Designing your training programme
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Designing your training programme

on

  • 1,313 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,313
Views on SlideShare
1,313
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Designing your training programme Designing your training programme Presentation Transcript

  • Designing Your Training Programme
    Sports Science 2009
  • What is Fitness?
    Fitness measures a person’s suitability to perform a certain task, for example you can be fit to drive, fit to work, fit to look after children and so on.
    In the sporting context we think of fitness as a person’s physiological capability to perform a specific physical task or set of tasks.
  • Fitness Components
    Fitness can be broken down into different ‘fitness components’ as there are different types of ‘fitness’.
    There are two groups of fitness components –
    Health related components – named because they can have a direct affect on your health and wellbeing
    Skill related components – named because do not directly influence or affect someone’s health and wellbeing
  • Health Related Components
    Aerobic Endurance – the ability of the heart and lungs to work effectively over a long period of time using oxygen as fuel.
    Anaerobic Fitness – the ability to put body parts into motion quickly and to sustain high-intensity efforts for a short period of time without using oxygen.
  • Muscular Strength – the force that muscles can exert in one maximal exertion or contraction against a resistance
    Muscular Endurance – the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to contract repeatedly over a long period of time.
    Flexibility – the ability and ease of a joint to move through its full range of motion by stretching the muscles around it
    Body Composition – the make up of the body including muscle, fat, bone and water and the ratio of fat to lean muscle in the body.
  • Skill Related Components
    Agility – defined as the ability to change direction suddenly when moving
    Balance – the ability to maintain a position in space, either while moving or stationary
    Reaction time – defined as the time it takes to process and initiate action in response to a stimulus
  • Muscular power – defined as the ability to generate a maximum force quickly (a combination of strength and speed) to get an explosive movement
    Speed - the ability to get the whole or parts of the body moving to cover distance in a determined time
    Co-ordination – the ability to combine the senses and body movement to produce action that flows and is accurate
  • Activity One - Ideal Performance
    Copy and complete the activity on the board.
    Choose a sport that you participate in
    Complete an “Ideal Performance” graph for that chosen sport
    Using your own fitness testing results graph your ability in each of the fitness components
    Write a paragraph describing what you notice about your graph
    Refer to the ideal performance and your results
    Talk about what you can do to improve or maintain your performance etc
  • Getting Started
    As with most things, developing your fitness works better when you have a plan to follow. To develop an effective fitness improvement plan, several factors must be considered;
    Which components do I want to develop?
    What training should I do?
    How will I measure my progress?
    What time frame will I set?
    What guidelines do I need to follow?
  • Training Principles
    No matter which fitness components you are wanting to improve, there are key principles, or guidelines to follow;
    OVERLOAD
    The training threshold is the minimum amount of exercise required to experience an improvement in physical fitness. Overload occurs when a person trains above the minimum level required.
    PROGRESSION
    As a person’s level of fitness improves, their training threshold also increases. This means that the fitter a person becomes, the harder and/or longer they have to train to create an overload in training. Progression is achieved by changing the training to increase the load and speed of resistance, reducing the recovery time, and increasing the duration, number of repetitions or sets and the frequency of training.
  • SPECIFICITY
    Any training undertaken must be specific to the fitness component being developed, the activity, the muscles being used, the energy system used and the intensity of the expected performance.
    REVERSIBILITY
    The effects of training are lost if training stops or slows down. This applies to all levels of fitness, although the longer you have been training, the slower the rate of reversal.
  • FITT Principle
    The FITT formula is often used to create a basic framework for prescribing exercise to improve fitness
    F – Frequency
    I – Intensity
    T – Time
    T - Type
  • Frequency
    Frequency relates to How Often you will train. This varies according to different factors
    Your goals – what are you trying to achieve?
    How fit are you now?
    Age
    How healthy you are.
    A competitive athlete would obviously train more often than someone who wanted to stay active and healthy.
  • Intensity
    Intensity relates to How Hard you train. Knowing how hard to work or how hard you are working, is an important element of training to improve your fitness.
    If your intensity is too high you may fatigue early, while on the other hand if you are not training hard enough you may not see any improvement.
  • Training and Heart Rates
    It is important to first find out what your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR), this is calculated by working out what 220 minus your age is i.e. 220-15= 205(MHR)
    By knowing your MHR you can refer to the Training Target Heart Rate graph and work out where your training zone is.
    This uses your Heart Rate to measure how hard you are training (intensity)
    Generally, an aerobic workout will be between 60% and 80%. An anaerobic workout is usually between 80% and 100%
    The Karvonen Formula is another way to work out your training HR e.g.
    MHR minus RHR multiplied by the target % (e.g. 60% = 0.6) + RHR
    205-50=155; 155x0.6=93; 93+50=143
    143 is your target heart rate if working at 60% of maximum effort
  • Time
    Time relates to the length of a training session. This will be determined by a number of factors including what type of training you are doing, what you are training for and which fitness component you are working on developing
    Time can be monitored 3 ways;
    1. Time e.g. 20min run
    2. Distance e.g. 2km swim
    3. Total number of reps e.g. 12reps
  • Here are some suggestions for different fitness components;
    Developing aerobic fitness - minimum of 20mins at target heart rate
    Developing muscular endurance - minimum 30min session
    Developing strength - minimum 20min session
    Improving flexibility - 10 - 15mins per day
  • Type
    Relates to the kind of training undertaken. What training should I do?
    Continuous training – working continuously for at least 20mins on activities such as swimming, running cycling without changing intensity or stopping
    Continuous interval – working continuously for at least 20mins with varying levels of intensity
    Circuit training – a number of stations or activities set up in a circuit formation, an athlete works for a period of time at each station before moving on
    Interval training – work and rest periods are alternated. Work is usually of high intensity and the rest period allows this to be sustained for a period of time
    Resistance – working against a resistance or force in order to develop strength or power.
  • Strength Development
  • Interval training
    Interval training is one of the best types of training for improving anaerobic endurance. When it comes to interval training there are a number of different variables that you can adapt
    Duration of the work period
    Intensity of work
    No. of repetitions
    Work : Rest ratio