What is a robot The anatomy of a robot What is meant by ‘Degrees of Freedom’ What makes a robot intelligent
Robots are machines which are used in industry toperform a range of tasks.There are two types of robots: • Stationary Robots • Mobile Robots
An industrial robot is ‘a reprogrammable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialised devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks’.
Industrial robots are comprised of three parts: ◦ The manipulator – this is the moving ‘arm’ to which various end-effectors/tools can be attached. ◦ The power supply – usually a hydraulic compressor (for robots that need lots of strength) or electrical generator (for lightweight robots). ◦ The controlling computer – which controls the robot.
These are fixed in one spot to perform their task, eg. a robotarm stationed at the side of a conveyor belt in a factory inorder to weld parts onto a car body; a robot arm used tospray paint body parts; a robot arm used to pickmushrooms.
This is the tool fitted to the end of the arm. This canbe changed for different jobs, for example, a gripperto pick up objects, a spray gun to spray a car withpaint, a magnet to liftmetal objects, ascrewdriver, a weldinggun and so on.
Most robotic arms have the same basic structure: Waist Shoulder Elbow Wrist
This is a measure of the number of movements which the joints can move. This example has 6 degrees of freedom Waist Shoulder Elbow Wrist – pitch Wrist – Yaw Wrist - Roll
In your jotters, draw and label an arm robot Indicate the different movements that the robot arm can make.
What is a mobile robot Types of mobile robot How mobile robots are guided
Sometimes robots need to move from one location to another (e.g. robotic fork lift trucks in an automated warehouse). These robots require self-contained power sources (e.g. batteries) and additional autonomy (i.e. the ability to make simple decisions based on limited information).
They are often fitted with wheels or tracks and arepowered by electric motors to enable them to moveabout.A mobile robot might be used for transporting dangerouschemicals inside a chemical plant, or disabling a bomb.
The two main methods which make robots move are: magnetic guidance systems Light guidance systems
A cable is set into the floor which gives off a magneticfield. The robot is fitted with magnetic sensors which candetect a magnetic field and feed the data back to theprocessor. The processor adjusts the motors controllingthe wheels to make sure the robot travels along the pathset by the magnetised cable.
A path for a robot is set by a white line painted on thefactory floor. The robot is fitted with a light source whichshines light directly onto the white line. Sensors on eitherside of the light source detect and measure the amount oflight being reflected off the floor. Data is then fed to thecomputer. If the robot strays to the left of the line, thereadings on the left sensor fall and the processor then sendscontrol signals to the motor to correct the course of therobot.
They are controlled by software which is processed either by microprocessors fitted to, for example, the mobile robot or by a central computer. The software programs are written in a high level language known as a control language. This is usually held in ROM. Storing it in ROM makes it immediately accessible to the processor as well as making it unalterable.
Some control languages allow the user to ‘teach’ a robothow to do a particular task by ‘leading it through’ theseries of steps required to complete the task. contents
Because Automated Systems are programmable it makes them flexible and can be reprogrammed to carry out a range of tasks. If a robot arm were required to stop spraying paint and to begin lifting objects onto a conveyor belt, the end-effector would be changed and a new program loaded with suitable instructions.
Intelligent robots are ones which have:Powerful on-board processorsTheir own memoryAn expert/knowledge system which allows them tolearn from their mistakesA variety of sensors that allow them to interact with theenvironment and even with other robots: ◦ Cameras to see ◦ Pressure sensors ◦ Humidity and temperature sensors etc.
ASIMO is an intelligent robot. Find out what features Asimo has that make it an intelligent robot.
Robots are here to stay, in one way or another.There is a huge amount of information, articles andexhibits on the internet for you to peruse.Search for some of your own