Cyclic movement involves a journey that takes us where we want to go and brings us back. A regular sequence of short moves within a local area called activity spaces.
North Americans have the greatest activity space than the average of Africa or southwest Asian community is the journey from home to work to home again.
Seasonal Movement – another type of cyclic movement. In the autumn hundreds of thousands of travelers leave their homes in Canada and the northern parts of the US tend seek the winter sun in Florida and other sunbelt states. They usually return in the spring.
Periodic Movement is same as cyclic movement differing in the face that the people stay longer periods of time from home.
Migrant labor: type of periodic movement that involve people migrating to other countries to work temporarily.
Transhumance: ranching according to the seasonal availability of pastures.
Military service: people relocating for military.
A change in residence intended to be permanent.
Emigrants go out
Immigrants go in
Internal International Moving from California to Texas Moving from United States to Great Britain Example Human movement involving movement within a nation-state Human movement involving movement across international borders Definition Types of Migration
Why People Migrate?
Forced Migration involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice.
An example of forced migration would be the Atlantic slave trade where African Americans would have to leave their home and they brought them to America.
Occurs after a migrants weighs options and choices and can be analyzed and understood as a series of options and choices that result in moving.
Pull-Factors are circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places-the decision of where to go.
Example of a Pull-Factor is the economic condition.
Push-Factors are the conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place.
Example of Push-Factors is the Holocaust.
Laws of Migration
For every migration flow theirs a return or encounter migration.
Majority of migrants move a short distance.
Migrants who move long distance choose big city destination.
Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
Where People Migrate Guest workers (legal immigrants with visas) move from their homelands to less wealthy parts of the world to help rebuild that nation’s or countries' economy. With this migration, the population of places is continually changing. These guest workers stay over long periods of time but send money that they make back home to their families.
Where Do People Migrate? Less conflicted areas/ areas with good economic status or opportunities. Exploration; places that haven’t been explored yet Coast to coast migration within the region. Coastal areas with similar climate to their previous abode. Areas more suited to the persons climate preference. Places economically beneficial to move to. Less populated areas Nationally Regionally Worldwide
Internally displaced persons are people who move within their home country for specific reasons. These movement can cause a population change within state that the person moved from and to the state where the person now resigns. (Ex: Hurricane Katrina victims) Many people move to a new state but some may move to a different country.
Refugees also cause population change as they move away from their homeland to new places because of disasters, famines, genocides, etc. Majority of the world’s population flows are refugees moving to new places. With the continuous flows of these refugees, a consistent population has not been reached anywhere.
How Governments Affect Migration
The control of immigration are issues around the world.
European Politicians have made anti-immigrant sentiments while Cuba has used immigration as a threat. The U.S. has faced reproach for preventing thousands of Haitians and Mexicans from illegally migrating to the U.S.
Immigration has been a issue for centuries. An example of governments trying to control immigration is the Great Wall of China.
However, most barriers to immigration are legal and many governments have created immigration laws to prevent immigration from other countries.
Waves of Immigration in The United States
The United States opened itself up to immigration during the 1800s. The major immigrants being Northern and Western European; then later Southern and Eastern Europeans.
Due to World Wars immigration is severely restricted in the US.
1952 act fails; in 1965 congress sets new limits on immigration. 170,000 from the Eastern hemisphere, and 120,000 people from the Americas.
Some countries practice selective immigration; others require specific requirements to enter the country.
Post September 11
Since September 11 th 2001, government immigration policies have incorporated security concerns. Prior to that date, the U.S. border patrol was concerned primarily with drug trafficking and human smuggling. The new government policies affect asylum-seekers, illegal immigrants and legal immigrants. Immediately after 9-11, the George W. Bush administration cracked down on asylum seekers. The U.S. government marked 33 countries as countries where al-Qaeda, or other terrorist groups operate and the government automatically detained anyone from these countries. This created tension and hatred toward the U.S. government.