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Anatomy powerpoint

Anatomy powerpoint






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    Anatomy powerpoint Anatomy powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • Anatomy
      2010 1.2 Topic One
    • What is Anatomy?
      Anatomy is the study of the body
      Its structure (what its made up of)
      Its function (how it all works)
      Knowledge of human anatomy allows us to have a better understanding of how our body works at rest and during exercise and allows us to apply this knowledge to our sporting interests.
    • Body Systems
      There are many different systems in your body e.g. Digestive system or reproductive system.
      During this topic we will look at 5 of them
      Skeletal system
      Muscular system
      Nervous system
      Respiratory system
      Cardiovascular system
    • The Skeletal System
    • The Skeletal System
      Is the foundation on which the body structured.
      The skeleton is made up from 206 individual bones that when put together create our shape and form the base for which other tissues, organs and muscles attach to.
    • Functions of Bones
    • Bone Classifications
      Bones come in many shapes and sizes. The unique shape of each bone allows it to perform its different function.
      Bones are classified by their shape as follows;
    • Long Bones
      Are longer than the are wide e.g. Humerus, femur. They provide movement
      Short Bones
      Are small cube shaped bones e.g. Carpals and Tarsals. Allows small and fine movements
      Flat Bones
      Are thin, flat and sometimes curved bones e.g. Bones in the cranium. They provide protection.
      Irregular Bones
      Are bones that fit into none of the other categories are considered irregular e.g. Vertebrae or pelvis. Allows for fine movement.
    • The Skeleton
      The word skeleton comes from a Greek word meaning ‘dried up body’ or ‘mummy’
      The skeleton is made up of 206 bones and can be divided into two skeletons:
      The Axial Skeleton
      This is the bones that form the central column of the body e.g cranium, vertebral column and rib cage
      The Appendicular Skeleton
      This is the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the shoulder and hip girdles the attach limbs to the axial skeleton
    • The Anatomical Position
      It is important that when discussing parts of the body; movement that happens; positioning of internal organs, bones and muscles that you apply the standardized anatomical position.
      This means that there is a standard way of describing where one body part is in relation another regardless of what position the body is in.
    • 4 Key Features of the Anatomical Position
      Palms are facing forward
      Thumbs point away from the body
      Standing up straight
      Feet together
    • Terms of Reference
      When standing in the anatomical position you can refer to body parts, bones or organs in relation to each other by using the different terms of reference.
      Usually we would say that ‘the ears are located of each side of the head to the right and left of the nose’. Using anatomical terms of reference it would translate to ‘the ears are lateral to the nose’
      Complete Terms of Reference worksheet
    • Joints
    • Joints and Movement
      Where two bones meet they form a Joint
      Movement can only happen where there is a joint. The amount of movement that happens at a joint is determined by what type of joint it is.
      There are 3 types of joints;
      Fibrous – immoveable, provide protection e.g. Skull and Pelvis
      Cartilaginous – slightly moveable, shock absorption e.g. Vertebrae, ribs
      Synovial – freely moveable, provides support and stability e.g. Shoulder, knee
    • Two key types of synovial joints are the HINGE joint and the BALL AND SOCKET joint.
      Hinge joints allow for movement in one direction
      Ball and Socket joints allow for movement in many directions
    • Movements of Synovial Joints
      Synovial joints are the freely moveable joints we are only focusing on two of them – hinge and ball and socket.
      The movements that occur at these joints depends on the type of joint it is.
    • Summary of Notes so far
      Skeleton consists of 206 bones
      Skeleton has 5 functions:
      When describing body parts we always refer to them how they are when in the Anatomical Position
      Movement can only happen where there is a JOINT
      The type of joint determines what kind of movement happens
      Two key synovial joints are the HINGE and the BALL AND SOCKET.
      Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Pronation, Supination, Plantarflexion and Dorsiflexion are all ways of describing the movement that is taking place at a joint.
    • The Muscular System
    • Functions of the Muscular System
      Provide movement
      Circulation of Blood
      Posture and support
      Heat production
    • Muscle Categories
      Voluntary Muscles
      Are muscles we have control over and choose when to use e.g. Biceps or Quadriceps
      Involuntary Muscles
      Are muscles that we do not have control over and do not decide when to use them e.g. heart
    • Types of Muscles
      There are 3 types of muscles in your body
      Smooth Muscle – Involuntary
      Found in arteries, intestines and organs. The contractions of these muscle fibres are slow and sustained.
      Cardiac Muscle – Involuntary
      Only occurs in the Heart
      Skeletal Muscle - Voluntary
      Attached directly to the bone via tendons
      Contraction and relaxion
      Works in pairs
      Muscle fibres
    • Skeletal Muscles
      Skeletal muscles make up over 1/3 of your body’s mass – over 650 muscles
      Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons
      Muscles work in pairs to produce movement with one muscle contracting and one muscle relaxing.
      Muscles can only pull – they can’t push.
      The contracting muscle is the agonist or prime mover, the relaxing muscle is the antagonist.
    • Skeletal muscles lie over joints in the body. When a muscle contracts (shortens) the bones that the muscle are attached to are pulled in the direction of the contraction.
      In the picture the biceps muscle is
      contracting (agonist). This muscle
      lies over the elbow joint. When the
      bicep contracts it shortens and pulls
      the bones in the lower arm up in the
      same direction, causing flexion of the
      arm at the elbow
    • Muscle structure
    • Muscle actions
    • The Nervous System
    • What does the Nervous System do?
      The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system in your body
      It is responsible for all behaviour, every thought, action and emotion.
      Cells of the nervous system communicate by means of electrical signals which are rapid and specific and create a response.
    • Functions of the Nervous System
      Sensory Input – your body has millions of sensory receptors that monitor change both in and outside of the body and collect information.
      Integration – it processes and interprets all of the information and makes decisions about what to do about it.
      Motor Output – creates a response in either muscles or organs in response to changes
    • Nervous System in Action
      When you are driving in your car and see a red light (sensory input), your nervous system integrates this information (red light means ‘stop’) and sends a message to the muscles in your leg and foot to contract and relax to move the foot onto the brake (motor output).