Some genres of applied drama & theatre

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Jouni Piekkari (ed.)

Centre for extension studies,
University of Turku

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Some genres of applied drama & theatre

  1. 2. Some Genres of Applied Drama & Theatre Jouni Piekkari, Finland
  2. 3. Jungle of concepts ! different people different intentions
  3. 4. What is drama? <ul><li>Drama is collective activity, where people create and share meanings </li></ul><ul><li>by imitating stylistically or realistically the phenomena of the real or supranormal life </li></ul><ul><li>Drama does not need special space, costume or separate audience </li></ul><ul><li>HOMO LUDENS - serious playfullness of drama </li></ul>
  4. 5. What is Theatre? <ul><li>Theatre is a composition of dramatic elements or episodes, </li></ul><ul><li>meant to be performed </li></ul><ul><li>for a specific audience </li></ul><ul><li>in a specific space carrying dramatic meanings through visual elements </li></ul>
  5. 6. What is applied drama & theatre? <ul><li>in the western world theatre is often seen as a value in itself: it is an entertaining and aesthetic art form </li></ul><ul><li>In the West theatre does not need to have any other purposes </li></ul><ul><li>in the rest of the world theatre has usually served other functions: religious, ritual, political, pedagogical, healing, recording history… </li></ul><ul><li>lately, in the West, too theatre and drama have been more widely applied for other purposes: </li></ul>as a tool for healing , politics , learning , creating communities...
  6. 7. Learning
  7. 8. Drama in Education (DIE) <ul><li>drama as education about theatre art </li></ul><ul><li>drama as a tool for learning other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>drama for integration of subjects : holistic & constructivist approach </li></ul><ul><li>drama for human growth </li></ul>
  8. 9. Contemporary paradigma? ” Drama education for me is more a ”space” for creating culture than a ”space” for educating or teaching for something that according to the current norms and general thinking in the society is considered as right and important -- [Drama education] is not teaching in a traditional sense, rather it is creating different viewpoints and alternative possibilities - re-defining the future” Dr. Hannu Heikkinen, University of Jyväskylä
  9. 10. Learning classical play texts and theatre styles with a theatre group Photos: Titi Lillqvist
  10. 11. Theatre in Education (TIE) <ul><li>research </li></ul><ul><li>scripted plays </li></ul><ul><li>clearly focused themes </li></ul><ul><li>on any school subject (art history, physics…) </li></ul><ul><li>integrated into the official curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>professional, travelling theatre groups </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes interactive parts </li></ul><ul><li>workshops after and/or before the performance </li></ul><ul><li>study materials </li></ul>
  11. 12. Exploring
  12. 13. Devised Theatre <ul><li>theatre without a play script </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative process (creación colectiva) </li></ul><ul><li>scripting in a group </li></ul><ul><li>” scripting on the feet” - improvisation, movement, interviews, installation, photo… </li></ul><ul><li>non-linear and non-narrative dramaturgies </li></ul><ul><li>themes </li></ul>
  13. 14. Polytechnic of Seinäjoki students constructing their understanding on technology: fight between the sexes Photo: Jussi Kareinen
  14. 16. Sociodrama <ul><li>explores social phenomena for understanding: </li></ul><ul><li>social problems and interactions, news, political events, trends... </li></ul><ul><li>distancing from the experiences of individuals (vs. psychodrama) </li></ul><ul><li>completely improvised </li></ul><ul><li>created by Jacob L. Moreno </li></ul>
  15. 17. Healing
  16. 18. Psychodrama <ul><li>created by Jacob L. Moreno in the 20´s </li></ul><ul><li>drama for therapy </li></ul><ul><li>concentrates on the problems or traumatic experiences of an individual </li></ul><ul><li>completely improvised - ”here and now” </li></ul><ul><li>training in therapy work necessary </li></ul><ul><li>long training </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>” Sharing of everyday life experiences is healthy and healing” </li></ul><ul><li>improvised theatre: a group acts elements of the stories of the audience </li></ul><ul><li>can be done also as a workshop without an audience - ”easy-for-everyone” techniques </li></ul><ul><li>inspiration from socio- and psychodrama </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Fox, USA </li></ul>Play-back Theatre
  18. 20. Drama therapy <ul><li>emphasis on ”now” and the ”future” instead of childhood traumas </li></ul><ul><li>individual focus: emotional empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>distancing: use of myths, stories, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>allegories to the own life experiences of the patients </li></ul><ul><li>usually workshop, sometimes rehearsed performances </li></ul><ul><li>more theatricality </li></ul>
  19. 21. Hospital Clownery <ul><li>” laughing is essential for the well-being of a human being” </li></ul><ul><li>Laughter is proved to have positive physical and </li></ul><ul><li>mental health effects </li></ul><ul><li>paradoxically: hospitals are often </li></ul><ul><li>sad and lonely places for children </li></ul><ul><li>Patch Adams is the founder </li></ul><ul><li>for hospital clownery and </li></ul><ul><li>Gesundheit Institute </li></ul><ul><li>of alternative health in USA </li></ul>Marco Ferreira (Portugal) as a clown in Drama Way workshop in Tallin, Estonia
  20. 22. Participating and empowering
  21. 23. Theatre for Development Photo: Idalotta Backman
  22. 24. <ul><li>theatre as a tool for participatory development </li></ul><ul><li>method of research </li></ul><ul><li>dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>forum for solving conflicts and problems </li></ul><ul><li>finding concrete solutions </li></ul><ul><li>field research </li></ul><ul><li>folk media - local forms of expression </li></ul><ul><li>tool for illiterate people to express and discuss </li></ul>
  23. 25. MASUZYO/ AFRICAN DIRECTIONS Lusaka, Zambia Photo: Idalotta Backman
  24. 27. Theatre for Awareness Natya Chetana, Orissa, India Photo: Tarja Ervasti
  25. 28. <ul><li>travelling theatre </li></ul><ul><li>by bicycle from village to village </li></ul><ul><li>provoking discussion and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>co-operation with other NGO`s </li></ul><ul><li>in link with other campaigns for justice </li></ul><ul><li>talking to politicians </li></ul>Cuttack PURI Konark
  26. 29. Theatre of the Oppressed
  27. 31. Pamodzi Zambian-Finnish experiments of Theatre-for-Development in Finland, 1994 photos: Mikael Rönkkö
  28. 32. Other forms of Theatre of the Oppressed... <ul><li>invisible theatre </li></ul><ul><li>image theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Rainbow of Desire - drama for therapy </li></ul><ul><li>legislative theatre - drama for making new laws & descisions </li></ul>
  29. 33. Building communities
  30. 34. Drama & ritual Photo: Leena Jokinen
  31. 35. ” New kind of communities need new kind of rituals: … for healing... ...marking cycles of life... ...for integration... ...for celebration… ...for purification… ...for empowerment… ...for creating harmony… ...for making visible… ...for understanding ...what is important to us.” Why rituals?
  32. 36. Celebratory drama
  33. 37. <ul><li>building local identity </li></ul><ul><li>empowerment through the strengths: </li></ul><ul><li>creating with hands, bodies & hearts </li></ul><ul><li>use of carnevalistic elements: masks, processions, imaginary spaces, music </li></ul><ul><li>local traditions </li></ul><ul><li>less ”intellectual” - more intuitive </li></ul>What can we be proud of? Photo: Jussi Kareinen
  34. 38. Sampocak – Finnish myths and Balinese body rhythm workshop in Keuruu, Finland
  35. 39. S.Cucufate´96 project in Alentejo, Portugal Directed by Luis Cruz Photo: Paulo Chaves
  36. 40. Live Action Role Play (LARP) <ul><li>genuine young people´s movement in the 90´s </li></ul><ul><li>positive escapism from the reality to the imaginary worlds: future, past, mythology… </li></ul><ul><li>A frame story created by the game leader(s) </li></ul><ul><li>each participant assumes a role and acts it throughout an improvised role play </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes can take several days </li></ul><ul><li>often in the nature, castles, other interesting spaces </li></ul><ul><li>virtual sharing </li></ul>
  37. 42. More info & links: www.tkk.utu.fi/dramaway

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