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Vietnamandseasia Vietnamandseasia Presentation Transcript

  • Vietnam and South East Asia Click to advance each slide
  • key I. I. Vietnam and South East Asia A. 1. 2. B. 1. A.“South East Asia” covers a highly 2. 3. C. varied set of cultures and is used to 1. 2. explain, in broad terms, political, 3. D. 1. social, and economic benchmarks. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. 1.S.E.A. - term covering varied cultures, and is really a geographic 1. 2. 3. 4. expression 1
  • B. Geography for size and scale 1. Laos the size of Great Britian 2. Thailand the size of France 3. Cambodia the size of Spain I. C. French Indochina includes A. 1. Laos,Cambodia, and Vietnam 2. B. 1. 1. Vietnam roughly 1,000 miles in length; 2. 3. C. 1. 2. long, narrow strip of land exposed to S. 3. 2 View slide
  • 2. When split at 17 parallel, N. Vietnam is 62,000 square miles, I. roughly the size of Washington State. A. 1. 3. S. Vietnam is 67,000 square miles 2. B. 1. 2. 3. and divided into 43 provinces. C. 1. 2. D. 3. D. Rivers and topography from North 1. 2. to South 3. 4. 5. E. 1. 2. 1. Northern Highlands mostly 3. 4. mountains and jungle forest, sparsely populated. Red River Delta originates in China, flows through Hanoi and into the sea. Most of N.V 3 View slide
  • 2. Central Highlands jungle mountains, thinly populated except by Montangnards I. (original inhabitants). 30 different A. 1. 2. Montangnard groups; 1.5 million B. 1. 2. C. 3. 3. Costal Lowlands very narrow along 1. 2. 3. whole of sea along the costal plains. D. 1. From 30 to 100 miles wide; area of much 2. 3. 4. commerce, fishing, sea ports, and E. 5. agriculture. 1. 2. 3. 4. Costal plain, flat lowlands, poor 4. agriculturally; fishing is the second most important area for4 commerce.
  • I. A. 5. Mekong Delta, Mekong River also 1. 2. starts in China, flows through Laos B. 1. 2. and Cambodia to South China Sea. C. 3. Very shallow for sea shipping, only 1. 2. 3. good for local and inland travel. Rich D. 1. in sediment, large agricultural area, 2. 3. 4. warmest climate in Vietnam. “Rice E. 5. Bowl” produces 5 million tons of rice a year; can produce up to three 1. 2. 3. 4. crops. 5
  • E. Geographic isolation in Indochina I. A. 1. 1. Variations within regions and at B. 2. times from village to village leaves S.E.A. to traditional village life 1. 2. 3. C. 1. 2. D. 3. 2.People in villages tied to the land 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3. Mid 1960s rule intermittent some E. 1. places completely inaccessible 2. 3. 4. except by air via helicopter. 4. Thus people were loyal to village, clan, or tribe, rather than the nation 6
  • II. Population A. Cities biggest concentration of people. 1. Saigon biggest and most modern city in S. Vietnam; most modern facilities. a. Post-war Saigon known as Ho Chi Mihn city. b. largest trading city in South; named by France and S. Vietnamese. 7
  • 2. Numbers a. N. Vietnam 20 million people b. S. Vietnam 22 million people B. Heaviest concentrations in Deltas, lowlands, and cities; mixture of Mongol, Chinese, and foreigners. C. Northern population 200,000 true Chinese; Vietnamese strong Chinese 8
  • 1. 2.5 million people Montangnards 2. 2 million people some nationality other than Vietnamese D. Southern population 1.7 million cultural Chinese, mainly businessmen, industrialists, people of other influence in Vietnamese society 9
  • 1. 700, 000 Montangnards 2. 600, 000 Cambodians 3. 500, 000 Khemers 4. 2 million foreigners “European” 5. majority of people live in countryside 5 subgroups 10
  • E. Cities and religion 1. Hanoi capital of North (pop 750, 000) 2. Saigon capital of South (pop a million - French occupation; modern European architecture) 3. Da Nang third largest of N & S - where Americans are first stationed (pop 500, 000) 11
  • 4. Haiphong fourth largest in Vietnam 5. Hue old capital city of Vietnam - center of religion - on N & S border. In center of rich farmland, two universities, Buddhist, Catholic. F. Population is a mix of Montangnard, Mongol, and Chinese. 12
  • G. Religion 1. 75% Buddist 2. 15% Roman Catholics. Anti- Communists followed the French and converted to stay in power. 3. 9% Taoists, Confucionists - from China 4. 1% Montangnards - pagonists 13
  • III. Prehistory and Political Ties A. Vietnam has direct ties to China: cultural, religious, and societal. 1. AD 939 Chinese defeated. Vietnam becomes independent. 2. During next 900 years the Nam-tien occurs in which a southern movement happens. 14
  • B. 1069 to ~1800 nation known as Dai Viet (Greater Viet) 1. 1427 a brief 20-year reoccupation by China is expelled a. 16th century Vietnam named b. Time of Settlement by non- Chinese 2. 1527 200 yr period of strife: Mac 15
  • 3. 1535 Portuguese Capt. Faria first to enter Da Nang bay; French and English also find Viets unwilling to trade. C. 1627 French missionary Alexander de Rhodes adopts Vietnamese language to Roman alphabet; work now dominates French missionaries 1. 1802 French missionaries help unite N/ S Vietnam, under Nguyen, but V. regards Christians as subversive. 16
  • 3. 1883 French divide Vietnam into protectorates to rule effectively. 4. 1887 France forms Indochinese union with Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam as protectorate. D. Twentieth Century 1. 1919 Versailles Peace Conference Nguyan Ai Quoc tries to meet with Pres. Wilson with an eight-point program for independence 17
  • 2. Emperor Bao Dai ascends throne as puppet government of French. Nguyen Ai Quoc founds first communist organization in Indochina. 3. 1940 Vietnam taken over by Japan, creating a virtual Japanese colony for rice, rubber, and farming. 4. 1941 Vietminh organize guerilla units to attack Japanese forces. 18
  • b. 1945 Ho Chi Minh regards US as a friend; repeatedly asks for help 5. China's influence continues Mao Tse Tung controls China 1949; influence spreads south to Vietnam 6. US in quandary:didn't want to support French colonies nor communism. E. 1945-54 Vietnamese seek independence 19
  • IV. The First War of Independence 1950-54 A.It was in Indochina that Japan opened the door for change to colonization in S.E.A. 1. French were the first to make concessions 2. Post-WWII England, France, and Holland would meet new demands from their colonies 20
  • B. The war had spawned new leaders and political organizations; considered honorable nationalists by indigenous people 1. American agents involved in trying to contact Ho Chi Minh to get involved in using Vietnamese forces to evict the Japanese. 2. Archimedes Patti head of OSS secret mission to train Vietnamese and spy on Japanese movements 21
  • C. The war also allowed people in various nations to emit nationalist ideas 1. no longer under colonial control 2. Japan sometimes encouraged nationalist ideology 3. modern weaponry before inaccessible was now in the hands of revolutionaries 4. due to weak weapon counting, Asians now had weapons provided by both sides 22
  • D. Vietnam. US and Soviet Union begin to view Asia as an important area for development “alliances” 1. France wanted to re-impose colonial rule in Indochina 2. France sought United Nations as well as American help to stop the insurgency of communists and US, under the Truman Doctrine, will help 23
  • E. 1945-1954 France focuses on regaining territory 1. End WWII 46-47 France returns to colonies 2. China occupies the N and allows pro-communist ideas a. Ho Chi Minh gathers followers and nationalism b. France finally gains control of 24
  • 3. Now Japan and China gone, France finds Ho's fledgling government prepared to fight F. 1950-54 US and France a vested interest 1. France desperately wants to regain colonies to help rebuild economy 2. Vietminh under the Ho nationalists; want independence and Vietnam 25
  • 3. US influences France to be a buffer and stop communists Vietminh assisted by China a. US afraid of France losing pay 75% of the bill b. Pres. Truman using T. Doctrine to aid N & S distinction 1) US building anti-communist army since 1946 26
  • 4. 1950-53 Korean War show communists trying to take over Asia 5. American interest in Indochina increases each year 6. Ho Chi Minh forces continually winning in Vietnam. US does NOT want to help colonialism but must stop communism G. Dien Ben Phu French garrison. 50,000 Vietminh attack 15,000 French Foreign 27
  • 1. Vietnam shell the airstrip and surround Dien Ben Phu; French are doomed 2. After 10 days Sec Dulles proposes nuclear strike as shock of forts demise reaches D.C. 3. For the first time “Ike” states this theory for trying to save Indochina (Domino theory) Aid must be sent 4. Fort's fall is eminent on 7 May 1954 humiliating defeat 35,000 men wounded 48,000 killed; siege lasted 55 days. Peace talks - Geneva accords 1954 in communist favor. 28
  • H. Geneva accords ending the war. France opposed to the partition, but it might save half of the country. 1. Compromise: Vietminh leave Cambodia, Laos, and given control of N. Vietnam. 2. France must leave N & S Vietnam, divided at 17th parallel with impending reunification in two years with nation-wide elections 29
  • 3. For 300 days people can move N or S freely. 1 million 90% move S mostly Catholics fearing persecution, only 100,000 move N 4. To police actions. India, Canada, and Poland supervise US highly opposed to elections in two years. Anticommunists in S protest most. 30
  • V. America & S Vietnam 1954-1960 A. After Geneva, France withdraws. America begins cooperating with President Diem. 1. Elections are to take place in 2 years but never happen 2. With NGO Dinh Diem in power, Republic of Vietnam in S against the Democratic Republic of N Vietnam a. America helps disrupt the elections to 31
  • b. elections don't occur; Great Britain, China, and even France upset they fail to happen B. 1954-63 America helps Diem pull S Vietnam back together C. During 1950s America aids S Vietnam to try and prevent communism from spreading 1. Eisenhower's Domino Theory of one nation falls others will follow 32
  • D. Oct 26, 1955 Diem in complete control as first President proclaims Republic of S Vietnam and immediately recognized by France, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Japan, Thailand, S Korea, and US E. SEATO is formed to encompass nations including protocols of SV, Cambodia, & Laos Dec. 1955 1. Cambodia renounced SEATO seeking neutrality 33
  • F. May 1956 Geneva accords are officially refused. Diem declares S Vietnam open to free elections G. Diem visits US in May 1957 and Ike calls him the‘Miracle Man’of Asia H. Major Dale R. Buis 8 July 1959 the first official US soldier to die in Vietnam 34
  • VI A new president, a new year, a new war A. JFK committed to containing communism 1. JFK will not let communism win 2. JFK pledges millions plus advisers B. Hanoi decides political struggle is useless and armed resistance/insurgence 35
  • 1. Jan 1960 NLF fighters encourage uprisings in S Vietnam 2. US insists Diem win over his people, oppression only plays to the communists C. Nov 8 1960 JFK elected president 1. Dec 1960 Eisenhower/JFK decide alternate leadership may be needed in S Vietnam 2. USSR Kruschev announces will back any nation in revolt, influencing JFK's strategy of 36
  • D. JFK continues to bolster US forces, assistance, special forces, and $, declaring any possible way to help will be viewed E. Returning from SEA tour, LBJ informs JFK of impending Domino Theory and w/o help they will fall. June 1961 ARVN 100,000 men F. 1961 December Diem announces a formal state of emergency due to increased Viet Cong and NLF activity G. US forces Dec 1961 #3200 US is spending 37
  • H. May 1962 Sec of Defense McNamara visits Vietnam and concludes US forces now totaling 4,000 and are winning I. April 1963 US extremely concerned the fragile nation will be toppled. Laos says opening talks w/Moscow all US aid stops J. April-May 1963 US forces openly fight with S Vietnam troops, V C forces gaining in size. Anti-Diem feeling continue. Diem's gov't announces the Chieu-Hoi program to the V C defect and be loyal to S Vietnam. US forces # 38
  • VIII. Diem's Downfall A. May 8 1963 Budda's birthday. 20,000 Buddists celebrate and are fired upon when Diem enforces the old French laws 1. JFK knows Vietnam is a mess 2. Nine people die 20 wounded Diem blames VC a. Buddists demand responsible punished 39
  • 3. By Oct 1963, a coup to remove Diem is evident and the US will not intervene a. JFK approves and US will not be involved b. Nov 2 1963 Diem is assassinated Gen. Dvong Van Minh is now in charge 4. Nov 22 1963 JFK assassinated B. 24 Nov 1963 LBJ pledges continued US support in Vietnam 40
  • C. LBJ's plans thought he should keep JFK's people, compelled to for JFK (mistake) 1. LBJ's Great Society his plan for US 2. LBJ felt that if he lost Vietnam, what was next? The presidency for sure in 1964. D. 1963 Def Sec McNamara sent to Vietnam for report stated three things to do: 1. Drop it! and just withdraw from Vietnam 41
  • a. Johnson said can't do it, it will look like JFK lied against his plans b. If withdraw, S Vietnam would fall to communists being an election year, Republicans win. Last Domino not Vietnam but LBJ presidency 2. Continue on same policies a. will not help win war quickly b. get back to Great Society 42
  • 3. Sharp increase in manpower & equipment get the war over whip communists quickly; been there since 1954 a. increase $ and try to win 2-3 years instead of 10 b. LBJ does not want to look like war monger wait until November election E. Johnson's advisers telling him to look out! 43
  • 1. Paul Kattenburg assistant sec to Pres advised it would take 50,000+ soldiers fighting 5-10 years to win- maybe. 2. Three others agree: George Ball, Wayne Morse Oregon, Ernst Gruening Alaska F. Election year LBJ in bind how to handle S V need to fight 1.Rep talking tough Barry Goldwater candidate 44
  • VIII. Tonkin 64 A. Night Aug 1964 three N Vietnamese boats attacked 1 of 2 US Naval vessels. Allegedly in International waters the boats attacked the USS Maddox which fires a torpedo sinking one aggressor. 1. The Maddox was apparently patrolling the coastline and attacked 2. Aug 4 1964 communists 2nd attack on the USS Turner Joy - no vessels damaged 45
  • B. Aug 7 1964 LBJ's excuse to go to war 1. Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution for America to do as will 2. gives Johnson complete power C. Almost declaration of war. 435 Congressmen 100 Senators 535 voted 533 yes 2 no (Morris and Gruening) D. at beginning only aerial combat not wanting to expand war too much election 46
  • E. Nov 1 1964 VC attack US air bases 1. LBJ asks for peace not wanting US there election campaign after Nov 3. 2. LBJ wins election. LBJ 43 mil pop vote 486 electoral vote; Goldwater 27 mil pop vote 52 electoral vote 3. with win LBJ feels people with him - green light for SV policy. 4. Ending 1964 not better Dec 24 VC bomb 47
  • F. 1965 LBJ plans to change tactics US goes to war 1. Advisers say 40% of country under VC seem to be growing 2. Beginning 65 20,000 US troops there a. now Chinese migs in NV b. 3,000+ soldiers down Ho Chi Minh trail overwhelm South 48
  • G. Feb, March 65 aircraft, soldiers, equipment to conduct operations 1. Spring 65 combined Army/Marines 72,000 to stop VC 2. end 1965 190,000 3. 1369 Americans die/3308 wounded/ 4677 casualties 4. Americans concerned as to foreign involvement - don't want big war 49
  • H. By May 1965 LBJ has asked for $700 mil in appropriations 1. June LBJ's asks for $750 mil + 40,000-100,000 more men 2. Aug A request 235,000 more men + $1 billion 750,000 I. First US protests summer/fall - several protests take place. Many pacifists call for peace at any cost. Beginning to demonstrate peacefully. Quakers etc. 50
  • 1. Leftist start also w/anti-war banners. socialists 2. Many religious groups ex: SCLC led by Dr. King, say war is immoral J. LBJ asking for peace by end of 1965. States US winning the war. 1. In a Feb conference between LBJ, CAO KY and Thieu trying for democracy in SV 2. Discuss communist strategy of waiting. 51
  • 3. US thought Hanoi puppets of China, USSR - really weren't a. two things driving communists: 1) nationalism, merge Vietnam 2) Marxism, wanted communism and one Vietnam b. only possible through strict discipline, unity, and time on their side 52
  • IX. Communist forces A. Ho Chi Minh leader and proclaimed independence in 1954 B. Always on the offensive, trying to cause change or trouble for SV forces C. NV single goal one Vietnam D. Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos, Cambodia, and ends in different places throughout SV. VC main supply line 53
  • E. Vo Minh Giap is the military leader of North Vietnam; Ha Van Lau UN diplomat; Le Duan leading organizer in the S; Pham Van Dung 2nd in power F. Marxism/communism/Vietnam 1. leadership, unity, time on their side - victory at any cost 2. communists usually on offensive - pushing back 54
  • X. A new perspective. End of 1966 US casualties 30,093, deaths 5008; Allied forces reach 1,138,000 men A. End of 66 beginning of 67 Tet Truce B. SV armed forces are now at 750,000 C. US air war operation Rolling Thunder is now in full swing 1. 148,000 bombs tonnage dropped 55
  • D. 1967 VC call for truce to last to Feb 1967 E. US winning war ARVN and US forces working together to end communism F. Bombing from Rolling Thunder pauses on and off to encourage peace 1. war was beginning to look good for the US. Communists saying same thing. 2. US happy w/situation. Communists same thing; lost control if over 1 mil people in the 56
  • G. US increase troop numbers on battlefield in hopes of finishing communists H. Throughout the spring and summer of 1967 calls for curtailing the war are brought to light many ideas on how to end the war are reviewed I. Congress conducts investigations for the air war and infantry operations in SEA 1. the NV intensify and announce they meet the US in every action 2. US thus increases its bombing & infantry 57
  • XI. Pres Thieu and KY elected as Pres and VP in polpular nationwide elections A. US forces continually fight VC insurgents B. NV forces intensify attacks along border C. US protests increase as confrontations between demonstrators and police forces occur D. the war is in full swing Dec 31 1967 US appears to be winning wholeheartedly 58
  • F. As conflict continues casualties & death continue to mount for US and SV XII. 1968 Renewed Strength from Hanoi A. Tet 1968 Chinese New Year 1. well-planned communist major offensive to regain control a. battle plan was a total military loss not one major battlefield victory for N 59
  • 2. Tet was covered by US TV people at home saw crises, becoming disillusioned, at the scene a. Tet allows communist to regain initiative b. after Tet VC regain foot hold in S. US at home want out of the war 3. Khe Sahn marines MTN fort in northern part of SV under communist attack a. fort est. to moniter NV, Laos border, Ho Chi Minh trail 60
  • 1) US controls the air 3 B-52 bombers every 30 minutes 2) 400 tactical air strikes each day 18,000 tons of ordinance dropped a day 77 days = 5 1/2 Hiroshimas 4. Tet was planned to take everyone by surprise a. soldiers on leave to be home b. businesses close down for holiday 1 week 61
  • 5. Tet 1968 election year communists use to try and embarrass LBJ & SV gov't. Every possible place was attacked. a. places of importance: US Embassy, military posts, Vietnamese police, air ports, US airfields, cities of Hue, Pleiku, Da Nang b. state of total chaos 6. US spring primaries Jan, Feb, March a. after Tet LBJ's popularity 40% 62
  • b. polls opposed to the war in Vietnam: year totally opposed 65 25% 66 35% 67 45% 68 55% 63
  • B. Johnson's decision 1. LBJ knows his standing is not good politically 2. two-day meeting to seek recommendations March 25-6 to seek answers stay in election or quit C. war cannot be won 1. LBJ goes on TV 3/31/68 talks of peace 64
  • 3. US bombings above 18th parallel halted no more maybe communists will talk 4. finally LBJ announces he will not run for office or accept nomination D. LBJ's plan to withdraw from war 1. new Sec Def Clark Clifford convinces Pres to get out of war in Vietnam a. media a BIG problem - no stopping press 65
  • 2. LBJ gives speech a. April 3 communists willing to talk b. Paris Peace Talks led by De Gaule May 5 3. LBJ want out as a draw no loss no win leave SV intact no bombing increase ARVN forces 4. almost all of talks run by communists E. Last months and days LBJ in office delegating withdraw & end of presidency 66
  • XI. Nixon wins 1968 election A. Nixon takes office Jan 1969; Republicans finally get a chance in Vietnam 1. Nixon not a Dove knows country wants war to end 2. Nixon talking peace but does not want to admit defeat B. war must wind down slowly military give back to ARVN 67
  • 1. Nixon talking to tone down whole war 2. by end of 1969 475,000 in Vietnam 115,000 US have come home 3. US will train the ARVN forces and give all supplies D. with US becoming more Dovish, Nixon follows through w/peace plan 1. problems SV dragging feet, doesn't want to fight alone 68
  • a. Pres Thieu resignation b. US complete withdraw no more aid to SV E. My Lai incident (revealed) village in northern SV 1. first time whole group of men in combat, figured people in village attacking them 2.rounded up people and killed majority left them in a ditch 69
  • b. war now seen as immoral 3. investigation Generals press charges on few soldiers and commanding officer William Calley a.Calley sentenced to 10 years to life in prison b. released in 3.5 years with a dishonorable discharge F. After My Lai US sees war as immoral disgrace 70
  • 1. Army suffered a severe dishonor due to violence, seen as killing women and children not the enemy 2. Nixon, who was withdrawing troops, has war break its borders and now involve Cambodia angering US public XII. Vietnamization A. US military under Nixon's command shift emphasis from battlefield to technical training to give war back to SV 71
  • 1. Oct 1969 Nixon assures Premier Souvanna Phouma of Laos the US will insist on withdrawl of NV from Laos, Cambodia as part of the settlement 2. Joint Chiefs say Vietnamization will work going well but assistance needs to continue B. Nixon and military work only through time 1. next year US forces continually turn over forts or equipment to SV 2. US continues to fight as withdrawal continues. Fighting at its highest level on borders of 72
  • C. SV forces increase to ~850,000 NV forces reach ~240,000 main force D. Dec 16 US B-52s bombing in south to support ground troops E. Jan 1970 news conference Pres Nixon states the policy of Vietnamization is irreversible. US will continue to gradually withdraw it's troops from SV 1. US aircraft continually face attacks by missile and other means while flying over the DMZ and Ho Chi Minh trail 73
  • 2. Infiltration does not decrease in the S NVA, VC attack and shell US forces in the south F. US intelligence reports an increase of enemy activity in all zones of occupation 1. Sec of Def Melvin Laird states Vietnamization adequate 2. majority of pop is polled in gallop poll continue to oppose immediate withdrawal of US troops 3. the first of three peace meetings begin in 74
  • 4. Cambodian demonstrators begin protesting increase of war activity close to border, don't want to get caught up in conflict G. SV & Cambodian forces call for US air support to deal with infiltrators or insurgents crossing southern borders 1.SV forces 3/28/70 begin major incursions into Cambodia searching for VC strongholds 2. Nixon White House announces troops allowed to cross Cambodian border 3. Cambodian border 4/4/70 heaviest fighting in war to occur on border or in neutral country increased fighting at DMZ 75
  • 4. Cambodian government forces give VC complete control of Parrot's Beak a. SV pursue and contest Cambodia to fight infiltrators b. 48% US in Gallup poll support Nixon's Cambodian excursion c. 12,000 US troops withdraw from SV 76
  • XIII Cambodia! A. Nixon gives US troops full authorization to enter Cambodia to destroy communist sanctuaries 1. 6,000 ARVN troops using US air support attack The Parrot's Beak 2. Nixon announces US forces are operating in Cambodia B. Senators announce plans to cut US funding to SEA 77
  • 1. 5/3/70 protesters Kent State burn ROTC building 2. 5/4/70 Kent State sends National Guardsmen to break-up protests, 100 Guardsmen fire rifles into crowd killing 4 and wounding 11. Nixon encouraged by colleges to end war. 3. Nixon gives a firm commitment to remove US troops from Cambodia in 1 month & issues a statement deploring the deaths: “dissent turns to violence and invites tragedy.” 78
  • C. Nixon states Cambodian involvement will provide 6-8 months of needed training for SV army. 1.75,000-100,000 young people demonstrate peaceably in front of White House demanding withdrawal of US troops 2. Congress swamped with mail, petitions, and telegrams to remove US troops 3. Nixon on TV speech 6/3/70 says Cambodia most successful campaign in war now withdrawal of US forces continues 79
  • 4. Senate votes 81-10 repeal Gulf of Tonkin Res. thus idea no need to fight in SEA any longer 5. SV forces take primary role of fending off VC in Cambodia. US forces now out of Cambodia D. 8/11/70 SV takes over Cambodia incursion US soldiers have been replaced in Cambodian and Laotian border 1. SV forces announce that 3000 man operation in the Parrot's Beak of Cambodia has 80
  • 2. 200 Vietnamese and 1,500 marines begin naval operations in the Mekong Delta to destroy communist bases E. 10/7/70 Nixon in a TV speech asks VC & NV to agree to an Indochina cease-fire to negotiate peace. 1. Nixon proposes an eventual and immediate unconditional release of prisoners 2. communist proposal of the ouster of Thieu & Ky totally unacceptable 81
  • 4. 10/14/70 NV announces rejection of Nixon's proposals 5. 11/21/70 combined 50 US forces raid Sontay prison camp to release POWs. Camp empty. 6. US conducting bombing by B-52s in NV but not above the 19th parallel F. end 1970 SV announces one-day only cease- fire for Christmas/New Year 1. Nixon announces continued bombing NV 82
  • 2. Vietnam winding down 280,000 troops left behind Cambodia and Laos show just how much turmoil there is in Indochina XIV. Nixon's Promise to Withdraw A.the air war in NV, Laos, & Cambodia increases to new levels throughout the year US B-52s alone drop over 1 million tons of bombs 1. US Joint Chiefs state 1/11/71 the US combat responsibility to SV continued for Vietnam to work 83
  • 2. US jets continue to support SV and attack missile sites and SAM sites 3. bombing in 1971 reaches its highest peak since pre-1967 4. US airpower outside Vietnam reaches its peak for helicopter service as 1,500 are in use via SV forces entering Cambodia's Parrot's Beak B. anti-war sentiment continues in the US 84
  • 1. Rev. Philip Berigan serves 6 years for burning draft cards and plotting to kidnap Kissinger 2. TV speech Sen. G. McGovern begins an antiwar TV campaign 3. Nixon in TV speech will not limit air war with massive peace marches on colleges campuses, antiwar/Nixon 4. Eugene McCarthy begins antiwar teach-ins at Harvard to employ political tactics instead of violence 85
  • 5. a bomb explodes in capital building in Washington DC causing $3,000,000 worth of damage hurting no one. a. war critics in Congress denounce Senate Democrats as supporting the enemy b. veterans protest in DC during a 5-day demonstration rally of 200,000 takes place on mall 6. militant war demonstrations occur in DC; end up with 12,616 - a record high for civil disturbance arrests 86
  • C. American troop withdrawals and Vietnamizaton continues to please public 1. Phoenix operation is increased to gather intelligence to destroy VC within the south to increase the people's defense 2. in response to Vietnamization New Zealand announces troop withdrawals from SV 3/17/71 3. VP Nguyen Cao Ky states in recent operations Vietnamization is going slowly 4. 4/26/71 US command in Saigon forces at 87
  • 5. 7/1/71 6100 soldiers withdraw from DMZ leaving it almost entirely to SV leaving it for transfer of defense 6. N Zealand & Australia claim all forces will withdraw by end of 1971 7. 9/9/71 S Korea announces 48,000 man force withdraw all forces by June 1972 8. In replace of troops B-52s drop 1,000 tons a day on DMZ and Cambodia 9. Nixon announces 45,000 more troops out by 88
  • D. Major announcements 1. the 26th amendment grants 18-year-olds the right to vote. War fought by those too young to vote - cause of reform 2. surprise announcement Nixon traveling to Peking China 3. for first time Paris peace talks fail to set another meeting for 138th session 4. Nixon states the China visit 7/15/71 in a TV speech will seek normalization of relations and 89
  • 5. 12/12/71 Nixon discloses US ground combat role is at an end and troops are now in a defensive position 80% of forces when he entered office are now home 6. 12/31/71 gradual US withdrawal has reduced US casualties figures in Indochina to 1,286 a. US goal fully shifted from military victory to graceful disengagement accompanied by Vietnamization in the south b. soldiers people of SV all question whether situation is worth it 90
  • XV. The Light at the End of the Tunnel A. Nixon announces troop withdrawals all except 25,000 still needed to protect US interests and until all POWs are released from NV 1. Nixon announces withdrawals will meet requirements set as 70,000 men come home for peace agreement 2. 1/20/72 SV prepares for communist Tet offensive 91
  • 4. Spring 1972 Gallup poll said 52% approve Nixon's handling of Vietnam war 5. Nixon arrives in Peking and believes his visit to China has changed the world 6. It is hoped open relations with China will help US war effort. China and Russia relationship “rocky” 7. Joint communique released by China & US support the 8-point proposal 92
  • B. war continues 1. US prepares hundreds of B-52s and fighters for air strikes 2. US 7th fleet warships bombed NV largest air- sea battle since 1964 involving aircraft and ships 3. Nixon announces no more draftees will be sent to Vietnam after Sept. 1 total for all Indochina ground troops equals 39,000 4. no US deaths occurred 9/28/72 not since 93
  • 5. 10/12/72 46 black & white crewmen brawl on carrier Kitty Hawk in one of the largest racial clashes during the war 6. The most intense bombing of the war ends 12/31/72 C. negotiations and domestic issues 1. 4/21/72 House of Representatives votes to terminate US involvement in Vietnam 2. Nixon meets with Brezhnev for summit talks in Moscow though Vietnam won't be discussed 94
  • 3. US Sentate passes Cooper amendment to a military bill the amendment stipulates complete US withraw if Hanoi releases POWs 4. Nixon is reelected Pres. carrying all states except Mass. 5. to respond to scheduled resumption of secret peace talks bombing is halted 95
  • XVI. The End A. Paris peace negotiations Nixon suspends the most concentrated bombing of the war 1. Kissinger announces a truce for V/L/C 2. Laird announces the end of military draft in America B. 1/27/73 last servicemen to die in war Lt Col William Nolde 96
  • 1. an agreement to end the war is signed in Paris US, NV, SV, & VC 2. Nixon hints US might intervene in V to stop communists 3. White House announces bombing of Cambodia at request of Lon Nol 4. US troops leave SV ending nearly 11 years of US military presence only defense attache at Embassy remains 5. Hanoi releases 67 last POWs of the 587 97
  • D. 29-30 April 1975 complete withdrawal 1. Option IV the largest helicopter evacuation on record begins removing US and combatants from Saigon 2. Ford issues a proclamation designating this the last day of Vietnam Era for wartime benifits qualification 5/7/75 E. June 1975 Congress appropriates $450 mil for SV and Cambodian refugees in US over 140,000 refugees are flown to US in following year 98
  • F. 1/03/76 Thailand orders all military personnel to leave except 276 advisers G. 7/2/1976 the National Assembly proclaims official unification of N & S Vietnam under NV Prime Minister Pham Van Duong Hanoi is official capital H. 15/11/76 US single vote vetoing Vietnam's entry into United Nations for at least 800 servicemen still listed missing in Vietnam 99
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  • The End 100