What Should You Know What were some characteristics of the Koreas? U.S. Response…what did they do? How did they get help? What was the Korean War like? How did it progress? What was/is unusual about how the Korean War ended?
North Korea Soviet-Influence Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Communist Kim Il Sung Reunify under communism South Korea U.S. -Influence Republic of Korea Democratic Syngman Rhee Reunify under Democracy
The War Begins June 25th, 1950 – more than 100,000 North Korean troops invaded the South in an effort to force reunification. This invasion caught the world by surprise U.S. had been withdrawing troops Truman believed that Korea was where the U.S. needed to make a stand against communism Inaction could signal other countries that the U.S. was unwilling to help defend freedom “We’ll have a dozen Koreas soon if we don’t take a firm stand.” – Dwight Eisenhower
The War Begins Within days of the invasion, Seoul was captured Truman ordered Navy and Air Force to support the South Koreans United Nations involvement Security Council was asked to approve the use of force. Security Council votes approval without Soviets present Truman orders U.S. ground troops into action. – never declared war. U.N. Police Action – 15 nations, 40,000 troops under command of McArthur
260,000 Chinese troops enter fight Stalemate 1 year 80,000 Americans wounded, 14,000 dead Other countries suffered too U.N offensive until November 1950 October U.N. advance 70,000 U.N Troops Land @ Inchon Chinese advance 130 mile line defending Pusan
Unsuccessful Peace Summer of 1951 – peace talks started Could not agree on border Summer and Fall - sides continued to strengthen positions and occasionally fight – many casualties Fall of 1951 – disagreements over return of prisoners Continued this way in 1952 Finally, in July 1953 – no Treaty, but an armistice
From 1950-1953 Casualties: U.S. – 37K U.N. – 60K Communists – 2 Million Korean Civilians – 3 Million