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03 iq and immigration

03 iq and immigration






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    03 iq and immigration 03 iq and immigration Presentation Transcript

    • IQ Testing and Immigration
    • IQ Tests, SAT, ACT…
      Ingrained in American culture
      Measure and then give opportunities
      IQ was first developed in the Eugenics era
    • History of IQ Testing
      Alfred Binet in 1905 in France
      How well students will do in elementary school – tips for teachers
      Long list of task for students between 3-12
      Placed an age on each task for what they thought the youngest age a child could complete task
      Scale that measured ability at that point in their life
    • History of IQ Testing
      Binet’s warning
      Thinkers of his time believed “that an individual’s intelligence is a fixed quantity, a quantity that cannot be increased. We must protest and react against this brutal pessimism…it is founded upon nothing”
      Henry Goddard from U.S. thought differently
    • Henry Goddard
      Superintendent of a lab at a school for the feebleminded in New Jersey
      Goddard translates test and gives it to students at his school
      Saw this test as an easy way to measure and identify the “feebleminded”
      Believed Binet’s test produced reliable results that indicated a permanent intelligence
    • Henry Goddard
      Develops IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
      Took the mental age reached by Binet’s test and divided by chronological age (x100)
      100 represents mental age = age
      0-25 – Idiots
      26-54 – Imbeciles
      55 – 75 – morons
    • Goddard’s Study
      Goddard takes his test to Ellis Island in 1913
      “pass by the obviously normal” immigrant and choose individuals from the great mass of “average immigrants.”
      35 Jews, 22 Hungarians, 50 Italians, and 45 Russians.
      83%, 80%, 79%, 87%
      Tremendous uproar and debate over results and application
    • Stanford -Binet
      As debates raged on, Lewis Terman creates a new version that will come to be known as the Stanford-Binet test.
      A 5th version of this test is still used in IQ testing today.
      A version of Stanford-Binet was used in 1917 to test WWI American soldiers to determine ability to become officers or if they were unfit to serve
    • Army Tests
      Army Alpha – given to literate potential soldiers
      Five hundred is played with rackets pins cards dice
      The Percheron is a kind of goat horse cow sheep
      Artichoke is a kind of hay corn vegetable fodder
      Carrie Nation is known as a singer temperance agitator suffragist nurse
    • Army Tests
      Army Beta – given to illiterate potential soldiers
      You get to take part of it
      3 minutes
      How did you do?
    • IQ and Intelligence
      Get in groups of 2-3
      Define Intelligence
      Do IQ tests test your definition of intelligence?
      What are the issues?
      How would you test what you think intelligence is?
    • More Questions
      Binet wrote that “a French peasant may be normal in a rural community but feebleminded in Paris.” Is the reverse also true? Is this thought still accurate today?
      Even with tests that are statistically normed, what are your thoughts on IQ testing today?
    • Immigration Restriction
      1890 - 1914, over 15 million immigrants
      In some large cities 1 out of 3 people were foreign-born
      Americans felt threatened by newcomers
      “according to all evidence available” American intelligence was declining as a result of the presence of “inferior races”
      Even President Coolidge
    • Immigration Restriction
      “Who should be allowed to settle here?” and “What are the proper qualifications for citizenship?”
      Early in this country’s history, the words white male were used to describe qualifications for citizenship.
      So it should not come as a surprise that people eventually began to call for immigration restriction
    • Immigration Restriction
      1917 – Congress enacts bill to require a literacy test for all immigrants
      Harry Laughlin and Eugenics officials were called upon to testify at government hearings for more restrictions
      Displayed the IQ test results
      1924 – President Coolidge told the American people that restriction was “purely a defensive action”’
    • Immigration Restriction
      “We cast no aspersions on any race or creed, but we must remember that every object of our institutions of society and government will fail unless America be kept American”
      -President Coolidge
    • National Origins Act 1924
      Limited number of immigrants from any country to 2% of people from that country who were already living in U.S.
      Southern and Eastern European countries targeted as well as Asia
      1900-1910 – 200K Italians/year – 4,000 quota
      Senator David Reed – earlier legislation "disregards entirely those of us who are interested in keeping American stock up to the highest standard-that is, the people who were born here.”
    • Until 1965
      The quota system based on national origins existed until 1965
      Immigration Act of 1965 was passed into law.
      300,000 visas granted annually, 170K from Eastern Hemisphere with no more than 20,000 per country