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Migration 8
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  • 1. Migration Block 8
  • 2. What is Migration?
    • Migration is movement. There are 3 types of movement.
    • Cyclic movement
    • Periodic movement
    • Migration
  • 3. Cyclic Movement
    • Cyclic Movement is a journey of traveling back and forth through activity spaces, spaces where activity occurs.
    • There are 3 types of cyclic movement:
    • Commuting-The journey from home to work and home again.
    • Seasonal movement- Movement relevant to seasons (tourism, vacations, etc).
    • Nomadism- A cyclic movement that relates to survival, tradition, and culture.
  • 4. Periodic Movement
    • Periodic Movement, like cyclic movement, involves returning to home, but longer.
    • There are 3 types of periodic movement:
    • Migrant labor- temporary migration of workers, for employment reasons.( Labor in farm fields.)
    • Transhumance- a system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures. Involving long periods of residential relocation.
    • Military service- movement of citizens for military services.
  • 5. Migration
    • Migration is permanent relocation across significant distances.
    • There are 2 types of migration:
    • International migration- movement to other countries .
    • Internal migration- migration that occurs inside a country.
    • The population of a country is influenced by migration. Emigration (migrating out) and Immigration (migrating in) also contribute to the population.
  • 6. Why Do People Migrate? People migrate because…… Migration can be the result of a voluntary action a conscious decision to move from one place to the next.
  • 7. Forced Migration
    • Forced Migration: The imposition of authority and power, producing involuntary migration movements.
    • The biggest example of forced migration is The Atlantic Slave Trade.
  • 8. Laws of Migration
    • Every migration flow generates a return.
    • Majority of migrants move short distances.
    • Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-cities.
    • Urban residents are less migratory than people of rural areas.
    • Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • 9. Types of Push and Pull Factors
    • Power Relations- gender, race, ethnicity, and money are all factors who are chosen by employers who hire migrant workers.
    • Political Circumstances- politically driven migration flows are engendered and by both escape and expulsion
    • Legal Status- immigrants who enter a country without a work visa are illegally who fear deportation (fear of being sent home)
    • Environmental Conditions- environmental crisis like earthquakes also stimulate migrations
    • Culture and Traditions- people fear that their culture will not survive political transitions. People who are will often move to safer places.
  • 10. Global Migration Flows
    • Before the 1500s global scale migration occurred haphazardly, typically in pursuit of spices, fame, or exploration.
  • 11. Regional Migration Flow
    • Regional migration flows also center on reconnecting cultural groups across borders.
    • Reconnecting cultural groups across borders is when a separated community regroups by crossing a country’s border.
    • For example, when the Jewish were migrating between Israel and Palestine.
  • 12. Regional Migration Flow (cont.)
    • Regional migration flows because of reason such as war. During Post WW2, as many as 8 million Americans emigrated from Europe.
    • Areas of economic prosperity such as Islands of development are very promising for countries that are less developed.
  • 13. National Migration Flow
    • A massive migration stream carried the center of the population west
    • And shifting from north to south.
    • After American civil War millions of blacks migrated north to work.
  • 14. Refugees Main Info
    • Refugees, those who must flee their country with only a few worldly possessions, children on their back and memories of home
    • World’s refugee population has grown steadily since 1951 establishment of the refugee convention which established specific laws for refugees
    • Many refugees flee their country through cause of war, fear of persecution.
    • Nations high commissioners for refugees helped to repatriate (return to their homeland) most of the refugees from WWII
  • 15. Refugees in Africa
    • Kuwait was invaded by Iraq and the Kuwaiti people abandoned their villages and headed to Turkey and Iran for Survival
    • 2.5 million Afghanistans rushed west into Iran and 3.7 million ran fast into Pakistan due to the Soviet invasion in 1979
    • Kuwait is invaded  People run for refuge to Turkey and Iran.
    • Afghanistans rush west  3.7 million run into Pakistan for refuge
    • Africa is severely afflicted by dislocation
    • During the last 15 years, several of the world’s largest refugee crises occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Also in the country of Sudan during the civil war which lasted 2 years and caused 5,000,000 people to be displaced
  • 16. Refugees In South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and others
    • South Asia is the third-ranking Geographic Realm in terms of refugees
    • Today the biggest refugee camps are full of survivors from the 2004 tsunami and 2008 cyclone
    • In 1990 Yugoslavia and its associated conflicts created the biggest refugee crisis in Europe since WWII, the UNHCR reported a total of 6,056,600.
    • In the western Hemisphere, Columbia is the only country with a refugee problem caused by the country’s instability (2 to 3 million refugees)
    • “ The Earth’s refugee and internally displaced person populations are a barometer of the world’s future
    1990
  • 17. Migration in the Continent of Europe
    • Europe was a major participant of WWII lost a lot of their men.
    • Foreign workers from North Africa, Turkey and Caribbean region, India and Africa were called “Guest Workers”
    • Guest workers stayed in Europe because they earned a little bit more money for their families than in their own countries.
    • Many employers take advantage of Guest Workers because they are unaware of their rights
    • Guest workers are legal (documented) migrants who have short term work visas. Often the destination government extend their visas if sectors of the economy still need laborers
  • 18. How do Governments affect migration?
  • 19. Government
    • The government tries to restrict or encourage immigration
    • Ex. The Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall
    • Some countries practice select immigration which is individuals with certain backgrounds are kept from entering
  • 20. Post September 11th
    • Before 9/11 U.S. border patrol concerned with drug trafficking and human smuggling, whereas the policies after focused on asylum-seekers, illegal, and legal immigrants.
    • The U.S. government detained people from 3 countries where al-Qaeda operates who immigrated to the U.S seeking asylum.
    • The Justice department also has a policy that detains any illegal immigrant whether they have ties to a terrorist organization or not.
  • 21. Opposing Sides
    • Organizations such as Human Rights First and the Migration Policy Institute are against the new government policies on migration, claiming them as a violation to civil liberties and not a benefit to safety.
    • Others agree, stating that the regulations only slow traffic and the flow of business and tourism and has failed to slow illegal immigration.
    • However, some claim that these decisions are an asset to halting the growing population in the United States, and necessary precautions must be taken to prevent the migrations of supposedly illegal immigrants into the States.
    • Regardless as to which side you agree with, the government appears to have the final say in whether or not certain natives of a country can be allowed to enter the country of America freely.