Taylor Brown<br />Gilded Asheville Miniterm<br />Upper Class Women of the Gilded Age<br />
The Role of an Upper Class Woman<br />The main role of a woman was to act as a hostess<br />Receive calling cards and call...
An Elite Woman’s Dress<br />A Victorian woman wore ²<br />Drawers<br />Camisole<br />Shift<br />Corset<br />Petticoat<br /...
Proper Etiquette for Dining ³<br />Guests should be seated boy-girl at a table ⁴<br />You must not speak to anyone other t...
Proper Etiquette for Dining, Continued ⁵<br />Modesty is stressed<br />Do not laugh at your own jokes<br />Do not mention ...
Formal Dinners 6<br />Usually consisted of around 7 courses <br />Each place setting had up to 15 different utensils (of w...
Women’s Pastimes at Biltmore ⁷<br />Dances<br />Formal meals<br />Parlor games<br />Chess<br />Cards<br />Mah-jongg<br />S...
A Day in the Life of a Woman at Biltmore ⁸<br />8:30	Hot water brought upstairs for the pitcher and bowl in the bathroom<b...
Edith Vanderbilt<br />Married to George Washington Vanderbilt in June of 1898<br />Mother of Cornelia Vanderbilt<br />Know...
Groundbreaking Women of Gilded Age Asheville 9<br />Julia Wolfe <br />Mother of writer Thomas Wolfe<br />Owned boarding ho...
Groundbreaking Women, Continued ¹º<br />Lillian Exum Clement <br />First female attorney in NC to practice without a man<b...
Analysis<br />During the Gilded Age, women were seen as possessions, designed to look pretty and keep a household running ...
Endnotes<br />1.  Johnson, Nan. “Reigning in the Court of Silence: Women and Rhetorical Space 	in Postbellum America.” Phi...
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Taylor—Upper Class Women of the Gilded Age

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Taylor—Upper Class Women of the Gilded Age

  1. 1. Taylor Brown<br />Gilded Asheville Miniterm<br />Upper Class Women of the Gilded Age<br />
  2. 2. The Role of an Upper Class Woman<br />The main role of a woman was to act as a hostess<br />Receive calling cards and callers, as well as returning the calls <br />Plan seating charts and menus<br />Keep household running smoothly<br />Plan parties and other events<br />Make sure all of the servants of the house were properly cared for<br />A woman was to act properly<br />According to scholar Nan Johnson, in the Gilded Age quiet women were considered the “wine of life” ¹<br />A proper woman was to know when to speak and what to speak of, and most importantly, when not to speak<br />Women were discouraged from having strong voices <br />
  3. 3. An Elite Woman’s Dress<br />A Victorian woman wore ²<br />Drawers<br />Camisole<br />Shift<br />Corset<br />Petticoat<br />Bustle<br />Dress<br />Gloves<br />Stockings<br />Shoes<br />She might also carry/wear <br />Parasol<br />Fan<br />Gaiters (shoe covers)<br />Me in full Victorian dress<br />
  4. 4. Proper Etiquette for Dining ³<br />Guests should be seated boy-girl at a table ⁴<br />You must not speak to anyone other than the people directly next to you<br />You speak to the person on your right for one course, then for the next course, the person on your left, and so on<br />All dishes should be passed to the left<br />Topics that should be avoided<br />Politics<br />Religion<br />“One’s own affairs”<br />Anything that could cause controversy <br />
  5. 5. Proper Etiquette for Dining, Continued ⁵<br />Modesty is stressed<br />Do not laugh at your own jokes<br />Do not mention influential acquaintances <br />Do not speak of your “superior” education<br />Control any desire to shine<br />Avoid any scenes or quarrels<br />Also Avoid<br />Foreign languages<br />Slang<br />Interrupting others<br />Whispering<br />Volunteering information<br />Intimate questions<br />Lengthy anecdotes<br />Gilded Asheville Miniterm students observing proper etiquette<br />
  6. 6. Formal Dinners 6<br />Usually consisted of around 7 courses <br />Each place setting had up to 15 different utensils (of which guests must know the purposes) <br />Lady of the house planned / approved menu<br />At the Biltmore, dinners included <br />Truffles<br />Sorbets<br />Salads<br />Cheese and biscuits<br />Ice cream<br />Fruit<br />Club soda<br />Coffee<br />Grape brandy<br />Sherry<br />Proper etiquette must be observed<br />Biltmore’s Banquet Hall<br />
  7. 7. Women’s Pastimes at Biltmore ⁷<br />Dances<br />Formal meals<br />Parlor games<br />Chess<br />Cards<br />Mah-jongg<br />Swimming<br />Bowling<br />Croquet<br />Picnics<br />Drawing <br />Playing music<br />A Game of Croquet <br />
  8. 8. A Day in the Life of a Woman at Biltmore ⁸<br />8:30 Hot water brought upstairs for the pitcher and bowl in the bathroom<br />9:00 Morning tea served in the bedroom, servants assisted in getting dressed<br />10:00 Breakfast in the Winter Garden<br />11:00 Change into a walking outfit <br />11:30 A stroll though the gardens<br />12:30 Change into a Luncheon Outfit<br />1:00 Lunch in the Breakfast Room<br />2:00 Change into riding clothes<br />2:30 Horseback riding <br />4:30 Nap or rest in the bedroom<br />5:30 Dress for dinner<br />6:30 Aperitifs served in the Second Floor Living Hall<br />7:00 Dinner in the Banquet Hall<br />9:00 A string quartet plays in the Gallery<br />11:00 A stroll on the Library Terrace<br />11:30 Go to bed <br />Biltmore Estate<br />
  9. 9. Edith Vanderbilt<br />Married to George Washington Vanderbilt in June of 1898<br />Mother of Cornelia Vanderbilt<br />Known for incredible grace and exceptional hostess skills<br />Bought Christmas presents every year for all the children of Biltmore, even those of servants<br />Arranged for much of the Biltmore Estate’s land to be sold in order to keep the household running after her husband’s sudden death in 1914<br />Edith and Cornelia Vanderbilt<br />
  10. 10. Groundbreaking Women of Gilded Age Asheville 9<br />Julia Wolfe <br />Mother of writer Thomas Wolfe<br />Owned boarding house<br />Shrewd businesswoman<br />In a time where women could not get loans from banks, Julia Wolfe owned a house and ran a successful business<br />Elizabeth Blackwell <br />First female doctor in the United States<br />Worked as a nanny for a doctor and read his medical books at night<br />Was admitted to medical school because the students were given a vote, and they thought it was a joke<br />She graduated first in her class and went on to open the first female-run hospital, along with the help of Florence Nightingale<br />
  11. 11. Groundbreaking Women, Continued ¹º<br />Lillian Exum Clement <br />First female attorney in NC to practice without a man<br />Elected to North Carolina House of Representatives by a margin of 10,368 to 41<br />Introduced 17 bills, 16 of which were passed<br />Allowed women who had been abandoned to apply for divorce in 5 years instead of 10<br />Helped create private voting booths<br />
  12. 12. Analysis<br />During the Gilded Age, women were seen as possessions, designed to look pretty and keep a household running smoothly<br />They were expected to follow proper rules of etiquette and manage a household<br />Women had little influence in the world outside of the home<br />Upper class women of the Gilded Age were expected to appear perfect at all times<br />They wore corsets to manipulate their figures, and never spoke of their true beliefs or feelings, as it was considered poor manners<br />This all suggests that a woman’s place was as the lady of the house, always with the interests of her guests or family in mind, rather than her own<br />
  13. 13. Endnotes<br />1. Johnson, Nan. “Reigning in the Court of Silence: Women and Rhetorical Space in Postbellum America.” Philosophy and Rhetoric. Vol. 33, No. 3 of On Feminizing the Philosophy of Rhetoric. Pennsylvania: Penn State Press. 2000. 221-42. Print. <br />2. Whitfield, Lisa. Smith McDowell House, Asheville, NC. March 2, 2011. Oral presentation.<br />3. Elder, Dana. “A Rhetoric of Etiquette for the ‘True Man’ of the Gilded Age.” Rhetoric Review. Vol. 21, No. 2. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2002. 150-69. Print. <br />4. Whitfield.<br />5. Elder.<br />6. “The Gilded Age at Biltmore Estate.” Asheville: The Biltmore Company. 1992. Print. <br />7. Gilded Age at Biltmore<br />8. Gilded Age at Biltmore<br />9. Williams, Brenda. HerStory Tour. Asheville, NC. March 2,2011. Oral Presentation.<br />10. Williams.<br />

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