2.11 Producing electrical energies: non-renewable sources January 4, 2011
 
 
Key terms <ul><li>Non-renewable energy sources : energy sources that cannot be replaced easily, for example fossil fuels <...
 
Power stations <ul><li>Most power station produce electricity by heating water to create steam. This steam is used to turn...
Fossil fuels <ul><li>The efficiency of most power stations is 30% although with newer technologies we can reach 50%. </li>...
Nuclear power <ul><li>In a  nuclear  power station, energy given out during nuclear reactions is used to heat water to ste...
 
Producing electricity –  ac generators <ul><li>Electrical generators use induction to supply electricity. The turbine that...
 
 
Science focus <ul><li>The current produced by an ac generator can be increased by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using stronger ma...
Mains electricity <ul><li>The electricity supply in our homes is an alternating current with a frequency of 50 Hz </li></u...
 
 
To do <ul><li>Mary is a trainee engineer working for an electricity company. Part of her job involves inveigating ways to ...
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2.11 producing electrical_energies_batteries

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2.11 producing electrical_energies_batteries

  1. 1. 2.11 Producing electrical energies: non-renewable sources January 4, 2011
  2. 4. Key terms <ul><li>Non-renewable energy sources : energy sources that cannot be replaced easily, for example fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Main electricity : electricity that comes into our homes and places of work. The voltage is normally 230 V and the frequency is 50 Hz </li></ul>
  3. 6. Power stations <ul><li>Most power station produce electricity by heating water to create steam. This steam is used to turn turbines which rotate a generator to produce electricity </li></ul><ul><li>This electricity is then sent to our homes through the national grid </li></ul><ul><li>The water is often heated by non-renewable energy sources </li></ul>
  4. 7. Fossil fuels <ul><li>The efficiency of most power stations is 30% although with newer technologies we can reach 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>When they burn carbon dioxide is produced </li></ul>
  5. 8. Nuclear power <ul><li>In a nuclear power station, energy given out during nuclear reactions is used to heat water to steam. </li></ul><ul><li>No burning of fuel occurs so no carbon dioxide is produced </li></ul><ul><li>It does produce radioactive waste which lasts for thousands of years </li></ul>
  6. 10. Producing electricity – ac generators <ul><li>Electrical generators use induction to supply electricity. The turbine that is turned by the steam created in the power station boilers rotates a generator which is a large coil of wire between magnets. </li></ul><ul><li>The magnetic field induces a current in the coil </li></ul>
  7. 13. Science focus <ul><li>The current produced by an ac generator can be increased by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using stronger magnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotating the coil faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the number of turns of wire in the coil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the coil thicker </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Mains electricity <ul><li>The electricity supply in our homes is an alternating current with a frequency of 50 Hz </li></ul><ul><li>This means the current changes direction 50X every second, this is faster than we can see </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is turning on and off 50X a second but we never notice! </li></ul>
  9. 17. To do <ul><li>Mary is a trainee engineer working for an electricity company. Part of her job involves inveigating ways to make the electricity generators more efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of all the areas in a power station where energy may be wasted and the ways that these losses may be reduced </li></ul>
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