove forests found in many coastal locations around Australia, and ‡ palm swamp wetlands in the Wet Tropics of North Queensland. 99
    • Action Roadhouse and Gunlom’ from the DVD provided in the wetlands Classroom Pack (or online at http://Step One: Try to locate a forested wetland in your environment.gov.au/parks/publications/kakadu/state and use Google earth to “visit” the wetland. maryriver.html). This video shows the studentsIn NSW, the website, Ecosystems on Show, some Indigenous perspectives on Kakadu Nationalhighlights some of these forests: Park, one of Australia’s Ramsar sites.http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/ Kakadu National Park is a living cultural landscape.env_ed/centres/ecosystems/eco_sytems/index.htm Generations of Bininj/Mungguy have lived on and cared for this country for tens of thousands ofStep Two: Print the Google Earth maps discovered years. Their spiritual connection with the land isand identify forested areas. Use symbols to identify globally recognized in Kakadu’s World Heritagedifferent vegetation on the maps. listing. Further information on Kakadu’s culturalStep Three: Find the dominant tree species that is values can be found in the Kakadu National Parkfound in that forested wetland and research the tree World Heritage brochure available at http://www.species, collecting some photographs and some environment.gov.au/heritage/places/world/kakadu/other locations where this tree species is found. pubs/kakadu-brochure.pdf.Step Four: Do a short power point presentation on Step Three: Class discussion of the values thethe forested wetland showing a map location, an Bininj/Mungguy have for Kakadu’s wetlands.aerial view and some information on the plants and Develop a joint list of ‘values’.animals which use this wetland. For more advanced classes, students can3RVWHUV DQG VWLFNHUV RQ :HWODQGV DQG undertake online research to gain a deeper level of)RUHVWV FDQ EH GRZQORDGHG IURP WKH 5DPVDU understanding from the following web pages: http://&RQYHQWLRQ ZHEVLWH DW ZZZUDPVDURUJ:: environment.gov.au/parks/kakadu/index.html, http:// www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/world/ kakadu/index.html, and http://www.environment.gov.Activity Five - Indigenous values au/cgi-bin/wetlands/ramsardetails.pl?refcode=2.and perspectives of wetlands Step Four: Group artwork. Identify a cultural value of the Bininj/Mungguy that was discussed in thePurpose videos for each group to illustrate. Combine into a class mural.To raise awareness on the Indigenous values andperspectives of Australian wetlands. Step Five: Consider the cultural values of your local wetlands.Action Step Six: Wetland ‘Word Scramble’ activity.Step One: Introduce class to the terms ’values’ and 5HÀHFW EDFN RQ WKH HDUOLHU GLVFXVVLRQV RQ WKH‘perspectives’. Discuss how water is a ‘value’ to you. GLIIHUHQW ZHWODQG HFRVVWHPV &RQVLGHU KRZHow would your ‘perspective’ change if you were a WKH DQLPDOV SODQWV DQG ZDWHU RI WKH ZHWODQG DUHwaterbird? OLQNHG WR WKH FXOWXUDO YDOXHVStep Two: Introduce your class to the topic ofIndigenous values and perspectives of wetlandsby selecting ‘Kakadu National Park - Mary River 10
    • Activity Six - What is a Ramsar Step Four: Create a collage using the Ramsar photographs.site? Step Five: On paper strips, students record:Investigate Australia’s internationally important ‡ Something good about Australia’s Ramsar siteswetlands on the Ramsar List ‡ Something that can damage a Ramsar site ‡ Something interesting about a Ramsar sitePurpose 6WHS 6L[ 3ODFH WKUHH KRRSV LQ D FLUFOH RQ WKH ÀRRUTo raise general knowledge and understanding of and sort the paper strips under each of the previousRamsar wetlands and stimulate discussion and headings. Discuss results.thought around this topic. Step Seven: Bundle the responses and create aAction book for each topic.Step One: Students research the Australian 5HÀHFW EDFN RQ WKH HDUOLHU GLVFXVVLRQ RQWetlands Database located at www.environment. ZHWODQG HFRVVWHPV DQG WKH PLQG PDSgov.au/wetlands WR ORFDWH DQG ¿QG RXW DERXW Optional Step Eight: Wetlands EnvironmentalAustralia’s 64 Ramsar sites. Education Centre (www.wetlands.eec.education.A teachers’ fact sheet on Australia’s Ramsar nsw.gov.au) manages an internet researchwetlands is also included in this education package. competition for senior primary students. Each Wet & Wild session runs for three weeks in Terms 3 andTeacher chooses one or two sites with a Virtual 4 via the Environmental Education Centre website.Tour option. Virtual tours are available for Kakadu In 2011, the theme will be Wet, Wild and Living in aNational Park, Cobourg Peninsula, Lakes Argyle Ramsar site to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of theand Kununurra, Jocks Lagoon, Moulting Lagoon, Ramsar Convention.Little Waterhouse Lake and Ord River Floodplain.Use the map on the A-Z Ramsar site webpage(use www.environment.gov.au/wetlands to accessthe webpage) to locate which Ramsar sites are inyour state. Then open up the web pages on eachRamsar site to read information on the key featuresof the site.Step Two: Class discussion to classify the wetlandtype of these wetlands.Step Three: Use the photographs of Australia’sRamsar sites shown on www.environment.gov.au/wetlands.Collect photographs of Australia’s Ramsar sites andclassify them according to the wetland type.Photos are also available through the internetresources listed in Appendix Three. 1111
    • APPENDICESAppendix One – Teachers’ Glossary(from http://www.sustainingriverlife.org.au/ and www.ramsar.org) Amphibian Animals such as frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians, are ectothermic (or cold- blooded) animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form, either to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph that retains some juvenile characteristics. Aquatic vegetation Plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments. Because living on or under water requires numerous special adaptations, aquatic plants can only grow in water or permanently saturated soil. Bank The shoreline of a body of water. The grade (slope) can vary from vertical to a shallow slope. Canopy Refers to the upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms. Carnivore An organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. Catchment The total area draining into a river, reservoir, or other body of water. Constructed wetland $Q DUWL¿FLDO PDUVK RU VZDPS FUHDWHG IRU DQWKURSRJHQLF GLVFKDUJH VXFK DV ZDVWHZDWHU stormwater runoff or sewage treatment, and as habitat for wildlife, or for land reclamation DIWHU PLQLQJ RU RWKHU GLVWXUEDQFH 1DWXUDO ZHWODQGV DFW DV ELR¿OWHUV UHPRYLQJ VHGLPHQWV DQG pollutants such as heavy metals from the water, and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these features. Detritus Non-living particulate organic material. It typically includes the bodies or fragments of dead organisms as well as faecal material. Distribution The range of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. Drought $Q H[WHQGHG SHULRG RI PRQWKV RU HDUV ZKHQ D UHJLRQ QRWHV D GH¿FLHQF LQ LWV ZDWHU VXSSO Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation (rainfall). It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Ecological Any naturally occurring group of species inhabiting a common environment that interacts with communities each other, especially through food relationships, and that is relatively independent of other groups. Ecological communities may be of varying sizes, and larger ones may contain smaller ones. Ecosystems The complex of living communities (including human communities) and nonliving environment (ecosystem components) interacting (through ecological processes) as a functional unit, which SURYLGHV LQWHU DOLD D YDULHW RI EHQH¿WV WR SHRSOH HFRVVWHP VHUYLFHV
    •  Ecologically sustain- Development that improves the total quality of life, both now and in the future, in a way that able development maintains the ecological processes on which life depend. Grazing A type of predation in which a herbivore feeds on plants (such as grasses). Grazing differs from true predation because the organism being eaten is not killed, and it differs from parasitism as the two organisms do not live together, nor is the grazer necessarily so limited in what it can eat. For terrestrial animals grazing is normally distinguished from browsing in that grazing is eating grass or other low vegetation, and browsing is eating woody twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs. 12
    • Groundwater Is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations.Habitat An ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant or other type of organism.Herbivore Animals that are adapted to eat plants. Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism consumes principally plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria.Introduced species A species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.Irrigation $Q DUWL¿FLDO DSSOLFDWLRQ RI ZDWHU WR WKH VRLO ,W LV XVHG WR DVVLVW LQ WKH JURZLQJ RI DJULFXOWXUDO crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.Invertebrates An animal without a backbone.Large woody debris Logs, sticks, branches, and other wood that falls into streams and rivers. This debris can LQÀXHQFH WKH ÀRZ DQG WKH VKDSH RI WKH VWUHDP FKDQQHO /DUJH ZRRG GHEULV JUDLQV DQG WKH VKDSH RI WKH EHG RI WKH VWUHDP DUH WKH WKUHH PDLQ SURYLGHUV RI ÀRZ UHVLVWDQFH DQG DUH WKXV D PDMRU LQÀXHQFH RQ WKH VKDSH RI WKH VWUHDP FKDQQHO /DUJH ZRRG GHEULV LV DOVR UHIHUUHG WR DV VQDJV DQG LQ LPSRUWDQW UHIXJH KDELWDW IRU QDWLYH ¿VK VSHFLHVLarvae Distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle.List of Wetlands Wetlands that have been designated by the a member country of the Ramsar Convention inof International which they reside as internationally important, according to one or more of the Ramsar criteria.Importance (‘theRamsar List’)Macroinvertebrate An invertebrate that is large enough to be seen without the use of a microscope.Migration The travelling of long distances in search of a new habitat. The trigger for the migration may be local climate, local availability of food, or the season of the year. To be counted as a true migration, and not just a local dispersal, the movement of the animals should be an annual or seasonal occurrence, such as birds migrating elsewhere for the winter, or a major habitat change as part of their life cycle.Native species A species that normally lives and thrives in a particular ecosystem.Nitrogen A non-metallic element that occurs as a colourless, odourless, almost inert gas and makes XS IRXU¿IWKV RI WKH (DUWK¶V DWPRVSKHUH E YROXPH 8VHG LQ WKH PDQXIDFWXUH RI DPPRQLD explosives, fertilisers and by plants and animals to make protein.Nutrients Substance that provides nourishment, for example, the minerals that a plant takes from the soil or the constituents in food that keep an organism healthy and help it to grow.2YHU¿VKLQJ :KHQ ¿VKLQJ DFWLYLWLHV ULVH WR D OHYHO DW ZKLFK ¿VK SRSXODWLRQV FDQ QRW EH PDLQWDLQHGVXVWDLQHGpH A measure of acidity or alkalinity in which the pH of pure water is 7, with lower numbers indicating acidity and higher numbers indicating alkalinity. 1313
    • Photosynthesis A process by which green plants and other organisms turn carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen, using light energy trapped by chlorophyll.Pollution The introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem.Pools A stretch of a river or creek in which the water depth is above average and the stream velocity LV TXLWH ORZ 6XFK SRROV FDQ EH LPSRUWDQW IRU MXYHQLOH ¿VK KDELWDW HVSHFLDOO ZKHUH PDQ VWUHDP UHDFKHV DWWDLQ KLJK VXPPHU WHPSHUDWXUHV DQG YHU ORZ ÀRZ GU VHDVRQ FKDUDFWHULVWLFVPredation A biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of its prey and the eventual absorption of the prey’s tissue through consumption.Ramsar City in Iran, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, where the Convention on Wetlands was signed on 2 February 1971; thus the Convention’s short title, ‘Ramsar Convention’.Ramsar Criteria Criteria for identifying Wetlands of International Importance, used by Contracting Parties and advisory bodies to identify wetlands as qualifying for the Ramsar List on the basis of representativeness or uniqueness or of biodiversity values.Ramsar Convention Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat. Ramsar (Iran), 2 February 1971. The abbreviated names “Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)” or “Ramsar Convention” are used more commonly.Ramsar sites Wetlands designated by the countries that are members of the Ramsar Convention for inclusion in the List of Wetlands of International Importance because they meet one or more of the Ramsar criteria.Revegation The process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This can be natural or human assisted.Riparian vegetation An assortment of plants that either are emergent aquatic plants, or herbs, trees and shrubs that thrive in proximity to water.Riparian zone 7KH LQWHUIDFH EHWZHHQ ODQG DQG D ULYHU RU VWUHDP 5LSDULDQ ]RQHV DUH VLJQL¿FDQW LQ HFRORJ environmental management, and civil engineering because of their role in soil conservation, WKHLU KDELWDW ELRGLYHUVLW DQG WKH LQÀXHQFH WKH KDYH RQ IDXQD DQG DTXDWLF HFRVVWHPVSalinity The saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. It is a general term used to describe the levels of different salts such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcium sulfates, and bicarbonates.Sediment Material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently WUDQVSRUWHG E WKH DFWLRQ RI ÀXLGV VXFK DV ZLQG ZDWHU RU LFH DQGRU E WKH IRUFH RI JUDYLW acting on the particle itself.Sedimentation $OVR FDOOHG VLOWDWLRQ LV WKH IDOOLQJ RXW RI VXVSHQGHG SDUWLFOHV IURP ÀRZLQJ ZDWHU UHVXOWLQJ LQ WKH formation of depositional landforms. Siltation is a major source of pollution in waterways.Spawning Pattern of behaviour by which aquatic animals produce and deposit large quantities of eggs in water.Temperate An intermediate climate zone between polar and tropical regions. 14
    • Temperature The degree of heat as an inherent quality of objects expressed as hotness or coldness relative to something else.7KHUPDO VWUDWL¿FDWLRQ Refers to a change in the temperature at different depths in the lake, and is due to the change in water’s density with temperature.Trophic level $ VWDJH LQ D IRRG FKDLQ WKDW UHÀHFWV WKH QXPEHU RI WLPHV HQHUJ KDV EHHQ WUDQVIHUUHG WKURXJK feeding, for example, when plants are eaten by animals that are in turn eaten by preda- WRUV 3ODQWV DQG SODQWHDWLQJ DQLPDOV RFFXS WKH ¿UVW WZR OHYHOV IROORZHG E FDUQLYRUHV XVXDOO to a maximum of six levels.Turbidity Degree to which particles and sediment are suspended in a liquid.Understorey A layer of small trees and bushes below the level of the taller trees in a forest.Urban area Characterised by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it.Vegetation Plants in general or the mass of plants growing in a particular place.Vertebrate An animal with a segmented spinal column and a well-developed brain, for example, a PDPPDO ELUG UHSWLOH DPSKLELDQ RU ¿VKWaterbirds %LUGV HFRORJLFDOO GHSHQGHQW RQ ZHWODQGV 7KLV GH¿QLWLRQ WKXV LQFOXGHV DQ ZHWODQG ELUG species. However, at the broad level of taxonomic order, it includes especially: x penguins: Sphenisciformes. x divers: Gaviiformes; x grebes: Podicipediformes; x wetland related pelicans, cormorants, darters and allies: Pelecaniformes; x herons, bitterns, storks, ibises and spoonbills: Ciconiiformes; x ÀDPLQJRV Phoenicopteriformes: x screamers, swans, geese and ducks (wildfowl): Anseriformes; x wetland related raptors: Accipitriformes and Falconiformes; x wetland related cranes, rails and allies: Gruiformes; x Hoatzin: Opisthocomiformes; x wetland related jacanas, waders (or shorebirds), gulls, skimmers and terns: Charadriiformes; x coucals: Cuculiformes; and x wetland related owls: Strigiformes.Water logging Refers to the saturation of soil with water. Soil may be regarded as waterlogged when the water table or the groundwater is at or near the surface.Water quality The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to drinking water, safety of human contact and for the health of ecosystems.Wetlands $UHDV RI PDUVK IHQ SHDWODQG RU ZDWHU ZKHWKHU QDWXUDO RU DUWL¿FLDO SHUPDQHQW RU WHPSRUDU ZLWK ZDWHU WKDW LV VWDWLF RU ÀRZLQJ IUHVK EUDFNLVK RU VDOW LQFOXGLQJ DUHDV RI PDULQH ZDWHU WKH depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres. 1515
    • Appendix Two – Student GlossaryAmphibian Animals that have a young water-breathing stage and an adult air-breathing stage eg frogsAquatic vegetation Plants that live in water.Bank The edge of an area of water.Canopy The top layer of a forest consisting of tree tops.Carnivore An animal that eats another animal.Catchment The land where all the water in an area comes from.Drought A long time without rain.Ecosystem A group of living things (plants, animals and insects) that live and interact together.Exotic A species living outside its natural area.Extinct A species that no longer exists.Food chain / Shows how each living thing gets its food. Some animals eat plants and someFood web animals eat other animals. Each link in this chain is food for the next link. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal.Habitat An area in which an animal, plant or insect lives eg bushland habitat, pond habitat.Herbivore An animal that eats plants.Introduced species A species that has been brought into a natural area and does not belong there.Invertebrate An animal without a backbone, usually an insect.Larvae 7KH RXQJ IRUP RI DQ DQLPDO EHIRUH LW FKDQJHV WR DQ DGXOW HJ ÀLHV DQG EHHWOHVMacroinvertebrate An insect large enough to be seen with your eyes.Migration Travelling long distances to move to a different habitat.Native species A species that naturally occurs in a particular ecosystem.Photosynthesis The process used by plants to change sunlight into energy to grow.Predator An animal that hunts for its food.Ramsar A city in IranRamsar Convention $Q LQWHUQDWLRQDO FRQYHQWLRQ ZKLFK UHFRJQLVHV ZHWODQGV RI VLJQL¿FDQFHRamsar sites Wetlands that have been recognised by the Ramsar Convention as being important.Temperate An intermediate climate zone between polar and tropical regions.Turbidity The clarity of water.Understorey A layer of small trees and bushes below the level of taller trees in a forest.Urban area A town or city where there are many houses.Vertebrate $Q DQLPDO ZLWK D EDFNERQH HJ PDPPDO ELUG UHSWLOH ¿VKWaterbirds Birds which live in wetlands.Water quality The health of water. Tests can be carried out to measure the level of water quality to show how clean and healthy water is.Wetlands Areas of wet land. Places that may have permanent or temporary water, still or moving water, salty or fresh water. 16
    • Appendix Three – Teachers’information on alpine wetlandsAlpine wetlands can be found in Australia’s 0RXQWDLQ JDOD[LDV DUH WKH RQO QDWLYH ¿VK WKDW LVmountain country, generally in areas above the found in the alpine zone above the snowline duringtreeline (more than 1850 metres above sea level). ZLQWHU 7KH DUH D VPDOO ¿VK WKDW OLYH LQ PDQ RI WKHAlpine wetlands provide homes to many rare and creeks and rivers of Kosciusko National Park andendangered plants and animals and they provide are able to survive in extremely cold conditions.DUHDV ZKHUH PDQ DQLPDOV FDQ ¿QG IRRG RU VKHOWHUduring drought. Some of these alpine wetlands were Threats facing alpine wetlandsformed millions of years ago by retreating glaciers.Today, melting snow remains the most important Alpine wetlands are very sensitive ecosystems andsource of water for our alpine wetlands. Alpine are vulnerable to numerous threats. These include:wetlands include sphagnum bogs, lakes and tarns. ‡ cattle grazing, which increases erosion and the amount of sediment in waterAlpine wetlands in Australia ‡ weed invasion, which reduces the space for native plantsTwo internationally important alpine wetlands inAustralia are Blue Lake in Kosciusko National Park, ‡ mining and harvesting of peat and sphagnumNew South Wales and the Ginini Flats Wetlands mossin the Australian Capital Territory. There are also ‡ ¿UH ZKLFK FDQ VHYHUHO GDPDJH SHDW DQG ERJmany alpine wetlands in Victoria and Tasmania, areassuch as large areas of buttongrass moorlands in the ‡ introduced animals including horses, rabbits,west and south-west of Tasmania. foxes and pigs, which damage large areas inSphagnum bogs like the Ginini Flats Wetlands their search for foodcontain a particular type of moss called sphagnum ‡ unsustainable tourism and recreationalor peat moss. As the sphagnum moss in alpine use, which can trample the vegetation andbogs dies and decays, it turns into peat. Peat is a contaminate the wetlands, andmixture of dead plant materials including sphagnum ‡ climate change, where even a small increasemoss and when dry, it can be burned like coal. in temperature is likely to result in the loss of6SKDJQXP ERJV DUH DOVR LPSRUWDQW IRU ¿OWHULQJ some alpine wetlands due to less snowfall andwater. However, peat can only operate successfully VQRZPHOW DQG WKH LQFUHDVHG IUHTXHQF RI ¿UHDV D ¿OWHU LI WKH DUH KHDOWK DQG GR QRW GU RXW 7KHpeat in the Ginini Flats Wetlands provides a natural¿OWHU IRU &DQEHUUD¶V ZDWHU VXSSO Further information and references ‡ Australian Alps Education Kit: http://www.The endangered northern corroboree frog can be australianalps.environment.gov.au/learn/index.found in some alpine wetlands. These endangered htmlfrogs need sphagnum bogs like the Ginini Flats ‡ Peat swamps: http://www.hn.cma.nsw.gov.Wetlands to live and breed. au/multiversions/3980/FileName/PEAT%20Blue Lake, high in the Snowy Mountains, is one SWAMPS%20FACT%20SHEET_Web.pdfof only four glacial cirque lakes in Australia. It was ‡ Northern corroboree frogs: http://www.formed around 15 000 years ago, when a glacier corroboreefrog.com.au/corroboree-frogcarved its way through the mountain side. The ‡ Mountain galaxias: http://www2.mdbc.gov.au/surface of the lake is frozen for about four months VXEV¿VKLQIRQDWLYHBLQIRPRXQWDLQ*DOD[LDVKWPOof the year. Blue Lake and its catchment are hometo many rare plants and animals including themountain pygmy possum. 1717
    • Appendix Four– Teachers’ What lives in arid wetlands?information on arid wetlands Many arid wetlands have saltbushes and bluebush growing in and around them. River red gum andEven though outback Australia is very dry (or arid), coolibah trees can also occur around the edgesthere are still wetlands. Arid wetlands include of freshwater lakes and claypans in the arid zone.swamps, salt pans, clay pans, lakes and springs. Many plant species that grow in and around0RVW RI WKHVH ZHWODQGV DUH GU DQG WKHQ ¿OO ZLWK arid wetlands were traditionally used for food,water after rain and often remain wet for long shelter, bags, nets, and medicines by Indigenousperiods afterwards. However, other arid wetlands, Australians.such as springs, have water all the time. The water and plants of arid wetlands provide habitat for many animals and birds. These wetlandsArid wetlands in Australia DWWUDFW PDQ ORFDO ZDWHUELUGV DV ZHOO DV ELUGV WKDW ÀThere are many salt lakes in the arid zones of here every year from places as far away as China,Australia. The largest is Lake Eyre in South Japan and Russia. Arid wetlands also support aAustralia. In fact Lake Eyre is the world’s largest range of other animals that have adapted to survivesalt-lake, covering about 9690 square kilometres. through dry times. For example the burrowing frog2Q WKH UDUH RFFDVLRQV ZKHQ LW ¿OOV LW VXSSRUWV PDQ survives long dry periods by burrowing deep in theQDWLYH ¿VK OLNH ERQ EUHDP DQG JROGHQ SHUFK DQG mud.becomes a breeding site for enormous numbers ofwaterbirds, such as Australian pelicans.Australia has some unique arid wetlands, such asones supplied by water from underground. MoundVSULQJV IRUP ZKHQ XQGHUJURXQG ZDWHU ¿QGV D ZHDNspot in the ground and pushes upward. The waterdissolves minerals out of the rocks to form salts.These salts collect around the edge of the spring,forming a mound with water in the centre.There are over 700 mound springs in Australiaand many of the mound springs are found in theGreat Artesian Basin, the worlds largest and oldestunderground water storage. The Great ArtesianBasin extends from Cape York Peninsula inQueensland to Dubbo in New South Wales. Thelargest group of mound springs are the Witjira-Dalhousie Springs in South Australia. This group ofaround 60 springs account for over forty percent ofWKH ZDWHU WKDW ÀRZV RXW RI WKH *UHDW $UWHVLDQ %DVLQDue to the isolation of the Dalhousie Springs manyof the plants and animals that occur there haveevolved into distinct species not found anywhere Giant burrowing frog (S Wilson)else in the world. 18
    • Threats facing arid wetlands Appendix Five – Teachers’There are many threats to arid wetlands including: information on coastal and‡ introduced grasses and other weeds which displace native species and create a greatly marine wetlands LQFUHDVHG IXHO ORDG IRU ZLOG¿UHV Australia is one of the world’s largest islands, our‡ unsustainable water regulation or extraction coastline stretches about 36 000 kilometres. This means we have a wide variety of coastal and‡ grazing pressure from domestic and introduced marine wetlands. There are many different types of animals, and coastal wetlands such as sand or pebble shores,‡ unsustainable tourism impacts. HVWXDULQH ODNHV DQG ODJRRQV FRDVWDO ÀRRGSODLQ forest, dune swamps, mangrove and saltmarshFurther information and references swamps. Marine wetlands are saltwater wetlands‡ ,QODQG ULYHUV DQG ÀRRGSODLQV http://lwa.gov. exposed to waves, currents and tides in an oceanic DX¿OHVSURGXFWVULYHUODQGVFDSHVSI setting. Marine wetlands include coral reefs, and pf020260.pdf aquatic subtidal beds with sea grass and kelps.‡ Arid lakes: http://www.nt.gov.au/nreta/wildlife/ Coastal and marine wetlands are important nature/aridwetlands.html QXUVHU DQG IHHGLQJ DUHDV IRU DQLPDOV VXFK DV ¿VK‡ Arid swamps: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/ dugongs, and marine turtles. These wetlands are ZHWODQGLQIRUHVRXUFHVVWDWLFSGI3UR¿OHV often greatly valued for tourism and recreation. p01868aa.pdf Coastal wetlands also provide important habitats for migratory waterbirds.‡ Arid frogs of the Cooper Basin: http://www. santos.com/library/frogs.pdf‡ Arid wetlands of the Northern Territory: http:// Coastal and marine wetlands in www.nt.gov.au/nreta/wildlife/nature/aridwetlands. Australia html $ VLJQL¿FDQW FRDVWDO ZHWODQG LQ $XVWUDOLD LV‡ Witjira-Dalhousie Springs: http://www. Eighty-mile Beach, an internationally important environment.gov.au/heritage/places/national/ wetland located in the Kimberley region of Western witjira-dalhousie-springs/pubs/witjira-dalhousie- Australia. It is considered to be one of the major springs-factsheet.pdf arrival and departure areas for migratory shorebirds‡ Great Artesian Basin Mound Springs: http://www. visiting Australia, especially for the great knot. epa.qld.gov.au/wetlandinfo/resources/static/pdf/ 7KHVH ELUGV À XS WR   NLORPHWUHV HDFK HDU 3UR¿OHVSDDSGI from the Arctic Circle, through East and south-east asia, to Australia and New Zealand. The corridor through which these waterbirds migrate is known as the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and is one RI HLJKW PDMRU ZDWHUELUG ÀZDV UHFRJQLVHG DURXQG the world. Coral reefs are a well known marine wetland type. Corals are colonies of tiny animals that are dependent on the food produced by microscopic algae (zooanthellae), that live within them, to 1919
    • survive. Coral reefs are underwater structures Further information and referencesmade from calcium carbonate produced by corals. ‡ Reef Education Network: www.reef.edu.auCoral reefs, such as the Great Barrier Reef, havevery high levels of biodiversity. The Great Barrier ‡ Reef Beat Education Program: http://www.reefed.Reef’s network of reefs is home to thousands of edu.au/home/reefbeatspecies. Extensive areas of seagrass meadows, ‡ Queensland Wetlands Program educationmangrove stands, salt marsh and sand and mud products: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/wetlandinfo/areas also provide a diverse range of habitats for site/spreadtheword/GBR.htmlmany species. ‡ Coastal wetlands: http://www.wetlandcare.Many nationally threatened animals in Australian FRPDX&RQWHQWDUWLFOH¿OHV&RDVWDO waters depend on coral reefs and sea grass beds Wetlands%20A4.pdfto survive. For example, the threatened green turtle ‡ Green turtles: http://www.environment.gov.grazes on seagrasses, marine algae (seaweeds) au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/pubs/and some sponges. Green turtles often nest on tsd06green-turtle.pdftropical beaches or islands, such as the beaches in ‡ Marine algae: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/Ashmore Reef, an internationally important wetland. science/Plant_Diversity_Research/marine_algaeMarine algae (also known as seaweed) isconsidered extremely important for shallow marineenvironments as they oxygenate the water by usingsunlight to make food and oxygen (this is calledphotosynthesis). This means that the marine watersDUH D PRUH OLYHDEOH KDELWDW IRU DQLPDOV VXFK DV ¿VKcorals and sea stars that need oxygen to survive.Threats facing coastal and marinewetlandsCoastal and marine wetlands are vulnerable tonumerous threats. These include:‡ climate change, which increases sea temperatures, cyclones and storm surges‡ RYHU¿VKLQJ‡ pollution from urban, industrial and agricultural waste‡ unsustainable recreation and tourism use, and‡ GHVWUXFWLYH ¿VKLQJ SUDFWLFHV VXFK DV GQDPLWH ¿VKLQJ RU FDQLGH ¿VKLQJ Great Barrier Reef, Qld (DSEWPaC) 20
    • Appendix Six – Teachers’ Jabiru eat meat and wade through the wetlands trying to catch frogs, lizards and insects.information on estuarine $QRWKHU VLJQL¿FDQW H[DPSOH RI DQ $XVWUDOLDQwetlands estuarine wetland is Moreton Bay in Queensland.The area where a river meets the sea is called an Two common plants found in Moreton Bay areestuary and the wetlands connected within this seagrasses and mangroves. Moreton Bay’senvironment are known as estuarine wetlands. PDQJURYHV VXSSRUW ¿VK ELUGV DQG RWKHU ZLOGOLIH IRUThese wetlands contain water that has a mix of feeding and breeding.saltwater tides coming in from the ocean andfreshwater from the river. Estuarine wetlands Australia has the highest diversity of temperateinclude tidal marshes, salt marshes, mangrove seagrass in the world and Moreton Bay’sVZDPSV ULYHU GHOWDV DQG PXGÀDWV seagrasses provide food and habitat for dugong, WXUWOHV ¿VK DQG FUXVWDFHDQV XJRQJV ZKLFK DUHEstuarine wetlands are very important for birds, also known as sea cows, can grow to about three¿VK FUDEV PDPPDOV LQVHFWV DQG RWKHU DQLPDOV metres long and weigh up to 400 kilograms.as they provide important nursery grounds foryoung animals, breeding habitat and a productivefood supply. Estuarine wetlands provide nursery Threats facing estuarine wetlandsKDELWDW IRU PDQ VSHFLHV RI ¿VK WKDW DUH FULWLFDO WR There are many threats to estuarine wetlands$XVWUDOLD¶V FRPPHUFLDO DQG UHFUHDWLRQDO ¿VKLQJ including:industries. ‡ dredging ‡ pollution from urban, industrial and agriculturalEstuarine wetlands in Australia productsAustralia has many estuarine wetlands. For ‡ RYHU¿VKLQJexample, Kakadu National Park in the Northern ‡ climate change, increasing storm surges and seaTerritory has four large river systems - the East, levels, andWest, South Alligator and Wildman rivers - and ‡ unsustainable recreational activities.seasonal creeks, all of which have numerousestuarine wetlands. These wetlands are famousfor the large numbers of birds present throughout Further information and referencesthe year – and are spectacular at the end of the dry ‡ Queensland Wetlands Program educationseason, when they gather around the permanent products: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/wetlandinfo/water bodies. The wetlands are also famous for the site/spreadtheword/GBR.htmllarge population of saltwater crocodiles. ‡ Be Crocwise Teaching and Learning ResourceSaltwater crocodiles are often called estuarine Kit: http://www.nt.gov.au/nreta/wildlife/crocodiles. They live in the waterbodies of northern becrocwise/info/pdf/BeCrocwise_T&LKit.pdfAustralia, including estuarine wetlands where ‡ Kakadu National Park: http://www.environment.WKHUH LV DEXQGDQW IRRG $V WKH ÀRRGSODLQV ¿OO ZLWK gov.au/parks/kakadu/water in the wet season, they spread out along the ‡ Moreton Bay: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/parks/rivers and freshwater swamps. In the dry season moreton-bay/culture.htmlthey congregate in permanent waterbodies and ‡ Dugongs: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/HVWXDULQH ZHWODQGV 6DOWZDWHU FURFRGLOHV HDW ¿VK key_issues/conservation/natural_values/dugongssuch as barramundi, and other live prey.The jabiru is an iconic wetland bird in Australia,often seen in the wetlands of Kakadu National Park. 2121
    • Appendix Seven – Teachers’information on inland riverinewetlandsMany wetlands in Australia are connected byrivers. These are called riverine wetlands. Riverinewetlands are found along the edges of rivers,VWUHDPV DQG FUHHNV DQG LQFOXGH ÀRRGSODLQVmarshes, lakes and billabongs.Inland riverine wetlands provide breeding andfeeding habitats for many plants and animals, suchDV UHHGV ZDWHUELUGV DQG ¿VK 7KHVH ZHWODQGV DOVRare important for absorbing, recycling and releasingnutrients and trapping sediment.Inland riverine wetlands in Australia Platypus in the Tidbinbilla River, ACT (A. Tatnell and DSEWPaC)Most of Australia’s riverine wetlands are in easternAustralia where the rainfall is higher and there are clay banks and overhanging vegetation. Murraymore rivers. Australia’s inland riverine wetlands cod are a nationally threatened species.have evolved to cope with the country’s dry, but Platypuses also live in many inland riverinehighly variable climate. These wetlands can act ZHWODQGV 7KH HDW ZRUPV DQG VPDOO FUD¿VKas environmental buffers by providing refuges for ¿QGLQJ IRRG E XVLQJ VSHFLDO VHQVRUV LQ WKHLU ELOOVZLOGOLIH GXULQJ GURXJKW DQG VWRULQJ ÀRRG ZDWHUV that detect small electrical currents produced byGXULQJ ÀRRGV their live food.The Murray-Darling Basin has many inland riverine In northern Australia, many of the riverine wetlandswetlands. One important Murray River wetland is dry out completely over the dry seasonWKH %DUPDK0LOOHZD )RUHVW :KHQ WKH ULYHU ÀRRGV (April–October), while others keep water in themZDWHU FRYHUV WKH ÀRRGSODLQ DQG WKH DUHD IRUPV all year round. These permanent waterholes area huge wetland with the forests amongst it. The extremely important habitats for wildlife during theBarmah-Millewa Forest is Australia’s largest river dry season as a source of water and food. Forred gum forest and the biggest ecosystem of river example, seed-eating birds, such as the colourfulred gums in the world. *RXOGLDQ ¿QFK QHHG DFFHVV WR ZDWHU WR VXUYLYHRiver red gums can grow 45 metres tall and 7KH GU VHDVRQ HYHQ UHGXFHV WKH ULYHU ÀRZV RIprovide nesting hollows for birds such as galahs, large rivers such as the Fitzroy River in Westernsulphur-crested cockatoos, gang-gang cockatoos, Australia and the Daly River in the Northerncockatiels and superb parrots. Territory. Pig-nosed turtles live in the freshwaterThe Murray-Darling Basin is also home to the rivers and creeks of northern Australia. They have0XUUD FRG $XVWUDOLD¶V ODUJHVW IUHVKZDWHU ¿VK ÀLSSHUV IRU IHHW PDNLQJ WKHP RQH RI WKH EHVWMurray cod prefer areas that have deep waterholes freshwater turtles adapted for aquatic life.with cover from large rocks, fallen trees, stumps, 22
    • Threats facing inland riverine wetlands Further information and referencesThere are many threats to inland riverine wetlands ‡ Sustaining River Life: http://www.including: sustainingriverlife.org.au/‡ UHGXFHG ULYHU ÀRZV IURP FOLPDWH FKDQJH ‡ Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Education unsustainable water regulation and extraction resource, Basin Kids: http://www.mdba.gov.au/ services/education-resources‡ introduced animals, such as horses, pigs and buffalo eroding river banks and destroying plants ‡ Victorian wetlands: Resources for Teachers and Students: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/DSE/nrence.‡ LQWURGXFHG ¿VK VXFK DV FDUS nsf/LinkView/5A5AA094C0F869F1CA2576FE0‡ weeds 013470FFE0726F7820140FDCA25770C001B8‡ pollution from urban, industrial and agricultural 8D8 products, and ‡ ,QODQG ULYHUV DQG ÀRRGSODLQV http://lwa.gov.‡ unsustainable livestock grazing around DX¿OHVSURGXFWVULYHUODQGVFDSHVSI waterways. pf020260.pdf ‡ Murray-Darling Basing wetlands: http://www2. mdbc.gov.au/nrm/water_issues/wetlands/ ‡ Platypus: http://www.australianfauna.com/ platypus.php Katherine River, NT (A. Fox and DSEWPaC) 2323
    • Appendix Eight – Teaching New South WalesResources Biodiversity teachers guide: http://www. environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/education/For extension work and to assist student research,the following internet resources and wetland- biodiversityteachersguide3.pdfrelevant curriculum may be helpful: WetlandCare Australia’s education resources: http://www.wetlandcare.com.au/education_archive.Suitable for students - asp -Suitable for teachers Wetlands Environmental Education Centre: http:// www.wetlands.eec.education.nsw.gov.auAustralia-wide Storm water teaching guide: http://www.Ҝ$XVWUDOLDQ :DWHU (GXFDWLRQ 7RRONLW environment.nsw.gov.au/stormwater/ http://www.environment.gov.au/water/education/ hsieteachguide/index.html - ‘Our environment, its a living thing’: http://www.Centre for Environmental Education Australia:http://www.ceeaustralia.org/frog-zone-schools.asp livingthing.net.au/index.htm QueenslandMurrary-Darling Basin Queensland Wetlands Program Education Resources: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/wetlandinfo/Sustaining River Life: http://www.sustainingriverlife. site/spreadtheword/GBR.html -org.au/ WetlandCare Australia’s education resources:Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Education http://www.wetlandcare.com.au/education_archive.resource, Basin Kids: http://www.mdba.gov.au/ aspservices/education-resources - Reef Education Network : www.reef.edu.au -Australian Alps Reef Beat Education Program: http://www.reefed.Australian Alps Education Kit: http://www. edu.au/home/reefbeataustralianalps.environment.gov.au/learn/index.html Victoria Victorian wetlands: Resources for Teachers andAustralian Capital Territory Students: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/DSE/nrence.Ginninderra Catchment Group teaching resources: nsf/LinkView/5A5AA094C0F869F1CA2576FE001http://www.ginninderralandcare.org.au/category. 3470FFE0726F7820140FDCA25770C001B88D8php?id=49 Wildscape: http://www.wildscape.com.au/ - 24
    • Appendix Nine – Paper AnimalsThe Ramsar Convention’s Secretariat has produced a collection of do-it-yourself animals for past World WetlandsDays. These are available for download on the following web pages: Do-it-yourself turtles Do-it-yourself marine turtle http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/8/cd/turtle-marine-color-e. pdf Do-it-yourself freshwater http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/8/cd/turtle-fresh-color-e.pdf turtle Colour in version of ‘Do-it- http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/8/cd/turtle-marine-to-color1. yourself freshwater turtle’ pdf Do-it-yourself turtle instruc- http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/8/cd/instructions-e.pdf tions RLWRXUVHOI ¿VK RLWRXUVHOI ¿VK KWWSZZZUDPVDURUJSGIZZGZZGB¿VKBUDLQERZ pdf Colour in version of ‘Do-it- KWWSZZZUDPVDURUJSGIZZGZZGB¿VKBWRBFRORU RXUVHOI ¿VK¶ pdf RLWRXUVHOI ¿VK LQVWUXFWLRQV KWWSZZZUDPVDURUJSGIZZGZZGB¿VKBKRZWRBH pdf Do-it-yourself frogs Do-it-yourself frog http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/9/cd/wwd2009-frog1-e.pdf Colour in version of Do-it- http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/9/cd/wwd2009-frog2-e.pdf yourself frog Do-it-yourself frog instructions http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/9/cd/wwd2009-frog-instr-e. pdf Do-it-yourself bird Do-it-yourself bird http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/10/wwd2010_aa_bird_e.pdf Other paper activities Kaleidocycle http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/10/wwd2010_aa_ kaleidocycle_e.pdf RLWRXUVHOI GUDJRQÀ IDFH- http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/wwd/11/WWD2011-mask- mask masque-mascara.pdf 2525
    • Appendix Ten – Wetland Manly Environment Centre – 41 Belgrave Street, Manly, New South Wales,Education Centres Phone: (02) 9976 2842 Web: www.mec.org.auAustralian Capital Territory Email: mec@manly.nsw.org.auTidbinbilla Nature Reserve The Aquatic Environment Education Centre atOff Paddy’s River Road, via Cotter Road (Weston Wonga WetlandsCreek) or Point Hut Crossing (Gordon), Australian Riverina Highway (Howlong Rd), Albury, New SouthCapital Territory WalesPhone: (02) 6205 1233 Phone: (02) 6023 8111Web: http://www.tidbinbilla.com.au/ Web: http://www.alburycity.nsw.gov.au/www/Email: tams.tidbinbilla@act.gov.au html/515-wonga-wetlands.asp Email: info@alburycity.nsw.gov.auNew South WalesBicentennial Park Education Centre Northern TerritorySydney Olympic Park, New South Wales Bowali Visitors Centre, Kakadu National ParkPhone:02 9714 7888 Arnhem Highway, Jabiru, Northern TerritoryEmail: BookingsVC@sopa.nsw.gov.au Phone: (08) 8938 1121Coastal Environment Centre Web: www.environment.gov.au/parks/kakaduPelican Path Lake Park Road, North Narrabeen, Window on the WetlandsNew South Wales Off the Stuart and Arnhem Highways, NorthernPhone: (02) 9970 1675 Territory.Web: www.pittwater.nsw.gov.au/environment/cec Phone: (08) 8988 8188Email: cec@pittwater.nsw.gov.au Web: ZZZQWJRYDXQUHWDSDUNV¿QGHunter Wetlands Centre, Australia windowwetlands.htmlSandgate Road, Sandgate, New South Wales QueenslandPhone: (02) 4951 6466Web: www.wetlands.org.au Boondall Wetlands Environment CentreEmail: hwca@wetlands.org.au 31 Paperbark Drive, Boondall, Taigum, Queensland Phone: (07) 3403 1490Wetlands Environmental Education Centre Web: http://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au/environment-Located at Hunter Wetlands Centre, Australia waste/bushland-waterways/environment-centres/(above) boondall-wetlands-environment-centre/index.htmPhone: (02) 4955 8673 Email: bwec@brisbane.qld.gov.auWeb: www.wetlands.eec.education.nsw.gov.auEmail: wetlands-e.school@det.nsw.edu.au Clancy’s Lagoon Visitor Centre Pickford Road, Mareeba, Queensland Phone: (07) 4093 2514 Web: http://www.mareebawetlands.org/ 26
    • Walkabout Creek Serendip SanctuaryBrisbane Forest Park, 60 Mount Nebo Road, The Serendip Sanctuary, 100 Windermere Road, Lara,Gap, Queensland VictoriaPhone: 1300 723 684 Phone: 13 1963Web: http://www.walkaboutcreek.com.au/ Web: www.parks.vic.gov.au Email: info@parks.vic.gov.auTyto WetlandsIngham, North Queensland Western AustraliaPhone: (07) 4776 4600Web: www.tytowetlands.com.au Broome Bird Observatory Crab Creek Road, Broome, Western AustraliaSouth Australia Phone: (08) 9193 5600 Web: www.broomebirdobservatory.comBanrock Station Wetland and Wine Centre Email: bbo@birdsaustralia.com.auHolmes Rd, Kingston on Murray, South AustraliaPhone: (08) 8583 0299 Cockburn Wetlands Education CentreWeb: www.banrockstation.com.au 184 Hope Road, Bibra Lake, Western AustraliaEmail: bscd@banrockstation.com.au Phone: (08) 9417 8460 Web: www.cockburnwetlands.org.auSt Kilda Mangrove Trail and Wetlands Email: community@cockburnwetlands.org.au3RLQW :DNH¿HOG 5RDG 6DOLVEXU 6RXWK $XVWUDOLDPhone: (08) 8208 8172 Herdsman Lake Wildlife CentreWeb: http://cweb.salisbury.sa.gov.au/manifest/ Herdsman Lake Wildlife Centre, Cnr Flynn St &servlet/page?pg=9043&stypen=html Selby St, Wembley, Western Australia Phone: (08) 9387 6079Tasmania Web: www.wagouldleague.com.auTamar Island Visitor Wetlands CentreWest Tamar Highway, Riverside, TasmaniaPhone: 03 6327 3964Web: www.parks.tas.gov.auVictoriaCoolart Wetlands and HomesteadLord Somers Road, Somers, Bainarring, VictoriaPhone: 13 1963Web: www.parks.vic.gov.auEmail: info@parks.vic.gov.auDharnya CentreSandridge Track, Barmah, VictoriaPhone: 13 1963Web: www.parks.vic.gov.auEmail: info@parks.vic.gov.au 2727
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