Exercise physiology powerpoint


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Exercise physiology powerpoint

  1. 1. M. Tupper HFHS 2008 Exercise Physiology
  2. 2. What is Physiology? <ul><li>The study of living processes </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how various forms of life function. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  3. 3. What is Exercise Physiology? <ul><li>The study of the function of the human body during and in response to exercise. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  4. 4. Why is it important we study it? <ul><li>To better understand the workings of an athlete’s body systems </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  5. 5. How can we relate it to our area of study? <ul><li>We can apply physiological responses to exercises </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  6. 6. Our body’s physiology is made up of a number of 'body systems' of which all play a different role in our body’s physiology during exercise. <ul><li>Muscular System </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul><ul><li>Energy System </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  7. 7. Muscular System <ul><li>Muscles work by contracting and relaxing therefore causing movement. </li></ul><ul><li>During exercise, muscles are obviously required to contract and relax more often. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  8. 8. <ul><li>Muscles, which contract to cause movement, require energy in order to work. </li></ul><ul><li>This energy is quickly used up unless oxygen (02) is supplied to the working muscles via our blood stream. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  9. 9. Cardiovascular System M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  10. 10. The Heart <ul><li>The heart is a muscle that contains four chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper two chambers are called atria and the bottom two are called ventricles. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart’s job is to pump blood around the body </li></ul><ul><li>During exercise, the working muscles require more oxygen. This means that during exercise the heart has to work faster by beating more times a minute and harder by pumping more blood out with each beat </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  11. 11. The Circulatory System <ul><li>There are two different circulations of blood around the body; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Circulation – circulation of blood between the heart and lungs – this system takes deoxygenated blood from the body and gives it oxygen from the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic Circulation – circulation of blood between the heart and the body – this system takes oxygenated blood and sends it around the body. </li></ul></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  12. 12. <ul><li>There are 3 main types of blood vessels in the human body; </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries – thick-walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries – thin walled vessels that oxygen can move through to get to the cells and carbon dioxide can move into from cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Veins – thin walled vessels which carry blood towards the heart – there is no oxygen in this blood. Because the blood is travelling up towards heart it is fighting gravity. Valves are located in the veins that open and close to keep blood travelling in one direction. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  13. 13. General functions of cardiovascular system during exercise: <ul><li>Redistributes blood from less active regions of the body to muscles involved in activity </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the volume of blood pumped out by the heart through an increased heart rate (HR) </li></ul><ul><li>Buffers and removes waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in temperature regulation </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  14. 14. Respiratory System <ul><li>The lungs, mouth, throat and nose make up the respiratory system. </li></ul><ul><li>The major function of our respiratory system is to bring oxygen (O2) into the body and remove carbon dioxide (Co2) </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  15. 15. How does it work? <ul><li>Oxygen (O2) is inhaled (breathed in) down through the bronchi and into the alveoli of the lungs – from there it is transferred into the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other wastes are transferred from the blood through to the lungs and out of the body. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  16. 16. Respiratory system and exercise <ul><li>When exercising, breathing occurs faster and more deeply, allowing more oxygen to be inhaled and transferred to the blood and muscles where the oxygen is used to help fuel exercise. </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  17. 17. Major functions of the respiratory system during exercise: <ul><li>Increase the rate and depth of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Increase oxygen (02) and carbon dioxide (C02) exchange in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the amount of oxygen (02) to the muscles per unit of blood </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  18. 18. Immediate responses to exercise: <ul><li>Cardiac output (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases (the amount of blood pumped out by the heart per minute) </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke volume (SV) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases (volume of blood injected into aorta per beat of the heart) </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  19. 19. Immediate responses to exercise: <ul><li>Heart rate (HR) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases (increase due to intensity and workload) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure (BP) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to working muscles </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  20. 20. Long term changes to body due to training: M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  21. 21. Heart <ul><li>Increase size </li></ul><ul><li>Increase work capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Resting heart rate gets lower </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate during exercise gets lower </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate (after exercising) returns to normal faster </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  22. 22. Respiratory System <ul><li>The lungs can breathe in and out a greater volume of air and with it oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the amount of oxygen taken each breathe and sent to working muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Increased blood flow – more blood moving around the body with oxygen attached </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
  23. 23. Muscular System <ul><li>Muscles get larger and stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles become more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles gain more blood vessels and receive more blood and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles can store more energy </li></ul>M. Tupper HFHS 2008
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