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The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
The Gilded Age, an overview
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The Gilded Age, an overview

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PowerPoint presentation on the Gilded Age for a US History class

PowerPoint presentation on the Gilded Age for a US History class

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  • 2010
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Gilded Age:Industry, Urbanization, and the West
    • 2. Second Industrial Revolution
      • Began during Civil War
      • 3. Shift: consumer to capital goods
      • 4. RRs crucial: 320,000 miles by 1900
      • 5. Abundant natural resources:
      coal, iron, copper, timber, oil
      • Immense demand for labor
      • 6. Huge domestic demand for goods
      • 7. Abundant Capital – U.S. & European
      • 8. Labor saving technologies
      • 9. Talented managers and entrepreneurs
      • 10. Major Inventions: communications, electricity
      • 11. Supportive government
    • Gilded Age Politics: Conservatism & Complacency
      • Shift in focus from politics to economics
      • 12. Shift from idealism to cynicism
      • 13. Era of “forgettable presidents”
      • 14. Problems re: the growth of cities &
      industry were avoided by national politicians,
      left to state and local politicians
      • Widespread patronage and corruption
      • 15. Civil Service Reform: Pendleton Act (1881) --
      shift in role of party workers
      • Tariffs: big disagreement!
    • Laissez-Faire Economics
      • Adam Smith’s “Invisible Hand”
      • 16. Hands Off vs. Helping Hands
      • 17. Pro-business government
      • 18. Capitalist Work Ethic
      • 19. Horatio Alger myth: the
      self-made man a rarity –
      psychological effects
      • Social Darwinism
    • Industrial Empires
      • Railroads (Vanderbilt and Gould)
      • 20. The Steel Industry: Carnegie Steel; U.S. Steel (J. P. Morgan)
      • 21. J. D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil
      • 22. Anti-Trust Movement
    • Causes of Labor Unrest
      • De-skilling created loss of
      autonomy, repetitive &
      monotonous work
      • Concentration of wealth &
      sharper class divisions
      • Wage-based labor: long hours, low pay
      • 23. Dangerous working conditions: accidents,
      chemicals & pollutants
      • Court injunctions
      • 24. Industrial warfare: strikes, lockouts, blacklists, yellow-dog contracts, private guards & state militias
      • 25. Panics of 1873 and 1892
    • National Labor Unions
      • National Labor Union (1866),
      goals: higher wages, 8-hour day, equal rights for women & blacks, monetary reform, co-ops
      • Knights of Labor (1869, public 1881): Powderly (leader) goals: worker co-ops, ending child labor & monopolies
      • 26. AF of L (1886): Gompers (leader) goals: higher wages & safer conditions; tactics: collective bargaining -- first really successful Union
    • Major Events
      • Great RR Strike (1877)
      • 27. Haymarket bombing (1886)
      • 28. Homestead Strike (1892)
      • 29. Pullman Strike (1894)
      • 30. Coxey’s Army (1894)
    • Immigration
      • 1850-1900 : 16 million immigrants
      arrived & U.S. pop. grew from 23 to 76 million
      • Reasons for immigration from Europe
      • 31. displacement, overcrowding, persecution
      • 32. freedom, econ. opportunities, cheap transport
      • 33. 1840s to 1880s: NW Europe: Protestants, literate & skilled, meshed well with natives (“Old Immigrants”)
      • 34. 1890s to 1914: SE Europe: mostly Catholic, Orthodox & Jewish, illiterate , poor, from autocratic countries (“New Immigrants”) – dangerous work in factories
      • 35. Strong Anti-Immigrant movement
      • 36. First legal restrictions, more rigorous standards
      • 37. Labor Unions, Social Darwinists, American Protective League
    • Urbanization
      • Industrialization / Population influx
      • 38. Skyscrapers: spread upward, technology transformed skylines (steel skeletons, elevators, central heating)
      • 39. Streetcar cities: spread outward from commercial center
      • 40. Wealthy left central business districts & poor moved in
      • 41. Landlords divided up older housing
      • 42. New tenements overcrowded, dirty, disease-y
      • 43. Distinct ethnic neighborhoods
      • 44. Boss & machine politics: consolidated power, corrupt
      but provided social welfare to immigrants
      • By 1900, every major U.S. city had suburbs
    • Farming: Crisis & Response
      Numbers of farmers
      declined sharply 1860-1900
      Increased production = falling prices
      Rising costs: equipment, middlemen, railroads, warehouses, elevators, taxes
      National Grange Movement
      Farmers’ Alliances: 1 million members, some inter-racial orgs in the South
      Interstate Commerce Act (1886)
      National Alliance’s Ocala platform (1890) re: election reform, tariffs, taxes, banking
    • 45. Post-Reconstruction South
      Economic Development:
      new industries (lumber,
      tobacco, cotton mills)
      & cheap, non-union labor
      Most profits went North to investors
      High Poverty Rates: most southerners were sharecropping farmers, barely got by
      Agricultural Development: increased productivity re: cotton, diversification of crops
      Farmers’ Southern Alliance (1 million); Colored Farmers’ National Alliance (250,000) -- lack of unity undercut effectiveness
    • 46. Segregation and Loss of Civil Rights
      “Redeemers” enacted segregation
      Used poor whites’ racial fears to
      deflect common economic concerns
      Supreme Court: Congress can’t prohibit racial discrimination by private citizens, including railroads, hotels…
      Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” ushers in the Jim Crow era
      Grandfather clauses, literacy tests, property requirements, poll taxes used to disfranchise blacks or liberal whites
      Blacks couldn’t serve on juries, harsher punishments, shut out of good jobs
      Waves of lynching & other forms of terror
    • 47. Black Responses
      Migrate: western U.S.; Africa (Bishop Henry Turner, International Migration Society 1894)
      Ida B. Wells-Barnett, newspaper writer and editor fought against lynching & Jim Crow, death threats forced her to flee to North
      Booker T. Washington: economic uplift, industrial, technical ed., no agitation (Tuskegee Inst. 1881)
      W.E.B. Du Bois: end segregation, equal civil rights, higher ed., political activism

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