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# 14 matter very cold

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intro to chapter 14, matter very cold, very hot

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### 14 matter very cold

1. 1. What are these objects? Order them from coldest to hottest
2. 2. What are these objects? Order them from coldest to hottest
3. 3. kT is about how much energy particles have at temperature T in kelvin
4. 4. Worked example • On a nice summer’s day (27 o C) how much energy would the particles have?
5. 5. Worked answer JkT KJKkTQ JKk KCT o 21 123 123 101.4 3001038.1 1038.1 30027 − −− −− ×= ××=≈ ×= ==
6. 6. Example questions • Determine the amount of energy a particle would have if it were: – In the centre of the Sun – In the centre of a supernova – In Mars’ northern polar cap – In interstellar space
7. 7. Location k / JK-1 T / K kT / J Centre of the Sun 1.38 x 10-23 Centre of a supernova 1.38 x 10-23 Within magma 1.38 x 10-23 Within Mars' northern polar cap 1.38 x 10-23 In interstellar space 1.38 x 10-23
8. 8. Location k / JK-1 T / K kT / J Centre of the Sun 1.38E-23 1.50E+07 2.07E-16 Centre of a supernova 1.38E-23 1.00E+11 1.38E-12 Within magma 1.38E-23 1.00E+03 1.38E-20 Within Mars' northern polar cap 1.38E-23 2.30E+02 3.17E-21 In interstellar space 1.38E-23 3.00E+00 4.14E-23
9. 9. If T = 10 000 K eVkT 1=
10. 10. The eV • The energy gained by an electron as it moves through a potential difference of 1 V JW VCW QVW Q W V 19 19 106.1 1106.1 − − ×= ××= = =
11. 11. Show kT = 1eV (T = 10000K) eVkT JeV JkT KkT KT 1 106.11 1038.1 100001038.1 10000 19 19 24 ≈ ×= ×= ××= = − − −
12. 12. Ideal gas kT 2 1 kT 2 1 kT 2 3 kT 2 1 kT 2 1 kT 2 1 kT 2 1 kT3
13. 13. Hotter and hotter
14. 14. Life at T = 300 K
15. 15. Fires and kilns, T = 1500 K
16. 16. White hot at the Sun’s surface, T = 6000 K
17. 17. Hotter still: inside the Sun, T = 6000000 K
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