South Asia Powerpoint


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south asia powerpoint through India (part 1)

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South Asia Powerpoint

  1. 1. South Asia
  2. 2. What essential questions will guide our learning? <ul><li>1. How is South Asia affected by altitude, ocean currents, and other geographical features? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How do the various climatic and vegetation zones influence the way in which the inhabitants live? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How has history shaped the governments, cultures, and people of South Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How does this region affect and influence the world today? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Countries and Capitals <ul><li>Dhaka, Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Thimphu, Bhutan </li></ul><ul><li>New Delhi, India </li></ul><ul><li>Male, Maldives </li></ul><ul><li>Kathmandu, Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Islamabad, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Colombo, Sri Lanka </li></ul>
  4. 4. Major Geographical Features <ul><li>Himalayas Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Everest, K2 </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu Kush Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Karakoram Range and Sulaiman Range </li></ul><ul><li>Indus River and the Thar Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Ganges River, Ganges Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmaputra River </li></ul><ul><li>Krishna River </li></ul><ul><li>Godavari River </li></ul><ul><li>Narmada River </li></ul><ul><li>Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats </li></ul><ul><li>Deccan Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Arabian Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Bay of Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>Palk Strait, Gulf of Mannar </li></ul><ul><li>Laccadive Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Khambhat </li></ul>
  5. 5. Information on South Asian landforms <ul><li>Himalaya Mountains : once called Mount Meru to ancient peoples in area was considered physical and spiritual center of world </li></ul><ul><li>According to scientists: over 180 million years ago the Indian plate and the Eurasian plates began to drift towards each other and 50 million years ago they collided; then, the Himalayas formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel mountain ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Contain world’s highest mountains; 20+ rise above 24,000 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch 1,500 miles; form giant barriers between Indian subcontinent and China </li></ul>
  6. 6. Influence of the Himalayas <ul><li>Interestingly enough the formation of the Himalayas affected the “other” landforms </li></ul><ul><li>The Deccan Plateau lies south of the Himalaya mountain range; covers central and southern India; varies in elevation from between 100 and 1000 meters; Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats separate the plateau from the sea and blocks winds and moisture from reaching the plateau, thus Deccan is a largely arid region; many people of various languages inhabit the Deccan </li></ul><ul><li>Western Ghats: “mountain range” that is hotspot for biodiversity; average elevation is 1200 meters </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Ghats: older range than the Western Ghats; lower elevation; runs parallel to the Bay of Bengal </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>River Systems: 3 major rivers - Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra; all have origins in snow-capped Himalayas; Ganges flows east across Northern India; Indus flows west and south through Pakistan to Arabian Sea; Brahmaputra flows east, then west, then south through Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>These rivers carry rich soil - alluvial soil; population density revolves around fertile rivers - New Delhi, Kolkata, Dakha </li></ul>
  8. 8. Natural Resources <ul><li>An area rich in natural resources, but with limitating factors: population </li></ul><ul><li>Alluvial soil; river waters, sea water; timber - rain forests in India, pine, fir in Bhutan and Nepal; coal (Deccan Plateau), natural gas, uranium (Pakistan), iron-ore, mica (used for electrical equipment), diamonds (India), gemstones (Sri Lanka) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Climate and Vegetation in South Asia <ul><li>Six main climate zones: Highland in North India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan; Humid Subtropical in Northeast India, Bangladesh, Nepal; Desert and Semiarid in Pakistan and Northwest India; Tropical wet and dry in India and Sri Lanka; and Tropical wet on Southwest Indian coast, Southwest Sri Lanka, and Southern Bangladesh (see map on page 557) </li></ul><ul><li>Weather and climate is heavily influenced by the monsoons- seasonal winds. Every October through February dry winds blow from northeast (Himalayas). June through September winds blow from southwest, bringing moist air - major rains in Ganges Delta; causes hardship and relief, very unpredictable. Cyclones also affect area (a violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain). </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Vegetation types: Tropical rain forest (Southwest coast of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh); Tropical grassland (majority of India, part of Northern Pakistan); Deciduous and mixed forest (Northern Nepal, Bhutan, Northern India, part of Northern Pakistan); Temperate grassland (part of Pakistan); Desert and dry shrub (Pakistan and India); Highland (Himalaya mountain range) </li></ul>
  11. 11. A Closer Look at South Asia
  12. 12. India <ul><li>Culture and history date back more than 4,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Began in Indus valley (2500 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Aryans (light skinned peoples) crossed Hindu Kush mountains and spread across Northern India </li></ul><ul><li>Aryans established small kingdoms on Ganges plain, pushing darker skinned peoples (Dravidians) south </li></ul><ul><li>Two influential empires: Mauryan Empire - 321 BC, united most of India, leader Asoka spread Buddhism throughout Asia; Gupta Empire - ruled over northern India, peace and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>By 5th century BC a Muslim people conquered Indus valley became Mughal Empire in 1500s </li></ul><ul><li>By 1500s European traders came to India in search of spices, cloth, goods not available in Europe; established trade relations, trading colonies - French, Dutch, Portuguese, but British won out </li></ul><ul><li>British East India Company gained control of trade by 1757 and by 1857 established direct rule, this raj lasted almost 90 years </li></ul><ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi began nonviolent resistance - led to independence on August 14, 1947 (Gandhi was assassinated a year later) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Independence brought division: Muslims (predominately Sunni) “chose” to separate into what are now Pakistan (west of India) and Bangladesh (northeast of India) </li></ul><ul><li>Division based largely on religious differences: India remained predominately Hindu </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism: roots in Aryan culture; belief in many gods?, reincarnation, moral consequences - karma; caste system - system of social class - Brahmans (priests), Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors), Vaisyas (farmers and merchants), Sudras (artisans and laborers); over time further divisions - the untouchables dalits - lowest status; each person is born into caste and has moral duty (dharma), person can move to another caste through reincarnation; discriminating? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant Hindu text: Vedas, Rigveda, Bhagavad Gita </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Languages: official - Hindi, English; others - Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu </li></ul><ul><li>India is largest democracy in World (by population) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian cuisine: differs by region - north, south, east, west </li></ul><ul><li>Bollywood major economic and entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>India - 28 states, 7 union territories </li></ul><ul><li>Current President: Pratibha Patil, Current Prime Minister: Manmohan Singh </li></ul><ul><li>Population: just over 1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>GDP: 1.1 trillion; GDP per capita: $941 </li></ul>