Unique esl experience presentation


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Unique esl experience presentation

  1. 1. Raafat M Gabriel & Salama M Salama American University in Cairo
  2. 2. Outline• What was done before teaching VI learners• What was done during this experience• What was done after this experience
  3. 3. How the story started• 511TeachingPracticum– Choosing aschool forvisuallyimpairedlearners
  4. 4. Challenges and howwe met them• How to impart language skills to visually impaired learners/ how to import EFL and positively impact VI learners• How to apply or at least just try• How to provide them with what, how and why• How to teach them to learn and keep an eye – Salama will reflect and recollect – We will read and select.. (Salama underlining what is perceived to be important).. – Salama will observe other teachers..
  5. 5. Results of reading• No sight , no problem (Guinan, 1997; Snyder, 1971) – No one asks : Do you see English?• Explore and accommodate, never imitate / Be creative (Kashdan & Barnes, n.d.)• Take advantage of what VILs can do and focus not on what they cannot (MIUSA, n.d.)• Study and teach the place in addition to equipping it; familiarity is crucial for facilitation of learning (Schreiner, n.d.)
  6. 6. Results of reading• Move them. If you want them to love English & improve, make them meaningfully move (Schreiner, n.d.)• Use Braille AND /or assisting technology… learn and teach them (Schreiner, n.d.)• Develop awareness of SLA theories/ LAD accessibility at early years/ Cognitive maturity and schemata (L1) later on (AFB, n.d.)• Cross-training. Content and ESL teaching proficiency are key but not enough. Credibility is crucial. You are a VIP. (Mitchel, 2007)
  7. 7. Results of reading• Spell out, speak up… Nothing is taken for granted.• Simulate and do what visual learners cannot visualize• Plan , prepare, observe, be observed, reflect… grow (AFB, n.d.)
  8. 8. Observing Other Teachers• Ten hours of classobservation• Three differentteachers• Pluses (social |& affective) • Good rapport • Sense of Humor
  9. 9. Observing Other Teachers• Minuses • LOTS , not HOTS / Easy tasks with no cognitive challenge • Unused technology • No use of real objects • Depending heavily on listening/ TTMTTT • Static lifeless classes • Excessive use of L1 • No pair work/ no group work • Inappropriate feedback styles (error correction)
  10. 10. Sample activitiesActivity 1What noise is this? (6 minutes)Learning objectivesUse vocabulary related to inventionsUse a/an articlesProceduresTeacher plays some audio files and students guess what these noisesrepresent. The teacher draws attention to using “a/an” when wetalk about one out of many.CommentsUsing listening / computer/ praiseThe activity was actually extended to learn “expressing agreementand maximize learners’ talking time.
  11. 11. Sample activitiesActivity 2Guessing Game (5 minutes)Learning objectives `Use vocabulary related to foodAsk and answer questionsUse a/an articlesProceduresA volunteer holds a bag, the teacher hides something inside the bag andthe volunteer silently identifies it. Other students ask the volunteerquestions to find out the answer.CommentsUsing real objects / Accessing other sensesMaximizing learner ‘s talking time.Collaboration / interesting / praise..
  12. 12. Sample activitiesMini-Activity 3Pre-reading vocabulary presentation (5 minutes)Learning objectivesUse vocabulary related to violenceProceduresPlay the videoCommentsUsing background and cognitive maturity/ L1backgroundMinimizing use of L1 in introducing abstract vocabulary
  13. 13. Sample activitiesActivity 4Move and match (5 minutes)Learning objectivesUse vocabulary related to violenceProceduresHand out the vocabulary and definitioncardsEach learner finds her pairCommentsServing kinesthetic learnersInterestPraiseTTT
  14. 14. What happened after: Feedback & Recommendations- Professor’s feedback- Mentor’s feedback- CFC (Critical Friendship Circles)- Self reflection- Students’ feedback - Recommendations based on various feedback inputs
  15. 15. Feedback Summary- Apart from positive remarks related tousing English, raising motivation, using allpossible senses and backgroundknowledge, utilizing technology, pair-workand group-work tasks,…etc., I needed tofocus on things to work on and these are: - Activity timing and time management - Teacher talking time
  16. 16. Recommendations- Using diagnostic tests to pace activities- Avoiding overcorrection- Using interesting activities near the endof late classes- Planning how to monitor ss work- Creating more networking to maximizelearning time and learner autonomy
  17. 17. Wrap-up• What was done before teaching VI learners (reading andobservation)• What was done during this experience (Sample activities)• What was done after this experience (Feedback &Recommendations
  18. 18. ReferencesGuinan, H. (1997). ESL for students with visual impairments. Journal ofVisual Impairment and Blindness, 91(6), 555-563.Munoz, M. L. (1998). Language Assessment and Intervention withChildren who have Visual Impairments: A guide for speech-languagepathologists. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and VisuallyImpaired.Snyder, T. (1972). Teaching English as a second language to blindpeople. New Outlook for the Blind, 66(6), 161-166.Williams, C. B. (1991). Teaching Hispanic deaf students: Lessons fromLuis. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 10(2), 2-5.
  19. 19. References• Carson, J.E., Carrell, P.L., Silberstein, S., Kroll, B., & Kuehh, P.A. (1990). Reading-writing relationships in first and second language. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 245-266. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of a theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Corn, A.L., Hatlen, P., Huebner, K.M., Ryan, F., & Siller, M.A. (1995). The national agenda for the education of children and youths with visual impairments, including those with multiple disabilities. New York: AFB Press. Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. (pp. 3-49). Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University. Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Cummins, J. (1989). A theoretical framework for bilingual special education. Exceptional Children, 56, 111-119. Fraiburg, S. (1977). Insights from the blind. New York: Basic Books. Frantz, R.S. & Wexler, J. (1994). Ulpan: Functional ESOL immersion program for special education students. Paper presented at the 28th annual meeting of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Baltimore. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 371 634) Garman, M. (1983). The investigation of vision in language development. In A.E. Mills, (Ed.), Language acquisition in the blind child: Normal and deficient (pp. 162-166). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press. Goldman, S.R. & Trueba, H.T, (Eds.). (1987). Becoming literate in English as a second language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Holbrook, M.C. & Koenig, A.J. (1992). Teaching braille reading to students with low vision. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 86, 44-48.
  20. 20. References• Huebner, K.M. (1986). Curricular adaptations. In G.T. Scholl (Ed.), Foundations of education for blind and visually handicapped children and youth: Theory and practice (pp. 381-384). New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Krashen, S.D. (1982). Principles and practices in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon Press. Mulford, R. (1983). Referential development in blind children. In A.E. Mills (Ed.), Language acquisition in the blind child: Normal and deficient. (pp. 89-107). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press. Nikolic, T. (1987). Teaching a foreign language in a school for blind and visually impaired children. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 81, 62-66. Ovando, C. & Collier, V. (1985). Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts. New York: McGraw-Hill. Snyder, T. & Kesselman, M. (1972). Teaching English as a second language to blind people. New Outlook for the Blind, 66, 161-166. Tempes, F. (1982). A theoretical framework for bilingual instruction: How does it apply to students in special education? Washington, DC: ERIC National Institute of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 239 452) Warren, D.H. (1994). Blindness and children. An individual differences approach. New York: Cambridge University Press. Weiss, J. (1980). Braille and limited language skills. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 84, 81-83. Werth, P. (1983) Meaning in language acquisition. In A.E. Mills (Ed.), Language acquisition in the blind child: Normal and deficient (pp. 77-88). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press. Wu, Yu-hsi (1994). Teaching English as a foreign language to blind children: A progress report. The Educator, 7, 6-9.
  21. 21. Referenceshttp://www.afb.org/section.aspx?Documentid=1933http://www.nwlincs.org/kaizen/www.hltmag.co.uk/jan08/stud02.rtfhttp://www.miusa.org/ncde/tools/eslhttp://www.hcblind.org/?gclid=CKnd8JzU-K4CFQ1lfAod-mBRxghttp://www.ehow.com/info_12130189_tips-teaching-students-visual-impairments-typical-classroom.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/how_10008406_adapt-visually-impaired-student-classroom.htmlhttp://www.tsbvi.edu/seehear/spring00/secondlanguage.htmhttp://earlychildhood.wetpaint.com/page/ESL+for+Students+with+Visual+Impairmentshttp://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=44&TopicID=108&SubTopicID=32&DocumentID=1933
  22. 22. Referenceshttp://www.nwlincs.org/kaizen/Notes.htm#2.http://www.miusa.org/ncde/tools/esl#blind-low-visionhttp://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=44&TopicID=108&DocumentID=2504http://www.ehow.com/how_6587425_teach-visually-impaired-students.htmlTools to Help Visually Impaired Students to Learn |eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7351876_tools-visually-impaired-students-learn.html#ixzz1kl2mOqfThttp://www.ehow.com/list_7184268_classroom-equipment-visually_impaired-children.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/about_6372965_technology-visually-impaired.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/about_5479209_assistive-technology-visual-impairment.html
  23. 23. Referenceshttp://www.ehow.com/list_7248622_things-visually-impaired-people.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/about_6542360_adaptive-technology-visually-impaired.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/list_7281859_products-visually-impaired.htmlHow to Teach Language Arts to the Visually Impaired |eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_7967645_teach-language-arts-visually-impaired.html#ixzz1kl3dnhSrhttp://www.ehow.com/info_7948989_accommodations-visually-impaired-schools.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/info_8003963_tips-teaching-visually-impaired.htmlHow to Plan Lessons for the Visually Impaired |eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_8644079_plan-lessons-visually-impaired.html#ixzz1kl3w0U4L
  24. 24. Referenceshttp://www.ehow.com/info_7993738_visually-impaired-students-public-schools.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/21/nyregion/21neediestsidebar.htmlhttp://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=40&TopicID=200http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=44&TopicID=108&DocumentID=926http://www.afb.org/braillebug/http://www.afb.org/braillebug/braille_print.asp
  25. 25. Raafat M Gabriel Salama M Salama mrraafat@aucegypt.edu Salama_mhd@aucegypt.eduAmerican University in Cairo American University in Cairo