The Italian Early A Time of Rebirth. Renaissance
Historical andCultural Context• Occurred in Florence, Italy from 1400-1479.• A return to learning based on Classical (Ancient Greek and Roman) texts.• Fueled by the ideas of Humanism.• Most works of art were generally commissioned and paid for by private buyers.
Humanism• Humanists studied ancient Greek and Roman (Classical) texts.• Focused on ﬁve humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.• Emphasized the importance of human values instead of religious beliefs.• Focused on using reason and logic to understand people and nature.
The Medici family, wealthy bankers in Florence, helped to fund the artists of the Renaissance.
Linear Perspective• Developed during the Early Renaissance.• A method for representing objects in depth on a ﬂat surface by means of using a single vanishing point.
Masters of the EarlyRenaissance• Lorenzo Ghiberti• Filippo Brunelleschi• Masaccio• Donatello
Lorenzo Ghiberti• 1378-1455• Won a competition to create the doors to the baptistry of the Florence Cathedral (The Duomo).• His work earned him a second commission, to create another set of doors, which were a tribute to Humanism. Michelangelo called them “The Gates of Paradise.”
Filippo Brunelleschi• 1377-1446• Architect - created the dome of the Florence Cathedral (The Duomo).• Created the Renaissance style which copied and improved on classical forms.• Father of linear perspective.
Linear Perspective Demonstration The ﬁrst Baptistery panel was constructed with a hole drilled through the vanishing point. Brunelleschi intended that it be observed by the viewer holding the unpainted back of the picture against his/her eye with one hand, and a mirror in the other hand facing and reﬂecting the painted side.
Masaccio• 1401-1428• The best painter of his generation because of his skill at recreating lifelike ﬁgures and movements as well as a convincing sense of three- dimensionality• One of the ﬁrst to use linear perspective in his painting, employing techniques such as vanishing point in art for the ﬁrst time The Distribution of Alms and Death of Ananias.
Masaccio’sHoly Trinity (1427)• Earliest surviving painting to use systematic linear perspective.• In Santa Maria Novella, Florence.
Donatello• 1386-1466• Assisted Lorenzo Ghiberti with the statues of prophets for the north door of the Florence Baptistery.• Traveled to Rome with Brunelleschi to study the ancient ruins.
Donatello’sThe David (1430)• Commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.• The ﬁrst major work of Renaissance sculpture.• Marked a move toward naturalism and the rendering of human feelings in the human ﬁgure.