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# Linear Perspective

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• Place de l ’ Europe on a Rainy Day, by Gustave Caillebotte
• ### Linear Perspective

1. 1. "Perspective is to painting what the bridle is to the horse, the rudder to a ship.” -Leonardo da Vinci Linear Perspective
2. 2. Art of the Middle Ages What parts of this painting look most realistic to you? What parts look least lifelike? Which objects or people seem closest and most distant in the painting? What clues does the artist give that one object is further away than another? Wilton Diptych (c. 1395–99)
3. 3. Filippo Brunelleschi The first known paintings in linear perspective were made by Brunelleschi in about 1425. He devised a method for representing objects in depth on a flat surface by means of using a single vanishing point
4. 4. Aspects of Perspective According to Leonardo da Vinci, there are three aspects to perspective: The first has to do with how the size of objects seems to diminish according to distance (linear); The second, the manner in which colors change the farther away they are from the eye (atmospheric); The third defines how objects ought to be finished less carefully the farther away they are (atmospheric).
5. 5. Horizon Line a.k.a. Eye Level A horizontal line across the picture. Always at eye level. In art, we tend to use the term 'eye level', rather than 'horizon' as in many pictures, the horizon is frequently hidden by walls, buildings, trees, hills etc.
6. 6. Vanishing Points Vanishing points are dots on the eye-level where parallel lines seem to converge and disappear.
7. 7. Orthogonal lines The line you draw from the corner of an object to the vanishing point. Establishes the illusion of a perpendicular line going into the distance. Should always be drawn lightly at first because usually, most of an orthogonal will be erased.
8. 8. Transversal lines Always at right angles to the orthogonals. Parallel to the picture plane and to one another. Form the nearest and furthest edges of a rectangle as it recedes from view.
9. 9. Diminution Objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases.
10. 10. Foreshortening Occurs when an object appears compressed when seen from a particular viewpoint, and the effect of perspective causes distortion.
11. 11. One Point Perspective Uses a single vanishing point to draw an object. Only the receding orthogonal lines change their angles.
12. 12. Christ Giving the Keys to Peter by Perugino.
13. 13. Two Point Perspective Uses two sets of orthogonal lines and two vanishing points to draw each object.
14. 14. Place de l’Europe on a Rainy Day, by Gustave Caillebotte
15. 15. Three Point Perspective Uses three sets of orthogonal lines and three vanishing points to draw each object. Most commonly used when drawing buildings viewed from a low or high eye-level. Vertical transversal lines now form a third set of orthogonal lines.
16. 16. Ascending and Descending, M.C. Escher
17. 17. atmospheric perspective Gives the illusion of depth by lightening values, softening details and textures, reducing contrast, and neutralizing colors in objects that are further away. Frans Koppelaar, Landscape near Bologna, 2001