A Brief History of EarlyPhotographic Technology FROM INCEPTION THROUGH T H E T U R N O F T H E 1 9 TH CENTURY.
Invented by: Alhazen(Ibn Al-Haytham)Unlike others beforehim, he was able toexplain why theimages were upsidedown.However, around 330B.C.E., Aristotlequestioned why thesun could make acircular image when itshined through asquare hole. 1000 C.E. The Camera Obscuraa.k.a the Pinhole Camera
Invented by: JosephNicéphoreNiépce(France)Exposed the imageof the countryside athis estate onto achemical-coatedpewter plate foreight hours.Named histechnique"heliography,"meaning "sun 1826drawing.” First Permanent Image View from the Window at Le Gras (France, 1826) Joseph NicéphoreNiépce
Invented by: Louis-Jacques-MandéDaguerre (France)Using a cameraobscura and hisnewly inventeddaguerreotypeprocess, exposed animage of a Parisstreet for 10minutes. 1839 The Daguerreotype Boulevard du Temple (1838/39) Louis Daguerre
Made by exposingthe image on asensitized silver-plated sheet ofcopper, and as aresult, the surface ofa daguerreotype ishighly reflective.There is no negativeused in this process,and the image isalmost alwaysreversed left toright. The Daguerreotype
First Self-PortraitRobert Cornelius,Oct. or Nov. 1839.This self-portrait isthe firstphotographicportrait image of ahuman everproduced.
Invented by: Henry Fox Talbot (England) Sensitized paper to light with a silver salt solution and exposed the paper to light. Produced a negative image, and from the paper negative, Talbot made contact prints, reversing the light and shadows to create a detailed 1841 picture. The CalotypeWindow in the South Gallery of Lacock Abbey made from the oldest photographic negative in existence Henry Fox Talbot 1835
Invented by: AnnaAtkinsAtkins placedspecimens directlyonto coated paper,allowing the actionof light to create asillhouette effect.By using thisphotogram process,Anna Atkins isregarded as the firstfemale 1842photographer. Cyanotype
Invented by:Frederick ScoffArcher (English)Coated glass withlight-sensitive silversalts. Because it wasglass and not paper,this wet platecreated a morestable and detailednegative. However,wet plates had to bedeveloped quicklybefore the emulsion 1851dried. Wet Plate Photography
Photographyin the FieldBecause wet-platephotographs had tobe taken before theemulsion dried, theneeded suppliesand chemicals hadto be transportedwith thephotographer. Roger Fentons assistant seated on Fentons photographic van, 1855.
This is a version ofwet-platephotography.The finished plateproduced a negativeimage that appearedpositive whenbacked with velvet,paper, metal orvarnish. 1854 The Ambrotype
Patented by:Hamilton SmithA thin sheet ofiron was used toprovide a basefor light-sensitivematerial,yielding apositive image. 1856 The Tintype Tintype Photograph of Members of the 75th Ohio Infantry in Jacksonville Florida State Archives
Photographed by:James Clerk Maxwell(Scottish)Created arudimentary colorimage bysuperimposing ontoa single screen threeblack-and-whiteimages each passedthrough threefilters—red, green,and blue. 1861 First Color Photo
This inventionproduced a glassnegative plate with adried gelatin emulsion.Dry plates could bestored for a period oftime. Photographersno longer neededportable darkroomsand could now hiretechnicians to developtheir photographs.Dry processesabsorbed light quicklyso rapidly that the 1879hand-held camera was Dry Plate Photographynow possible.