Islam Empires
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Islam Empires

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Islam Empires Islam Empires Presentation Transcript

  • Islamic Empires
  • Islam – remember from the last unit?
    “submission to God’s will”
    Muhammad is founder (c. 570 - 632 AD)
    monotheistic, worship Allah
    all are equal, despite race, color, socio-economic status (yes, women, too)
    Quran (Koran) is the holy book
    Mecca
  • Five Pillars
    belief in Allah and his prophet Muhammad.
    daily prayer - 5 times
    pay alms
    observe Ramadan (including fasting)
    pilgrimage to Mecca - hajj
  • Islam Split: Sunni or Shi’ite (shee-ite?
    Sunni
    Majority of Islam
    based on merit system
    caliph is successor
    Shi’ite
    cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed, Ali starts this group
    Imam
  • Differences?
    A lot of variations - especially as African, Asian and others adopted and mixed with their own.
    tolerance for other religions for a period (whereas Christians were killing each other over minor differences, especially in the Middle Ages)
  • A few more things . . .
    No idolatry, no images
    mosques - no images of people, animals
    no gambling, pork, alcohol
    women isolated
    The Black Stone
  • The Black Stone
  • Islamic Art
  • Islamic Art 1
    tessellations
    symbolize infinity
    Alhambra in Spain (Moorish palace) inspired M.C. Escher
  • Islamic Art 2
    complex star polygons
    symbolism: abstract picture of the universe
  • Islamic Art 3
    linear repeat patterns
    border tessellations (to keep from going to infinity)
    symbolize rhythm and time
  • Islamic Art 4
    arabesques - stylized vegetation
    symbolize organic earth
  • Islamic Art 5
    calligraphy
    shows word of God - most important
  • Which elements of Islamic Art can you identify in these?
  • Arab Empire
    Islam united Arabs - empire began to expand (650 CE) into Persia and Turkey
    not forced to convert
    Expand to north Africa - Berbers
    then to Spain (Moors)
    by 725 CE, most of Spain is Muslim
    Detail of Islamic Architecture at Alhambra in Spain
  • Arab Empire (in green)
  • Arab Empire (cont)
    Turks pressure Byzantine Empire (1071 CE)
    request for help from Europe
    lead to the Crusades
    1258 - Mongols sack Baghdad (lead by Genghis Khan)
    Genghis Khan
  • Ottoman Empire
    1520 - 1604
    1520 Suleyman the Magnificent, Ottoman Sultan
    harem - sultan’s private residence
    cannon, muskets, infantry
    Took Constantinople (now Istanbul) and to Europe
    minarets
  • Ottoman Empire at height
  • SafavidEmpire: 1501 - 1723
    Persia
    shah is in charge
    patron of arts, Isfahan
    silk, Persian carpets
    Shi’ite Empire
  • MughalEmpire: India, 1504-1757
    tolerant, allowed Hinduism
    Had gunpowder, artillery for warfare (made them powerful)
    Founder: descendant of Genghis Khan
    TajMahal built by Shah Jahan
    1757 - sold India to British
    Hindu/Muslim conflicts despite tolerance
    Paintings - miniatures
  • Mughal Empire
  • Some Contributions
    math - the number zero (brought from India)
    algebra developed
    sailing technology, maps
    Arabic - language important - Quran and poetry
    irrigation canals, cisterns
    tiles, metalwork, carpets
    foods
    architecture
  • To think about . . .
    Modern-day negative stereotypes: Muslim terrorist, Arab terrorists, Muslim/Arab are the same (they are not), kidnap western women, Arab as uncivilized or barbaric. Remember, stereotypes are untrue characteristics.
    How does the media represent Arabs/Muslims? What kinds of stories are reported?
    Foods - oranges, figs, cloves, ginger, pepper, saffron, coffee, barley, limes, lemons, etc.
  • Bibliography
    An Introduction to the Humanities
    AWAIR
    www.islamicity.org/Culture/Calligraphy/Calig3.htm
    philae.sas.upenn.edu/Arabic/Arab1.gif
    philae.sas.upenn.edu/Arabic/Arab19.gif
    www.famu.edu/cas/histpol/eidahl/woh1012/Images/HammurabiCode.jpg
    dar-us-salam.com/68pillars-islam.htm
    search.corbis.com/default.asp?i=10134279&vID=1&rID=101
    www.islamtz.org/
    www.eyewire.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/View.woa/wa/viewProduct?cid=2&product=46594
  • Bibliography (cont)
    www.forum.swarthmore.edu/algebra/alg.lessons.html
    www.islam.org/culture/MOSQUES/Makkah/SSPI.htm
    www.burleyms.demon.co.uk/Ramadan.html
    www.allwall.com/asp/sp-asp/_/NV--1_4_10/PD--10002070/SZ--3/1.asp
    www.exploreturkey.com/pic_htms/toist088.htm
    www.abc-overseas.com/
    www.rugreview.com/orr.htm
    sakkal.com/instrctn/Kufi01.html
    www.dnai.com/~gui/awairproductinfo.html
    www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO6_Shia.html
  • Bibliography (cont)
    csis.pace.edu/~cs552/wagenberg/Mughal_map.html
    novaonline.nv.cc.va.us/eli/evans/HIS111/map.html
    history.adm.binghamton.edu/hist130/maps/ottoman.htm
    www.ucalgary.ca/HIST/tutor/islam/empires/safavid/abbas.html
    edweb.cnidr.org/india/mughals.html
    www.la-soccer.com/
    www.studentambassadors.org/explore/china.htm
    www.metmuseum.org/collections/department.asp?dep=14
    www.aicpmultimedia.org/images/islamic_pictures/sayings-2/supplication.jpg
    www.aicpmultimedia.org/images/islamic_pictures/sayings-3/aya-2.jpg