Islam Empires


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Islam Empires

  1. 1. Islamic Empires<br />
  2. 2. Islam – remember from the last unit?<br />“submission to God’s will”<br />Muhammad is founder (c. 570 - 632 AD)<br />monotheistic, worship Allah<br />all are equal, despite race, color, socio-economic status (yes, women, too)<br />Quran (Koran) is the holy book<br />Mecca<br />
  3. 3. Five Pillars<br />belief in Allah and his prophet Muhammad.<br />daily prayer - 5 times <br />pay alms <br />observe Ramadan (including fasting)<br />pilgrimage to Mecca - hajj<br />
  4. 4. Islam Split: Sunni or Shi’ite (shee-ite?<br />Sunni<br />Majority of Islam<br />based on merit system<br />caliph is successor<br />Shi’ite<br />cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed, Ali starts this group<br />Imam <br />
  5. 5. Differences?<br />A lot of variations - especially as African, Asian and others adopted and mixed with their own.<br />tolerance for other religions for a period (whereas Christians were killing each other over minor differences, especially in the Middle Ages)<br />
  6. 6. A few more things . . . <br />No idolatry, no images<br />mosques - no images of people, animals<br />no gambling, pork, alcohol<br />women isolated<br />The Black Stone <br />
  7. 7. The Black Stone<br />
  8. 8. Islamic Art<br />
  9. 9. Islamic Art 1<br />tessellations<br />symbolize infinity<br />Alhambra in Spain (Moorish palace) inspired M.C. Escher<br />
  10. 10. Islamic Art 2<br />complex star polygons<br />symbolism: abstract picture of the universe<br />
  11. 11. Islamic Art 3<br />linear repeat patterns<br />border tessellations (to keep from going to infinity)<br />symbolize rhythm and time<br />
  12. 12. Islamic Art 4<br />arabesques - stylized vegetation<br />symbolize organic earth<br />
  13. 13. Islamic Art 5<br />calligraphy<br />shows word of God - most important<br />
  14. 14. Which elements of Islamic Art can you identify in these?<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Arab Empire<br />Islam united Arabs - empire began to expand (650 CE) into Persia and Turkey<br />not forced to convert<br />Expand to north Africa - Berbers<br />then to Spain (Moors)<br />by 725 CE, most of Spain is Muslim<br />Detail of Islamic Architecture at Alhambra in Spain<br />
  18. 18. Arab Empire (in green)<br />
  19. 19. Arab Empire (cont)<br />Turks pressure Byzantine Empire (1071 CE)<br />request for help from Europe<br />lead to the Crusades<br />1258 - Mongols sack Baghdad (lead by Genghis Khan)<br />Genghis Khan<br />
  20. 20. Ottoman Empire<br />1520 - 1604<br />1520 Suleyman the Magnificent, Ottoman Sultan <br />harem - sultan’s private residence<br />cannon, muskets, infantry<br />Took Constantinople (now Istanbul) and to Europe<br />minarets<br />
  21. 21. Ottoman Empire at height<br />
  22. 22. SafavidEmpire: 1501 - 1723<br />Persia<br />shah is in charge<br />patron of arts, Isfahan<br />silk, Persian carpets<br />Shi’ite Empire<br />
  23. 23. MughalEmpire: India, 1504-1757<br />tolerant, allowed Hinduism<br />Had gunpowder, artillery for warfare (made them powerful)<br />Founder: descendant of Genghis Khan<br />TajMahal built by Shah Jahan<br />1757 - sold India to British<br />Hindu/Muslim conflicts despite tolerance<br />Paintings - miniatures<br />
  24. 24. Mughal Empire<br />
  25. 25. Some Contributions<br />math - the number zero (brought from India)<br />algebra developed <br />sailing technology, maps<br />Arabic - language important - Quran and poetry<br />irrigation canals, cisterns<br />tiles, metalwork, carpets<br />foods<br />architecture<br />
  26. 26. To think about . . . <br />Modern-day negative stereotypes: Muslim terrorist, Arab terrorists, Muslim/Arab are the same (they are not), kidnap western women, Arab as uncivilized or barbaric. Remember, stereotypes are untrue characteristics. <br />How does the media represent Arabs/Muslims? What kinds of stories are reported? <br />Foods - oranges, figs, cloves, ginger, pepper, saffron, coffee, barley, limes, lemons, etc. <br />
  27. 27. Bibliography<br />An Introduction to the Humanities<br />AWAIR<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
  28. 28. Bibliography (cont)<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
  29. 29. Bibliography (cont)<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />