What is Anatomy? Anatomy is the study of the body Its structure (what its made up of) Its function (how it all works) Knowledge of human anatomy allows us to have a better understanding of how our body works at rest and during exercise and allows us to apply this knowledge to our sporting interests.
Body Systems There are many different systems in your body e.g. Digestive system or reproductive system. During this topic we will look at 5 of them Skeletal system Muscular system Nervous system Respiratory system Cardiovascular system
The Skeletal System
The Skeletal System Is the foundation on which the body structured. The skeleton is made up from 206 individual bones that when put together create our shape and form the base for which other tissues, organs and muscles attach to.
Functions of Bones
Bone Classifications Bones come in many shapes and sizes. The unique shape of each bone allows it to perform its different function. Bones are classified by their shape as follows; Long Short Flat Irregular
Long Bones Are longer than the are wide e.g. Humerus, femur. They provide movement Short Bones Are small cube shaped bones e.g. Carpals and Tarsals. Allows small and fine movements Flat Bones Are thin, flat and sometimes curved bones e.g. Bones in the cranium. They provide protection. Irregular Bones Are bones that fit into none of the other categories are considered irregular e.g. Vertebrae or pelvis. Allows for fine movement.
The Skeleton The word skeleton comes from a Greek word meaning ‘dried up body’ or ‘mummy’ The skeleton is made up of 206 bones and can be divided into two skeletons: The Axial Skeleton This is the bones that form the central column of the body e.g cranium, vertebral column and rib cage The Appendicular Skeleton This is the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the shoulder and hip girdles the attach limbs to the axial skeleton
The Anatomical Position It is important that when discussing parts of the body; movement that happens; positioning of internal organs, bones and muscles that you apply the standardized anatomical position. This means that there is a standard way of describing where one body part is in relation another regardless of what position the body is in.
4 Key Features of the Anatomical Position Palms are facing forward Thumbs point away from the body Standing up straight Feet together
Terms of Reference When standing in the anatomical position you can refer to body parts, bones or organs in relation to each other by using the different terms of reference. Usually we would say that ‘the ears are located of each side of the head to the right and left of the nose’. Using anatomical terms of reference it would translate to ‘the ears are lateral to the nose’ Complete Terms of Reference worksheet
Joints and Movement Where two bones meet they form a Joint Movement can only happen where there is a joint. The amount of movement that happens at a joint is determined by what type of joint it is. There are 3 types of joints; Fibrous – immoveable, provide protection e.g. Skull and Pelvis Cartilaginous – slightly moveable, shock absorption e.g. Vertebrae, ribs Synovial – freely moveable, provides support and stability e.g. Shoulder, knee
Two key types of synovial joints are the HINGE joint and the BALL AND SOCKET joint. Hinge joints allow for movement in one direction Ball and Socket joints allow for movement in many directions
Movements of Synovial Joints Synovial joints are the freely moveable joints we are only focusing on two of them – hinge and ball and socket. The movements that occur at these joints depends on the type of joint it is.
Summary of Notes so far Skeleton consists of 206 bones Skeleton has 5 functions: Protection Storage Supply Support Movement When describing body parts we always refer to them how they are when in the Anatomical Position Movement can only happen where there is a JOINT The type of joint determines what kind of movement happens Two key synovial joints are the HINGE and the BALL AND SOCKET. Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Pronation, Supination, Plantarflexion and Dorsiflexion are all ways of describing the movement that is taking place at a joint.
The Muscular System
Functions of the Muscular System Provide movement Circulation of Blood Posture and support Heat production
Muscle Categories Voluntary Muscles Are muscles we have control over and choose when to use e.g. Biceps or Quadriceps Involuntary Muscles Are muscles that we do not have control over and do not decide when to use them e.g. heart
Types of Muscles There are 3 types of muscles in your body Smooth Muscle – Involuntary Found in arteries, intestines and organs. The contractions of these muscle fibres are slow and sustained. Cardiac Muscle – Involuntary Only occurs in the Heart Skeletal Muscle - Voluntary Attached directly to the bone via tendons Contraction and relaxion Works in pairs Muscle fibres
Skeletal Muscles Skeletal muscles make up over 1/3 of your body’s mass – over 650 muscles Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons Muscles work in pairs to produce movement with one muscle contracting and one muscle relaxing. Muscles can only pull – they can’t push. The contracting muscle is the agonist or prime mover, the relaxing muscle is the antagonist.
Skeletal muscles lie over joints in the body. When a muscle contracts (shortens) the bones that the muscle are attached to are pulled in the direction of the contraction. In the picture the biceps muscle is contracting (agonist). This muscle lies over the elbow joint. When the bicep contracts it shortens and pulls the bones in the lower arm up in the same direction, causing flexion of the arm at the elbow
The Nervous System
What does the Nervous System do? The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system in your body It is responsible for all behaviour, every thought, action and emotion. Cells of the nervous system communicate by means of electrical signals which are rapid and specific and create a response.
Functions of the Nervous System Sensory Input – your body has millions of sensory receptors that monitor change both in and outside of the body and collect information. Integration – it processes and interprets all of the information and makes decisions about what to do about it. Motor Output – creates a response in either muscles or organs in response to changes
Nervous System in Action When you are driving in your car and see a red light (sensory input), your nervous system integrates this information (red light means ‘stop’) and sends a message to the muscles in your leg and foot to contract and relax to move the foot onto the brake (motor output).