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4.4 Metals for the future
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4.4 Metals for the future


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  • 1. 10 October 2010
    4.4 Metals for the future
    Using your periodic table, identify:
    5 metal
    5 non-metals
    2 semi-metals
  • 2.
  • 3. Chapter 4: What’s in a reaction
    Student target
    Teacher Comment
  • 4. Learn about
    What metals are like and what they are used for
    Why mercury is a hazardous metal
    What risk assessments are and why scientists do them
  • 5.
  • 6. Heavy metal
    People have been using different metals for centuries. Gold was the first metal to be used
    Pure gold occurs naturally
    Some gold has been found in caves in Spain that was used about 42 000 years ago
  • 7. Metallurgy
    A scientist who works with metals is called a metallurgist
    In the sixteenth century, Georg Agricola wrote a book called De re metallica (on the nature of metals) about the science and extraction of metals
    Agricola has been called the ‘father of metallurgy’
    Today, metallurgy is an important field in science, which can lead to a whole range of careers
  • 8. Uses of metals
    Metals are used for many different things
    You find them at home, school, in factories, in shops and on the roads
    It is hard to think of a place where we don’t find metals
    Metals are used so much because they are good at doing many things
    A lot of the metal objects we use are made of pure metal
  • 9. Properties of metals
  • 10. Popular metals
  • 11. A special metal
    Most metals are solid at room temperature
    Mercury (Hg) is the exception – at room temperature it is a liquid
    It melts at -39 oC
    Most metals melt at very high temperatures – Tungsten (W) melts at 3000 oC
  • 12.
  • 13. Risk assessments
    Some people want to ban mercury because it Is very toxic
    If you breather in mercury or eat it it can cause breathing difficulties, hallucinations, memory loss or even death
    Scientists who use mercury have to carry out a risk assessment
    This means they use information about the hazards to reduce the risk to human health
  • 14. Risky business
    The US EPA has announced plans to regulate the amount of mercury released in to the atmosphere from coal-fired power stations
    The problem is that mercury gets into the sea, and then into seafood
    When humans east seafood, they absorb the poisonous mercury
    Mercury levels are monitored in the air, seawater, seafood and humans
  • 15. Questions
    What does a metallurgist do? (4)
    Describe the properties of metals. (5)
    The photos show objects made from different metals
    Choose the best metal for each object from the table of popular metals (6)
    Give a reason for your choice (6)
  • 16. Questions
    Choose the best metal for each object from the table of popular metals (6)
    Give a reason for your choice (6)
  • 17. Questions
    Some farmers keep cows in fields close to coal-burning power stations
    Explain why the grass, cows and their mile should be monitored for mercury levels (7)
    Suggest control measures that the government could use (7)
  • 18. How to do experiments safely
    Clear desk and place on your stool under the desk
    No sitting down during practicals
    Collect and wear safety gear at all times
    One way system to reduce accidents
    Walk, don’t run
    Ask if you are ever unsure!
  • 19. Using a Bunsen burner
    Collect equipment, share between group
    Examine equipment to see if there is any damage
    Check gas tap is working and connect
    Close air hole to ensure safety flame
    Leave on safety flame when not heating
    Heat on purple flame only
    Pack away while you wait
    Equipment will be hot, leave to cool down
  • 20.
  • 21. Hot oven
    Your oven at home is made from metals, but which metals are the best for the job? Metals for ovens have to put up with very high temperatures AND the wires that work the electrical parts (like the light and the fan) need to conduct electricity well. Which metals are best for the job? You need to find out!
  • 22. Workstation 1
    Looking at appearance
    Look at the samples of metals at workstation 1. Write down observations about the appearance of each metal.
  • 23. test tube holder
    small amount of metal
    test tube
    Workstation 2
    Effect of heat
    At workstation 2 put a small amount of one metal in the bottom of a test tube. Place the test tube in a holder and heat the metal over the Bunsen burner for a few seconds. Write down what you see. Repeat the experiment for the other metals.
  • 24. Workstation 3
    Electrical conductivity
    Test the metals with the conductivity tester at workstation 3. Write down what you find out.
  • 25. Presenting results
    Design a table to show what you found out for each metal
  • 26. Considering your evidence
    Discuss your findings in your group.
    1 What properties do all metals have in common?
    2 Which metals behave differently to the others?
    3 What happens when metals are heated? What can you say about the melting points of the metals you tested?
    4 Which metals would be good for making the different parts of an oven?
    5 What extra information do you need to find out to make sure that the metals you choose are going to be the right ones to use in an oven?
  • 27. Evaluation
    When you carried out the tests, how did you make sure that the tests gave a fair comparison between the metals? How could you improve the tests?
  • 28. And finally…
    Name five metals
    Name five non-metals
    (use your periodic table)