Salama's observation and other parts of the experience
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  • 1. Salama’s Report of Class Observations plus remaining parts of this interesting experience:Report of Class ObservationsTrainee or teacher observation is an excellent way of professional development because itprovides opportunities for more experience and it improves the quality of teaching throughcriticizing and being critiqued. In this paper, I will describe three classes, 40 minutes each, that Iattended at Al-Nor Wa-Al-Amal School for blind girls on March 14th 2010. Two of these classeswere taught by Mr Ibrahim Mazen in the first secondary class and the last one by Mr Abdel-Azizin the second secondary class; both classes used a course book called “Hello” by Simon Hainesand Don Dallas. Before attending the classes, I arranged to meet both teachers and agreed toobserve their classes focusing on student teacher interaction and use of available materials. I didobserve these two things but I also took notes of several other aspects.In the first two successive classes given by Mr Ibrahim, the teacher mainly did three things:dealing with previous homework, explaining a grammar lesson highlighting the differencebetween “hard” and “hardly”, and doing a reading task.Regarding the first part of lesson, I was impressed when the teacher asked one of (blind) girls tocollect the homework; it was some sort of empowering or assigning roles in the class whichfosters the principles of motivation and autonomy. The teacher then examined their homeworksilently and gave feedback for each student’s homework highlighting their mistakes andproviding corrections. The teacher’s good command of the language use was evident; however,correcting error in front of the students must have drastically embarrassed them. The teacher herefocused on cognitive content and downplayed or even undermined the affective side doing harmto both their self-confidence and ego. He could have taken notes of common errors and discussedthem without saying who made them, and as for individual errors he could have arranged forafter class conferences to deal with them. What I only liked during this correction task was thathe asked some of the girls to do self and peer correction, again fostering both autonomy andcollaborative learning. I noticed that, apart from focusing on two students whose pronunciationwas good, the students all participated actively particularly in the final reading task. During thegrammar section of the class and while the teacher was explaining the difference between “hard”and “hardly”, one of the girls wanted to ask the teacher a question but he asked her to wait. Thishappened twice and the girl ended up asking no question. It is possible that her questions hadbeen answered, but other scenarios were possible too. The teacher who might have desired no 1
  • 2. interruption for the flow of his explanation could have asked the girl whether her questions wereanswered. He could have asked her to write down her question and ask her to read it after hisexplanation. Unfortunately, some of this teacher’s pedagogical decisions in the class did not takethe affective side into account. The teacher started the grammar section asking the students whatthe difference between the words “hard” and “hardly” could be and he then gave severalexamples, some of which were in the student’s book.The teacher reflected a good sense of humor in the class, but he excessively used Arabic (L1) andalmost adopted a single teaching approach which is the grammar translation using a lot ofmetalanguage in both English and Arabic. Using terminology such as tense and auxiliary verbs inboth English and Arabic must have been confusing for the poor blind girls.I noticed that in the classes I attended in this school there was neither pair nor group work; thepoor girls did not move at all which caused a lot of boredom in the class and prevented thestudents from assisting one another and from capitalizing on the benefits of co-constructivelearning. I was surprised when the teacher later told me that one professor from Ain ShamsUniversity conducted some research in this school and experimented on collaborative learningand the teachers were amazed then at the benefits they and the students reaped as a result ofapplying both pair and group work learning strategies. I wonder why he and the other teacherswhom I observed ignored this principle while I was attending their classes.I also noticed that the teacher talked most of the time. Students did participate but theircontributions altogether could be like 10% percent of the class and the remaining 90% wasteacher talking time. When discussed later with the teacher, he attributed their minimal talkingtime to their disabilities, which I totally disagreed with because theirs is a visual not a speechdisability. There were some questions in the grammar part in the student’s book which theteacher read. He could have asked the students to read as a way of maximizing their talking time.They only read from their books in the last reading section. The teacher provided severalexamples that were not in the book, which proved that he was well prepared. The examples werefunny, life-like and relevant to this group of learners. I was surprised he did not encourage thestudents to come up with several examples too and give them credit for that. Near the end of thegrammar section, the teacher asked the students to state the grammar rule for “hard” and “hardly”to make sure they had understood it to the full. He even added some relevant collocations such as“hard worker/ hard working” and I could hear several students take notes using their Braille 2
  • 3. typewriters. It was clear most of the girls were intrinsically motivated and they needed someguidance to enhance their strategic learning. For instance, one girl asked the teacher for adviceregarding difficulties she was facing in understanding native speakers. The teacher advised her tolisten to the radio, speak English with her peers and try to imitate native speakers. His advice wasrelevant to speaking rather than listening concerns.The teacher’s techniques in dealing with several things were usually evolving round ease ratherthan challenge. For example, in pronunciation he got the girls to chorally repeat new word and ingrammar he used translation and L1 most of the time. He even answered the students’ questionsregarding any trouble they had in Arabic. Despite that, it was obvious that there was rapport asthe girls accepted the teacher’s advice. One of the students asked the teacher for help regarding apresentation about English idioms she would give in the English party. This clearly showed hermotivation to expand her vocabulary.The teacher did not link the three parts of the lesson well. I felt like they were separate and un-sequenced. The teacher then asked three girls to prepare the present tenses (simple , progressiveand perfect) to explain them to their friends in class and he also asked the other girls to preparethese structures to prepare questions for their friends.The other class I attended for Mr. Abdel-Aziz in second secondary shared most of the negativesthings mentioned above, particularly the lack of group or pair work. I discovered that the classeswere equipped with computers for all the students. The teacher who was explaining unit 13 intheir “Hello” book asked the girls at the beginning of his class to turn on their computers but thepurpose was not clear because they did not use it until later. The teacher asked one of the girls toplay a particular file on his own computer but she failed to. He left the class for almost fiveminutes to bring the cassette player from the teachers’ room and when he came back he spentmore time trying to locate the wanted section for that particular lesson. Some girls helped theteacher with this task, but others were not kept busy doing something useful. Unlike the previousteacher, this reflected lack of preparation. Half way while the teacher was trying to start thecassette at the right moment, the file on the computer started playing the whole listening sectionof this course and the teacher said it was a good idea for them to listen to native speakers.However it was not a guided task as they were not assessed on what they listened to. We couldnot be absolutely sure they were all listening it was a way of passing the time until listening couldbe done. 3
  • 4. As the students were listening, they were Braille- reading the matching passage , which helpedthem a lot in understanding words pronounced fast by native speakers. The teacher paused thelistening several times and provided several explanations. I think that all pauses were beneficialexcept for the first one because the teacher elaborated on the history of computers, which wasoff-topic. Perhaps he wanted to have a warm-up or activate their schemata, but they wereconfused and hummed their disapproval regarding this part of the lesson because they could notsee how it could be linked to the rest of the lesson. It was weird that the teacher did neither pre-nor post reading comprehension activities. He orally checked their listening comprehension afterevery pause he made. Fostering the principle of meaningful learning, the teacher encouraged thegirls to log on the internet and read (using JAWS) some news. The teacher said he would bringthem a dummy spider or a toy to let them touch it and imagine how it looked like. Neither thisteacher nor the other one used realia in their explanations. He only promised he would bring oneitem to class the next time. The learners have other senses such as touching smelling and tastingin addition to their cognitive maturity which the teachers in this school did not invest. The onlysense they developed was listening, they only method teachers use to channel their ideas to thestudents. This teacher had good class discipline except when he left the class. He also used thecomputers in class, unlike the other teacher in whose class all computer sets were wrapped inbed-sheets as I was told by students in the break.In conclusion, I really benefited from these two observations as I will try on my teaching toavoid the caveats these teachers suffered from and I intend to minimize teacher talking time, useall their available senses and make the best use of whatever they have in their classrooms. 4
  • 5. Section 2Salama Teaching EFLIn this section, Salama presents four sample activities for what he did while teaching. For more on whatSalama did, four sample lesson plans are given in Appendix A.Activity 1The activity is called “What noise is this?” and Salama did to achieve two learning objectives: gettingthe learners to use vocabularly related to inventions and a/an articles correctly. Salama downloaded tenaudio files for noises of inventions like clock, telephone, car, train, radio, television and computer.He gave very clear instructions asking the learners to listen to each file and guess the noise, and thenthey can type it using Braille. The students naturally in providing the answers used indefinite articlessaying for instance, “a car, a radio, an airplane, ..etc.”This way Salama used technology and minimized TTT; he also praised the learners’ good answers usingEnglish all the time. He actually cleverly extended this simple activity by asking students to work in pairputting the inventions they brailed in order of importance in their own opinions. Later he used theiranswers to introduce expressions of agreement and disagreement because each pair put the inventions ina different order. This extension maximized the learners’ talking time, increased their motivation andparticipation and their confidence as a result of using English meaningfully and authentically to talkabout themselves.Activity 2This activity is called “Guessing Game” which Salama did with three learning objectives in mind: Usevocabulary related to food, ask and answer questions and use a/an articles. Salama brought a boiled egg,banana, watermelon, onion and orange juice to class. He put the banana and the egg in a bag and asked avolunteer to touch one object in the bag and identify it. The learners’ classmates would ask questions toidentify this object and the volunteer would provide the answers. The girl who guessed correctly waspraised and given that object as a gift; Salama praised them all for their participation and guessing; hedid the same thing with the watermelon but without using a bag. The number of questions asked plus theanswers provided good opportunity for using the language and minimizing TTT. 5
  • 6. As for the onion, Salama said he would cut an object and the learners were supposed to identify itthrough smelling, which they all did. It is worth mentioning here that the learner did not simply practicethe words introduced but also learned and practice several other related words. For instance, withwatermelon, they learned “round, green, red, black, seed, fruit …etc.” With the orange juice, Salmaasked the learners to taste it. This way he made use of their available senses, added interest to his class,raised motivation, used real objects, maximized the learner participation, encouraged collaborativelearning and minimized TTT.Activity 3It was actually a mini-activity called “Pre-reading vocabulary presentation” in which Salama aimed atstudents’ learning and using violence-related vocabulary. Much of this vocabulary is abstract in natureand using real objects is not possible. Salama decided to use the learner’s background knowledgethrough displaying segments of very famous movies. One of the popular cinema figures in Egypt isMohamed Saad and Salama played part of his famous movie “ Elli Bali Balek/ What we are boththinking of”. Salama wanted to introduce the word “criminal” and he successfully did so.Activity 4This activity is called “move and match” and Salama did it to achieve one learning objective: getting thelearners to use vocabulary related to violence before doing a reading task. The word he wanted thelearners to learn were 9; he designed 9 small flashcard with the words and 9 larger flashcards with thedefinitions. The flashcards were typed on Braille on one side and large print on the other; he put eachflashcard in an envelope and scrambled them asking each learner to take only one envelope and read itscontent. Each learner would naturally have either a word or a definition and their task is to move aroundthe class from learner to learner asking questions to match the words with their definitions. This waySalama got them to meaningfully move catering for kinesthetic learners, raised their interest andminimized TTT. 6
  • 7. Section 3After the Unique ESL Teaching ExperienceTwo main things happened after this unique teaching experience: feedback was given andrecommendations were made. Salama received feedback from five different sources: his professor,mentor, MA colleagues, visually impaired learners and himself.Let’s start with self-reflection, below is a self-reflection report Salama wrote after one of his classes: Reflection on my own teaching : Salama Mohamed Salama Introduction Self-observation is a very effective technique for teachers of English to continually improve the quality of their instruction. Before I experienced self-observation, which will be described below, I personally believed that observation always required two parties: the observer and the observed teacher. My belief was based on the fact that one person can not effectively do two complex things at the same time: teach and observe his/her own teaching. However, thanks to technology in form of audio/video recorders and computers, it is now possible to reflect on one’s own teaching, analyze it and make sound judgments regarding this teaching in order to gradually improve it. In the paragraphs below, I will discuss one lesson that I taught to 12 blind and visually impaired teenage girls in their first secondary grade. I will describe and then comment on a reading lesson taught in 45 minutes. I wanted to record the lesson to allow me (with the help of others) to see the lesson several times and analyze it thoroughly, but the school principal did not permit me to record anything. I had to write down as much as I could as soon as the lesson was over. On my comments I will focus on three points: using any available and possible aids to facilitate comprehension, teacher/ student and student / student interaction and time management. 7
  • 8. Description The lesson on “Hello 7” unit 14 was mainly a reading lesson about Jules Verne’s famousnovel “Around the World in Eighty Days” and I wanted to start the class in a friendly manner, soat the warm-up time I talked about how I move from one place to another and invited severalstudents to do the same. My purpose was to introduce them to as many means of transportation aspossible because the reading of that lesson included several ones. I was happy that the studentscould mention several means such as “in a taxi, by bus, by train, by car, by airplane, by bike, byair … etc.” During that warm-up stage, two things happened: students made mistakes about usingthe appropriate preposition before the means of transportation and one girl asked me about howto say “tuktuk” in English. As for the latter point, I told the student that “tuktuk” is not an Arabicword and it is possible that it is also “tuktuk’” in English. I asked her to allow me to research andtell her more about this point next time I visit their class, which I did. I later told her that “tuktuk,three-wheeler and rickshaw” could be used to refer to the means of transportation she askedabout. As for the use of prepositions, I noticed that some students used “by” and “in”interchangeably. I explained to the students in general that there are three prepositions usedbefore means of transportation “on, in and by”. I told them that “by” is followed immediately bythe means with no word in between. I avoided using metalanguage and gave them severalexamples for each preposition to make sure they notice the difference. Because I noticed that some new words in the passage have easy opposites that studentsknew, I decided to Braille-type the words and their opposites on small cards and give them to thestudents asking them to move about to discover who has the opposite of the word/s each one had.I included easy examples among the new words to motivate them and help them match the newwords easily. They moved several times in the class and sounded like they enjoyed the activity.This activity took double the time I was planning for it. 8
  • 9. There were other new and difficult words in the reading that could not be introduced inthe same way, so I used some audio files and contextualized these words using examples and Iwas happy that the students could identify their meanings. To make sure the students reallyunderstood the words, I got them to play another matching game. I gave each student two cards: asmall one including a word and a bigger one including the definition of another word. I askedthem to move about and help each other match each small card with the big one that includes thesuitable definition. I could know that they knew the meanings when they matched the cards andtranslated some of these words in Arabic (the L1 for all of these students). I then told the students that they were going to listen to the recorded reading, then read thepassage at their own pace to answer two questions which I used as listening/reading objectives. Ittook them some time, but they answered the questions correctly. I was planning to do two post-reading exercises but the class time was up and I had to ask them to do these exercises ashomework.Comments I think that the warm-up was somehow useful, but if time had been managed moreeffectively, it would have been more successful. I think I have a tendency to overcorrect in theclass because I spent almost 5 minutes responding to some students’ wrong use of prepositionsbefore means of transportation even though it was not one of the learning objectives of thislesson. It was good that I did not use metalanguage, and I affectively dealt with this situationwithout ignoring the cognitive aspect. I think I was influenced by Brown’s principle ofinterlanguage as I did not address the students who made the preposition mistake so as not tonegatively influence them and I provided the students with several examples to make sure theycognitively identified what is correct. However, the timing and duration of this correction was notappropriate. I think I somehow honestly and professionally dealt with the student who asked me 9
  • 10. for the English translation for an Arabic word. It was ok to research and give this girl and all theclass; however, I should have developed strategic learning and just guided the student showingher how to access information of this sort. Again in the activity that followed, I could not control the time and I spent more time thanI should. Despite this drawback, I managed it use good aids in form of Braille-typed cards thatthe students tried and managed to match each word with its opposite. The students were reallymotivated and happy to move about in the class and as I was monitoring them, I noticed theirenthusiasm. They even asked me to let them keep the cards. I think every activity usually tookmore time because of their disability and because of logistics as their class was not large enoughfor them to move easily bearing in mind their visual disability. I was glad I got them involved again in playing a matching game in vocabulary. I alsoused Braille-typed cards of different sizes after using some audio files, some of which are takenfrom Arabic comic movies. I noticed they were very happy as I was using the computer andaudio files. I should say that using such materials maximized effective and meaningful interactionbetween me and them and definitely among themselves. It is true they did not use English all thetime but their use of English increased compared to the first time I visited them. The onlydisadvantage of applying these technology-assisted meaningful and communicative student-centered activities is time management. The effect was so obvious because I could not do all theactivities I planned to do and had to ask them to do two exercises as homework.Conclusion In conclusion, it was really good practice for me to observe myself and reflect on what Idid. At least I discovered that some of my teaching procedures are enlightened and based oninformed approaches and readings. For example, the way I addressed the preposition error, theway I responded to the girl who had a question about a new word, avoiding the use of 10
  • 11. metalanguage, using Braille-typed cards, using technology, enhancing learners motivation, encouraging collaborative learning in the matching games, encouraging interaction with and among the students and developing learners’’ autonomy in finding the answers to several questions on their own. However from this observation I discovered that I really need to plan for overcoming the time management obstacle and I need to further enhance strategic learning as well. As a result of discovering some positive and negative things in my teaching, I am now fully convinced that self-observation and self-evaluation are very useful for professional development in the field of English language teaching.Salama received feedback from his professor in form of recorded audio files and had received a lot offeedback from his mentor through face-ta-face discussions, telephone talks and emails. Salama alsoreceived feedback from his colleagues through an activity called critical friendship circles. Fourcolleagues would meet after their teaching practice classes; each would talk about his or her performancein addition to the problems and challenges faced and then each would be critiqued and advised toimprove the teaching quality. Below is Salama’s description of one of the critical friendship circles CFCshe attended: A Description of a Critical Friendship Circle Introduction The practice of critical friendship circles is highly useful for both teachers and students. It is both constructive and corrective because it includes both warm and cool feedback regarding teaching performance. What is so professional and agreeable about CFC is that it has a very well- organized structure in which all participants know before they start doing it what they will do exactly, so there is no or very little room for misunderstanding or hard feelings. I think that the role of the facilitator or coordinator is the trickiest. In my CFC team, it was Mariam who played this role. She was like a nice “tyrant” whose instructions must be followed because she helped 11
  • 12. the process run smoothly. The rest of the CFC is collaborative learning because we all learn fromour experiences and mistakes. I did not practice CFC in 511 only, but in several courses in my MA TEFL program. Forexample in 540 ESP/ English for Business, I remember all course participants were involved inthis practice which was extremely useful. It improved my presentation, teaching and oral skills.Due to its success, I decided to apply CFC in the school I manage not only in language meetingsand sessions involving subjects such as English, German and French but also in other contentareas. At first, teachers were reluctant to criticize one another, however after some sessions theyrealized how useful it is and started to find it interesting.CFC in 511I attended and participated in five CFC sessions: four in my own CFC team and another sessionheld by another CFC team. I will describe in detail the CFC session in which I acted as thepresenter. I intentionally selected a problem in my teaching with which I have a long and badhistory. This problem is “time management”; I thought three colleagues with differentexperiences could help me with this problem. I also thought that what I learned in 511 could helpme with this problem, but I was disappointed as the problem endured. I related to my CFC teammembers my experience teaching 12 visually impaired first secondary girl students. I told themabout the materials that I prepared before teaching this class. I intentionally decided to tap ontheir other senses, so much of the materials included media files to address their hearing. I alsobrought to class real objects to address their touching, tasting and smelling senses. For example, Ibrought to class with me toys, fruits, vegetables and other relevant materials. However, eachactivity and task that the students participated in took almost double the time I was planning. MyCFC team members started with probing questions focusing on this particular group of learners.For example they asked about how I planned to raise their motivation and how I planned to check 12
  • 13. their written work; which was a real challenge for me because these learners use the Braillesystem in their writing, which I know nothing about. What added to this challenge is that Imainly use the computer in my writing and most of the girls are technophobic. It was either tolearn Braille or change their attitude about using technology, two tough choices for me. As a wayout, I asked one my friends to help me prepare Braille materials for them, read for me theirwritten tasks and help me type to them my feedback in Braille as well. The probing question section was followed by positive and warm feedback. Heba said sheliked it when I identified the problem of time management stating that the first step in bothanalyzing and solving any problem is to know the problem itself. Norhan praised my couragewhen I discussed this problem with my professor, Dr Wachob, before the professor herselfdiscussed it. Mariam liked my preparation and the materials I brought to my classes. She wishedshe could have attended any of my classes to see how these learners reacted. As a joke, she saidthe materials must have cost me a lot of money. In the cool feedback section, they mainly made suggestions such as running a pre-diagnostic test to pre-assess the students’ proficiency level to time everything appropriately. Theyalso suggested that I read their school book very well and stick to it as it was mainly prepared forthis particular group of learners. It was Braille typed and they said I could have asked my friendto read and describe everything in it for me. They set a challenge for me which could solve myproblem of time management. They suggested choosing materials and tasks that would not takethis group of beginner level learners much time.ConclusionIn conclusion, I am grateful to both my professor and colleagues as they helped me get involvedin this very helpful and practical technique. It gave me the opportunity to voice my opinion 13
  • 14. regarding others performance and it allowed me to get a lot of valuable advice from my colleagues. As a reaction to the CFC sessions I attended, I plan to apply what my colleagues suggested. I am also influence regarding their suggestion to other colleagues’ teaching performance. I also plan to apply other useful suggestions. What I am sure about is that I will carry on practicing CFC broadly in my teaching later on to continually improve my teaching quality and help other reap its amazing benefits. Finally, I do recommend this CFC practice to all TEFLers. The last and the most important source of feedback, according to Salama, is the learners themselves.When Salama was done with his teaching practicum, he asked the learners to anonymously Braille theircomments on his performance mentioning both positive and negative sides. To help them expressthemselves freely and effectively, he said they could write the comments in Arabic. Ten out of elevengirls wrote their comments; they liked Salama’s use of technology, making them participate, the type oftasks, use of English and diversity of teaching methods. As for the negative points, some of them sworethere was nothing bad at all. One of the learners said the main negative point is that they do not haveenough of Salama’s classes. To summarize the feedback points Salama garnered from different sources, positive remarks includeusing English, raising motivation, using all possible senses and background knowledge, utilizingtechnology, pair-work and group-work tasks. However Salama needed to work on mainly two things :activity timing and time management in addition to teacher talking time.Recommendations Made - Using diagnostic tests to pace activities - Avoiding overcorrection - Using interesting activities near the end of late classes - Planning how to monitor learners’ work - Creating online social networking (such as Facebook) to maximize learning time outside the classroom and enhance learner autonomy 14
  • 15. What Has Changed in Salama’s Teaching after This ExperienceBelow is a description by Salama explaining how he change after that unique ESL teaching experienceand after doing the related course: Successful language teachers are dynamic and ready to change so as to perform better. I admit several changes have occurred to my teaching attitudes and practices during my MA TEFL years and particularly during this Spring as a result of the 511 teaching practicum. In this paper, I will describe some of the major changes I have experienced. The first and the most important change that I experience is that I gained my first teaching experience. Before doing the 511 course, I used to look at teaching as an outsider or an observer. I read about and studied teaching theories and several topics related to pedagogy. I discussed teaching ideas with the teachers in the school I run during meetings. I only minimally and informally taught some conversation and grammar lessons to the math and science teachers in the school I run. However, I did not know what a challenge the teaching profession is until I did teach a class of first secondary girls in a school for visually impaired students. It was then that I started to experiment what I read about before. My ideas about both pair and group work and their great benefits were confirmed when I discovered how helpful they were for these students. Through group work and pair work activities, I realized that teachers are not the only source of learning in the language classroom and that learners could assist one another if paired or grouped appropriately. The girls I was teaching told me in a feedback session that they liked it better when they worked together. My ideas about collaborative learning were thus changed. As a principal in Zohor El-Yasmin language school, I used to believe that teachers- including language teachers- should control the class and allow little or no noise at all; therefore, students’ moving around in the class was really irritating for me. However, this is totally wrong. I 15
  • 16. found out that I was wrong not only as a result of my reading that some learners are kinestheticbut as a result of applying this in El-Nor Wa El-Amal School. I was told by my mentor that whenI got the students to move about in the class while doing meaningful activities, they gotmotivated and learned better. Now I think that as long as students’ moving in the class ispurposeful, the teacher still reflects a high level of class management. I myself changed myattitude toward the teacher’s moving about in the classroom. I used to think that teachers shouldstand in front of all the students who sit in rows and columns to make himself visible to allstudents. That is totally wrong and annoying at the same time. I discovered how annoying thiscould be when I taught 12 visually impaired girls sitting in a small classroom; I was deprived ofmoving about to monitor, encourage and help the students when necessary. Now I stronglybelieve that the teacher somehow should be near every student in the class. My concept about the importance of preparation was also changed because I was teachingvisually impaired students who could use Braille but I use the computer instead of Braille. It wasvery interesting to prepare materials for them that only them could read it. I learned that myteaching should be student-centered and that the students must know why they are doing aparticular activity. I became more convinced that technology applications in language learningare becoming very important particularly when teaching students with certain disabilities. Again as a school principal, I used to believe that teachers should stick to the school book,but now I have realized that motivated and successful teachers design their own materials toadapt to particular learners. At the beginning of 511, we were asked to attend Nile TESOL conference, and myconcept about continual teacher development was definitely changed. I now believe that I shouldseize every possible opportunity to add to my teaching performance. 16
  • 17. The CFC practice that I was involved in changed my idea about being criticized by mycolleagues. I now strongly believe that peer teaching and observation are essential to improveteaching quality. Other changes that occurred to me include my view about teaching grammarand about error correction. I now believe that grammar is better taught inductively and that not allerror should be corrected. Learning objectives should be heeded all the time regarding anyteaching decision made during my teaching. In conclusion, I can honestly say that my teaching performance, methods, and decisionshave witnessed a tremendous change because of the 511 course. 17
  • 18. Appendix A Salama’s Sample Lesson Plans Lesson plan 1Things to be observed: Teacher talking time and use of available facilities for blind learnersTuesday 23rd March 20107th periodAlNor Wa Alamal SchoolFirst secondaryUnit 13Lesson 2 SB page 82 + WB page 80GoalStudents will become familiar with some basic uses of both definite and indefinite articles.ObjectivesTerminal objectives  Students will produce at least 5 sentences in both written and spoken forms using the articles "a/n" and "the" correctly.  Students will be able to identify 7 basic rules for definite and indefinite articles and match them with example sentences.  Students will be able to tell the difference in meaning between definite and indefinite articles by examining 3 pairs of sentences that are identical in all words except in articles.Enabling objectives  Students will be able to revise what they have studied in the previous lesson and relate to the main grammar point discussed in this lesson, which is "articles".  Students will learn and practice using the definite article with inventions.  Students will learn and practice using the indefinite article with jobs.  Students will learn and practice using the indefinite article with things mentioned for the first time and the definite article with things already known through playing a guessing game.  Students will be able to notice different uses of articles in a listening context.  Students will be able to engage in real life conversations using articles. 18
  • 19. Materials and equipmentStudents bookWork-bookBraille typed sheetsComputer with assisting software for blind and visually impaired learnersSpeakersRealia such as fruit and eggSound filesSupplementary soft copies of exercises in Word filesProceduresWarm-up1. Remember inventions (2 minutes)Teacher reviews the students preferred inventions and draws their attention to the use of “the” beforeinventions.Example inventions: TV, Radio, Computer, Plane, Train, Car …etc.Activity 12. What noise is this? (6 minutes)Teacher plays some audio files and students guess what these noises represent. The teacher drawsattention to using “a/an” when we talk about one out of many.3. Just one job (2 minutes)Teacher then talks about relatives and friend’s jobs; he also asks students what jobs they like to do in thefuture. This is done to elicit the use of “a/an” before jobs and to also mean “one out of many”. 19
  • 20. Activity 24. Guessing game (5 mins)Teacher plays the guessing game with the students; the purpose here is to capitalize on the blindstudents’ other 4 senses (hearing, touching, smelling and tasting) and background cognitive schemata.T: I have some things my bag now and I want you to guess what they are. The first thing is a kind ofvegetable, I will cut into small pieces, you smell it and tell me what it is.S: An onion.T: Excellent. An onion, one out of many. “an” is used before this noun. Time for tasting , you will noteat the onion or drink its juice, don’t worry. It is fruit this time. You taste the juice and tell me what it is.S: Orange.T: Yes, it is the juice of an orange. Just one orange, an orange. One out of many. Do we know whichorange?S: No.T: We did not see the person who made it into juice. An orange, any orange. “an” comes beforeunknown things. Now something else; it is not a vegetable or fruit. Not a kind of fruity this time. It iswhite from outside and yellow from inside. Birds produce it. It can be easily broken. We can eat it boiledor fried. What is it?S: It is an egg.T: Excellent. (T explains more about “an” and draws students’ attention that all the previous three nounbegin with a vowel and that’s why we did not use “a” which will be used for the next one)Nowsomething else. Back to fruit. I want to tell you that my bag is very big to hold this thing. I want you totouch it and tell me what it is. This fruit is like a big ball, green from outside and red from inside. It isgood to eat in summer. We have to use the knife to cut it open. It has small black seeds inside too. Whatis it? 20
  • 21. S: A watermelon.T: Excellent. Which one of them is the biggest, smallest…..etcThen the teacher points out that the first time we talked about these things, we use “a/an” but once theyhave become know, we used “the”. We also use it before adjectives ending in “-est”The teacher can ask the students to count how many “the” do we have in each of the followingsentences: “The egg is the smallest thing.” “The watermelon is the biggest thing.”Teacher points what that the second “the” is used before superlative adjectives.An adjective can be simple such as “nice”, “big”, “easy” describing one person or thing. Fatima is a nice girl. This is a big class. This is an easy lesson. (Notice the use of “a/n” here.)An adjective that is used to compare, compare one thing or person to another is not a simple adjective, itis a comparative (from compare) adjective. Fatima is nicer than Fola. This class is a bigger than my class. This lesson is easy. (Notice the use of no article.)An adjective can be use to say that some one is super, super when we compare only one to many. Wecall this adjective superlative (from super) 21
  • 22. Fatima is the nicest girl here. This class is the biggest class in the school. This lesson is the easiest grammar lesson. (Notice the use of “the” here.)Activity 3Listen to Saleh from Saudi Arabia (7mins)Teacher plays the audio file and pauses whenever appropriate to check comprehension and point howa/an/the are used.More practiceExercise 1 page 82 (Read and discuss) (7 min)Teacher asks students to work in pairs, one reading the explanation and the other matches it with theappropriate example. Each pair or group answers one question and teacher elicits and/or providesappropriate feedback.Exercise 2 (5 min)Students read each pair of sentences and try to tell the difference in meaning between them. Each pair orgroup answers one question and teacher elicits and/or provides appropriate feedback Teacher motivatesstudents to express themselves.EvaluationExercise 3 (4 min) 22
  • 23. Students sit in pairs to choose the appropriate answer. Teacher monitors and gives feedback. Each pair orgroup answers one question and teacher elicits and/or provides appropriate feedback 1. a, the, the 2. the 3. a, a, the, the 4. the, theExercise 4 (6 min)All students are encouraged to participate in this discussion. The teacher can give a sample answer tohelp students know what they will say.Extra Practice and evaluationPractice “grammar challenge” sheetsHomeworkDepending on time, students are asked to do 1, 2 or exercises in their workbook page 80. Lesson Plan 2Lesson plan for Professor Phyllis WachobThings to be observed: Time and timing management + Use of Activities that engender Risk-takingThursday 6th May 20107th periodAlNor Wa Alamal School (Light and Hope School)First secondaryUnit 18Lesson 3 SB page 113GoalStudents will practice reading for identifying the main idea and specific details.ObjectivesTerminal objectives 23
  • 24.  Students will be able to skim and scan a reading passage to answer general questions based on a short reading passage.  Students will be able to answer questions related to who, what, when, where, how and why… based on a short reading passage.  Students will be able to identify the meaning of new words from context.Enabling objectives  Students will be able to use a mini-dictionary to identify word meanings.  Students will read to get the general meaning of a passage and improve their pronunciation at the same time.Materials and equipmentStudents bookBraille typed sheets and activitiesComputer with assisting software for the instructorSpeakersRealia such as a toy tortoiseSupplementary soft copies of exercises in Word files (For the instructor)ProceduresWarm-up1. Remember holidays (5 minutes)Organizing class into groupsQuickly discuss students’ reflection on previous lessons.Teacher talks about a strange holiday that he went on to introduce the word “adventure” and encouragesthe students to talk about similar experiences.Activity 1 (10 minutes) Pair or small group workStudents are given an exercise and the mini-dictionary to answer this exercise. They help each other toreach the correct answer. After reading the mini-dictionary, the teacher asks the students about otherwords they learned from the dictionary and what they could mean; this is done to prepare for the nextactivity. 24
  • 25. ActivityBefore browsing the mini-dictionary that includes 12 words, try filling in the following sentencesusing one of the words below. Then check if your answers are correct or not using this mini-dictionary.TortoiseSailingInstructor / TrainerDisabilitiesCoastClimate a. Alexandria is on the north…of Egypt. b. When I went to the zoo, I saw a big…. there. It was moving very slowly. c. The … in Egypt during winter is warm, and it sometimes rains. d. I love to go…when I am in Sharm El-Sheik. e. My driving ….teaches me how to drive my car safely. f. We are going to help children suffering from different … .DICTIONARY First Secondary Mini-Dictionary For Unit 18 A Dozen New Words Worth Learning1. AdventureAn unusual, exciting and dangerous activity such as a journey or experience, or the excitement producedby such an activityShe had some exciting adventures in Egypt.2. ClimateThe general weather conditions usually found in any placea hot/dry climate3. Coast 25
  • 26. The land next to or close to the seaWe spent a week by/on the coast (= by the sea) .4. Community The people living in one area or people who are considered as a unit because of their common interests,or nationalityHes well-known in the Egyptian community.5. ConservationThe protection of plants and animals, natural areas, and interesting and important structures andbuildings, especially from the damaging effects of human activitya conservation area6. DisabilityAn illness, injury or condition that makes it difficult for someone to do the things that other people doShe is deaf, but refuses to let her disability prevent her from doing what she wants to do.7. ExpeditionAn organized journeyWere going on a shopping expedition on Saturday.8. ExperienceSomething that happens to you that affects how you feelI had a bad experience at the dentists.9. Instructor / TrainerA person whose job is to teach people a practical skilla driving/ski/swimming instructor 26
  • 27. 10. RareNot common; very unusuala rare disease/species11. SailingThe sport or activity of using boats moving at the seaShe loves to go sailing.12. TortoiseAn animal with a thick, hard shell that it can move its head and legs into for protection. It eats plants,moves very slowly and sleeps during the winter.Activity 2 (4 minutes) Whole class work.Students move about to match the words and their translations. They are also asked to read theinformation in the dictionary about the word to confirm its correct translation. This activity is mainlydesigned to engender risk-taking.ActivityAfter browsing the mini-dictionary, match the word with its translation.Rare‫ﻣﻐﺎﻣﺮة‬Experience‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬Expedition‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬Conservation‫ﺑﻌﺜﺔ‬Community‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬Adventure 27
  • 28. ‫ﻧﺎدر‬Activity 3 Silent Reading 5 minutesStudents read the passage silently to answer the following questions:  Name the countries and cities mentioned in the passage? Passage Global Challenge Holidays Global Challenge will give you an adventure holiday – and you will give something to the community you join. Our expeditions last for a month. Our friendly instructors will train you before you leave and will help you all the time you are away. Global Challenge arranges expeditions to 30 countries. Here are two people’s experiences: James Hammond, from Australia, is in India. This is what he says about his experience: Before I came, I thought life in a small village with no television and a strange language would be difficult. But it hasn’t been difficult at all. We’ve helped in a home for children with disabilities. We’ve had invitations for meals with Indian facilities. Our instructor Michael has taken us for a day’s sailing on the Indian Ocean. Olivia Owen, from London, is in Egypt. This is what she says: The Mediterranean coast of Egypt is beautiful and has a wonderful climate. I’ve spent a lot of time here helping a tortoise conservation society. The Egyptian tortoise is one of the smallest and rarest tortoises in the world. Unfortunately people are building on many of the places where the tortoises usually live, so we are finding new , safe homes for them to live in.Activity 4 Intensive reading (10 minutes)Students take turns to read, the teacher asks questions to makes sure they understand the passage welland then answers the questions in exercise 3.Exercise 3 a. Are these holidays different from ordinary holidays? b. What happens before young people go on Global Challenge holidays? c. Why did James think living in the Indian village would be difficult? d. How does James help in the local community? e. Why does the Egyptian tortoise need help? f. What has Olivia done to help the tortoises?Activity 5 (Open speaking activity) Group work 28
  • 29. This activity has been added because students are tired at this time of the day and they need to dosomething interesting.Students choose a country a city or a place they like in their country or in their school , think about basicinformation related to it and gives a small speech to encourage other students to visit it.OrGuess where I went game.Students ask questions and a contestant answers to help them guess where she went.Questions could be like:Where is this country?What is it famous for?What can we see there?What is the capital?What language do people speak there?How can we go there?HomeworkExercise 4 , page 113 Lesson Plan 3GoalStudents will learn about agreement and disagreement expressions.ObjectivesBy the end of this lesson, students will be able to: Use agreement expressions in 5 sentences at least. Learn and practice some vocabulary related to inventions.MaterialsStudent book. 29
  • 30. ComputerAudio filesProceduresWarm-up (3min)Teacher starts saying he likes apples very much and invites students to sit in groups of three according totheir preferred fruit. Let’s say we will have the following groups: - the apple group - the banana group - the orange group - the grapes group - the strawberry groupWhile doing that, the teacher introduces agreement and disagreement expressions such as” I agree withyou, you are right, apples are the best fruit.” Or “I disagree with you, that is not right, bananas are not myfavorite fruit.” ...etc.Guess what the invention is (12 min)Teacher plays 10 audio files for different noises representing 10 inventions (car, clock, computer, phone,plane, radio, train, TV, typewriter, and vacuum cleaner) , asks them to write each invention down, andasks each group to rate them in order of their importance.Teacher invites students to read their lists and explains why each invention is important.Teacher then engages in a dialogue with one student and gets him to carry on the dialogue with anotherstudent and so on using the expressions “I agree with you.” Or “I disagree with you.”What life would be like without … (4 min) Teacher talks about what he has in his pocket , bag , class and home.Teacher asks what students have in their bags.Teacher tells students what life would be like without these inventions and gets the students to say” Iagree or disagree with you.”Example dialogue: 30
  • 31. T: Life would be more difficult without mobile phones.S: I agree.T: Computers made learning very slow.S: I disagree.ListeningFirst time listening (4 min)Teacher tells the students that they are going to listen to three people talking about important inventions. They need to find out what the inventions are and why they are chosen. They also compare these inventions with their own preferences.Second time listening (4min)This time they can listen to this file using an assisting software such as JAWS to read for them tomention what good and bad points each person in the conversation mentioned about his/herpreferred invention.ScriptInterviewer: Hello, everybody.All: Hi.Interviewer: Now you’ve seen the different inventions, Id like you to tell me which you think is the most important and give me your reasons. Then, can you also say something about the disadvantages of your choice? Magdi, let’s start with you.Magdi: OK. In my opinion, the most important invention of the last hundred years is the plane, because it has made the world a smaller place. People can travel to other countries in a very short time. For example, I can get on a plane at Cairo airport and be in London in about four hours. The disadvantage is that planes cause air and noise pollution and we have to do something about that soon.Interviewer: Thanks, Magdi. Nahla, what about you?Nahla: Mmm ... Im afraid I dont agree with Magdi. I think the most important invention of the last hundred years has been the telephone - and particularly the mobile phone. Just think about it. I can put a few numbers into my phone and talk to people anywhere in the world 31
  • 32. immediately. Or, if I havent got much time, I send a text message. In the past, you had to write letters and they took weeks to arrive in a foreign country. The only problem is the cost - international calls can be quite expensive.Interviewer: Thanks, Nahla. What do you think, Hussein?Hussein: Well, I agree with both Magdi and Nahla, but in my opinion the most important invention has been the radio. You just switch it on and you can get news from all over the world in different languages. Im an English teacher and I often listen to radio programmes in English.Interviewer: Are there any disadvantages to the radio?Hussein: Well, not many. It can sometimes be difficult to find a station. And when youve found the station, it s sometimes difficult to hear clearly unless you have an expensive radio.Interviewer: OK - thanks a lot for giving me your opinions.Discuss (5 min) Some sentences to discuss: 1- The television is better than the radio. 2- The computer wastes our time. 3- Air travel is very expensive. 4- The mobile phone saves our time. 5- The car causes a lot of pollution. Teacher reads through these sentences with the class, and then asks the students to take a minute or two to think about what they could say about each of the sentences. Teacher puts the students into pairs and asks them to take turns saying what they think about each sentence.Practice and Homework (12-15 min)Workbook page 79Students sit in pairs and do the exercises on this page. Teacher discusses the answers after each exercise. 32
  • 33. Exercise 1Teacher reads the listening script and asks the students to complete the sentencesScripta Air travel has made the world a smaller place.b You can fly from Cairo to London in about four hours.c You can send people text messages if you dont have much time.d Unfortunately, planes cause air and noise pollution.e It can be expensive to make international phone calls.f Hussein often listens to radio programmes in English.g Sometimes it can be difficult to find a radio station.Exercise 2Students sit in pairs and complete the missing prepositions:Answersa to (given); inb on; in; inc into; to; ind In; inc from; inExercise 3Students sit in pairs and discuss the possible answers.Answersb. You’re right.c. I don’t agree.d. In my opinion. / I don’t agree. 33
  • 34. Lesson Plan 4UNIT 14LESSON 4PAGE 88GoalStudents will develop their reading comprehension skills.ObjectivesBy the end of the lesson, students will be able Learn and practice vocabulary related to means of transportation. Learn and practice some antonyms. Develop their reading comprehension skills through a narrative text. To identify the main idea and specific details in a narrative text. Guess meaning of new words from context.Materials Student book Computer Speakers Assisting software for the instructor Audio files Some Braille typed cards and sheetsWarm-upMeans of transportation (in/on/by) 6 MINUTES a. The teacher asks the students about different means of transportation, about how people travel.Suggested answers:On foot, on a camel, on horseback, on a boat, on a ship, on a helicopter, on a motorbike, on a cart, in acarriage, in a taxi, in a tuktuk (rickshaw), by bus, by train, by car, by elephant, by airplane, by bike, byair, by sea, …etc. 34
  • 35. b. The teacher could get the students to use in, on and by before these means of transportation. (These words need to be typed in braille.) 1. Foot 2. Sea 3. Carriage 4. Camel 5. Air 6. Horseback 7. A donkey 8. Bike 9. A motorbike 10. A helicopter 11. Airplane 12. Car 13. A taxi 14. Train 15. Elephant 16. A ship 17. A tuktukOpposites 4 MINUTES (These words need to be typed in braille.) 1. Rich 2. poor 3. Succeed 4. Fail 5. Win 35
  • 36. 6. lose 7. Leave 8. return – reach 9. Catch the train 10. miss the train 11. Lucky 12. unlucky 13. Fortunate 14. unfortunate 15. Fortunately 16. unfortunately 17. Start 18. finish 19. Late 20. earlyVocabulary presentation 8 MINUTESArgumentListen to cats arguing arguing aloud with one famous criminal 36
  • 37. kidnap = someone who helps a wife at homeRailway = it is the place where the train movesRescue = to save from dangerJourney = travel from one place to anotherFuel = the liquid material used by cars and buses to moveArrest = catch by the policeDiscover = find out something for the first timeVocabulary game 8 MINUTESMatch the word card with the definition card (braille typed using diffferent papewr size)ARGUMENTa disagreementCRIMINALsomeone who commits a crime such as a thief or a murdererKIDNAPfor a criminal to take a person away in order to ask for money before making him or her freeRAILWAYthe metal tracks on which trains runRESCUEto help someone or something out of a dangerous, harmful situationJOURNEYtravelling from one place to anotherFUELa material which is used to give heat or power, usually by being burned 37
  • 38. ARRESTIf the police arrest someone, they take them away to ask them about something wrong they may havedoneDISCOVERto find information, a place or an object, for the first timeListening objective for silent reading (10 MINUTES)(THESE Three QUESTIONS ARE TO BE TYPED IN BRAILE)What happened to Passepartout in New York?Did Fogg succeed in traveling around the world in 80 days?What happened at the end of the story?Intensive reading (10 MINUTES) Around the World in Eighty Days The story begins in a London club on October 2, 1872. Phileas Fogg, a rich man, has an argument with a friend about how long it would take him to travel round the world. Foggs friend does not believe that Fogg can finish the journey in 80 days. If he succeeds, Fogg will win £20,000. Fogg leaves London, with his servant Passepartout, at 8.45 pm on October 2, They will have to return at the same time on December 21. After seven days, they reach Suez, where they meet a man called Fix. Fix is a policeman who thinks that Fogg is the criminal he is looking for. The three men travel to Bombay by ship, then to Calcutta by train. Unfortunately, the railway line is not finished and they need to travel part of the way by elephant. On their journey, they save a young woman from death. She is called Aouda and she goes with them on their journey. From Calcutta, they travel by ship to Hong Kong, then across the Pacific to San Francisco. In San Francisco, Fogg, Passepartout, Fix and Aouda catch the train to New York, but during this journey Passepartout is kidnapped. Fogg rescues his servant, but they get to New York late and miss their boat to Liverpool. After fuel problems, the next boat finally reaches Britain. 38
  • 39. As soon as they arrive, Fix arrests Fogg. He quickly realises that Fogg is not the real criminal, but by now they have missed their train to London, lost a day and so lost the money. However, Passepartout discovers that it is December 20, not December 21. Because they had travelled east, they had crossed the International Date Line and saved a day! Fogg and Passepartout hurry to the club and arrive in time to win the £20,000.(4 students read the main 4 paragraphs) and the teacher explains.Book exercises 3 and 4 (20 minutes) Exercise 3 Read and order Read the story and put these events in the order they happened. a. Arrest of Fogg by Fix b. Arrival in Suez c. Disagreement between Fogg and his friend d. Fogg and Passepartout leave London e. Journey by elephant f. Journey from Liverpool to London g. Kidnap of Passepartout h. Passepartout finds out the date i. Rescue of young woman Answers a. 7 i. 5 b. 3 c. 1 d. 2 e. 4 f. 9 g. 6 h. 8 39
  • 40. Exercise 4Read and answerRead again and answer these questions.a What does Fogg catch in San Francisco?b What do they miss in New York?c What two things do they think they lose in Britain?Answersa. trainb. a boat to Liverpoolc. a day and the money 40
  • 41. Appendix B The Presentation SlidesRaafat M Gabriel & Salama M Salama American University in Cairo 41
  • 42. Outline• What was done before teaching VI learners• What was done during this experience• What was done after this experience How the story started• 511TeachingPracticum– Choosing aschool forvisuallyimpairedlearners 42
  • 43. Challenges and howwe met them• How to impart language skills to visually impaired learners/ how to import EFL and positively impact VI learners• How to apply or at least just try• How to provide them with what, how and why• How to teach them to learn and keep an eye – Salama will reflect and recollect – We will read and select.. (Salama underlining what is perceived to be important).. – Salama will observe other teachers.. Results of reading• No sight , no problem (Guinan, 1997; Snyder, 1971) – No one asks : Do you see English?• Explore and accommodate, never imitate / Be creative (Kashdan & Barnes, n.d.)• Take advantage of what VILs can do and focus not on what they cannot (MIUSA, n.d.)• Study and teach the place in addition to equipping it; familiarity is crucial for facilitation of learning (Schreiner, n.d.) 43
  • 44. Results of reading• Move them. If you want them to love English & improve, make them meaningfully move (Schreiner, n.d.)• Use Braille AND /or assisting technology… learn and teach them (Schreiner, n.d.)• Develop awareness of SLA theories/ LAD accessibility at early years/ Cognitive maturity and schemata (L1) later on (AFB, n.d.)• Cross-training. Content and ESL teaching proficiency are key but not enough. Credibility is crucial. You are a VIP. (Mitchel, 2007) Results of reading• Spell out, speak up… Nothing is taken for granted.• Simulate and do what visual learners cannot visualize• Plan , prepare, observe, be observed, reflect… grow (AFB, n.d.) 44
  • 45. Observing Other Teachers• Ten hours of classobservation• Three differentteachers• Pluses (social |& affective) • Good rapport • Sense of Humor Observing Other Teachers• Minuses • LOTS , not HOTS / Easy tasks with no cognitive challenge • Unused technology • No use of real objects • Depending heavily on listening/ TTMTTT • Static lifeless classes • Excessive use of L1 • No pair work/ no group work • Inappropriate feedback styles (error correction) 45
  • 46. Sample activities Activity 1 What noise is this? (6 minutes) Learning objectives Use vocabulary related to inventions Use a/an articles Procedures Teacher plays some audio files and students guess what these noises represent. The teacher draws attention to using “a/an” when we talk about one out of many. Comments Using listening / computer/ praise The activity was actually extended to learn “expressing agreement and maximize learners’ talking time. Sample activitiesActivity 2Guessing Game (5 minutes)Learning objectives `Use vocabulary related to foodAsk and answer questionsUse a/an articlesProceduresA volunteer holds a bag, the teacher hides something inside the bag andthe volunteer silently identifies it. Other students ask the volunteerquestions to find out the answer.CommentsUsing real objects / Accessing other sensesMaximizing learner ‘s talking time.Collaboration / interesting / praise.. 46
  • 47. Sample activitiesMini-Activity 3Pre-reading vocabulary presentation (5 minutes)Learning objectivesUse vocabulary related to violenceProceduresPlay the videoCommentsUsing background and cognitive maturity/ L1backgroundMinimizing use of L1 in introducing abstract vocabulary Sample activitiesActivity 4Move and match (5 minutes)Learning objectivesUse vocabulary related to violenceProceduresHand out the vocabulary and definitioncardsEach learner finds her pairCommentsServing kinesthetic learnersInterestPraiseTTT 47
  • 48. What happened after: Feedback & Recommendations- Professor’s feedback- Mentor’s feedback- CFC (Critical Friendship Circles)- Self reflection- Students’ feedback - Recommendations based on various feedback inputs Feedback Summary- Apart from positive remarks related tousing English, raising motivation, using allpossible senses and backgroundknowledge, utilizing technology, pair-workand group-work tasks,…etc., I needed tofocus on things to work on and these are: - Activity timing and time management - Teacher talking time 48
  • 49. ‫‪Students’ Feedback‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻷول:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: إﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟطرق اﻟرﺷﯾﻘﺔ واﻟﻣﻧوﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷرح اﻟﺗﻲ ﻧﻔﺿﻠﮭﺎ ﻧﺣن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷرح ﺑﺗﻌدد‬ ‫إﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﻣﺗﻧوﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷرح.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﺑدون ﻣﺟﺎﻣﻠﺔ وﺑﻣﺎ ﯾرﺿﻲ ﷲ ﻋز وﺟل ﻻ أﺟد أﯾﺔ ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ أو ﻋﯾب ﺳواء ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷرح أو اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ.‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: إﺗﺑﺎع اﻟطرق اﻟﻐﯾر ﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ وإﺳﺗﺧدام اﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزﯾﺔ.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﺑﻣﻧﺗﮭﻰ اﻟﺿﻣﯾر ﻻ أﺟد وﷲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﺧص أو اﻟﺷرح ﻣﻊ اﻟﺗوﻓﯾق.‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺛﺎﻟث:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: أﻋﺟﺑﺗﻧﻲ ﺣﺻﺔ ﯾوم اﻷرﺑﻌﺎء وأﻋﺟﺑﻧﻲ ﻧظﺎم اﻟﺳﻣﻊ ﻣن اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﻓﻲ أن ﻧﺳﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺷﻲء وﻧﻘول ﻣﺎ ھو ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺟﻠش.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: وﻟم أﺟد ﺷﻲءا ﻟم ﯾﻌﺟﺑﻧﻲ.‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟراﺑﻊ:اﻟﺳﻼم ﻋﻠﯾﻛم ورﺣﻣﺔ ﷲ وﺑرﻛﺎﺗﮫ اﻟﺗﺣﯾﺔ طﯾﺑﺔ ﯾﺎ ﻣﺳﺗر ﺳﻼﻣﺔ وﺑﻌد:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: طرﯾﻘﺔ ﺷرح ﻏﯾر ﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﺣدث ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌظم اﻟﺣﺻص ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزﯾﺔ ﻷن ھذا‬ ‫ﯾﻌودﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﺳن اﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻟدﯾﻧﺎ.‬‫‪Pluses: Diversity of teaching‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﻻ أﺟد أي ﻋﯾب ﺳواء ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷرح أو اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ.‬‫‪Methods, Using English and‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺧﺎﻣس:‬‫.‪Technology‬‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: اﻟﺷرح ﺑﺑﺳﺎطﺔ واﻟﺗﺣدث ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزﯾﺔ.‬‫.‪Minuses: Nothing‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﻻ أﻛﺗﺷف ﻋﯾب ﻟﺣد وﻗﺗﻧﺎ ھذا.‬ ‫‪Students’ Feedback‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺳﺎدس:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: أن اﻟﺷﻐل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺣﺎﺳب اﻵﻟﻲ.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﻗﻠﺔ ﻋدد اﻟﺣﺻص.‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻊ:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: طرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺷرح اﻟرﺷﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﻣﺑﺳطﺔ اﻟﻠذﯾذة اﻟﺗﻲ أﻓﺿﻠﮭﺎ أﻧﺎ.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾرﺿﻲ ﷲ وﺿﻣﯾري ﻟم أﺟد ﻋﯾب ﺳواء ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ أو اﻟﺷرح.‬‫‪Pluses: Simple preferred‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺛﺎﻣن:‬‫‪language , using English and‬‬ ‫أوﻻ: أن اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﺳﺎﺋدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺻﺔ ھﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزي.‬‫‪technology, encouraging‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: أن اﻟﺣﺻص ﻗﻠﯾﻠﺔ.‬‫.‪participation, type of tasks‬‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﺗﺎﺳﻊ:‬‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: ﺗﺷﺟﯾﻊ اﻟطﻠﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﺷﺗراﻛﮭم ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺻﺔ. ‪Minuses: Having few classes‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: ﻻ أﺟد ﻋﯾب.‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾق اﻟﻌﺎﺷر:‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﻣﯾزة: اﻟذي أﻋﺟﺑﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻘﺳﯾم أﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت واﻷظرف اﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺔ وﻋﻛﺳﮭﺎ أو‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻧﺎھﺎ وﺳﻣﺎع ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﺧﺗرﻋﺎت اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﻣﯾﯾز ﺑﯾﻧﮭﺎ.‬ ‫وﺳﻣﺎع ﺑﻌض اﻷﺻوات ﻣﺛل اﻟﻣﺟرم واﻟﺳﻔﯾﻧﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺧطﻔت ﺑﻣﺷﺎھد ﻣﺿﺣﻛﺔ وﻣﻌروﻓﺔ ﻟﻧﺎ‬ ‫وأﯾﺿﺎ اﻟﺷرح.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﯾب: وﻟﻛن ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﻋﯾب ﺑﻌﯾﻧﮫ أﺗﺣدث ﻋﻧﮫ وﻟﻛن ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ أﺧذﻧﺎ اﻟﻌﺻﺎﺋر وﻣﯾزﻧﺎ ﺑﯾﻧﮭم‬ ‫ﻟﯾس ھذا ﻋﯾﺑﺎ وﻟﻛﻧﮭﺎ أﻗل إﺳﺗﻣﺗﺎﻋﺎ ﻣن اﻷﺷﯾﺎء اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ.‬ ‫94‬
  • 50. Recommendations - Using diagnostic tests to pace activities - Avoiding overcorrection - Using interesting activities near the end of late classes - Planning how to monitor ss work - Creating more networking to maximize learning time and learner autonomy Wrap-up• What was done before teaching VI learners (reading andobservation)• What was done during this experience (Sample activities)• What was done after this experience (Feedback &Recommendations 50
  • 51. Raafat M Gabriel Salama M Salama Salama_mhd@aucegypt.eduAmerican University in Cairo American University in Cairo 51