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Geo: Chapter Three, Section Four
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Geo: Chapter Three, Section Four


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  • 1. Chapter 3, Section 4 Breakin’ it down for ya Soil and Vegetation
  • 2. Soil Regions
    • What is soil?
      • A thin layer of weathered rock, humus, air, and water
      • World’s food supply
      • depends greatly on
      • topsoil : top six
      • inches of soil
  • 3. Humus?
    • -the organic material in soil lending it a dark brown or black coloration
    • -In soil science, humus refers to any
    • organic matter which has reached a
    • point of stability, where it will break down
    • no further and might, if conditions do not
    • change, remain essentially as it is for
    • centuries, if not millennia.
    • -In agriculture, humus is sometimes also
    • used to describe mature compost, or
    • natural compost extracted from a forest or
    • other spontaneous source for use to amend
    • soil. It is also used to describe a topsoil
    • horizon that contains organic matter.
  • 4. Vegetation Regions
    • Different climatic zones = different vegetation regions
    • Ecosystem : an interdependent community of plants and animals
    • Biome : the ecosystem of a particular region
      • There are typically four biomes: forest, grassland, desert, tundra
  • 5. Soil Differences High acidity Less acidity Not acidic acidic Acidity abundant low low variable Humus Content Slow Rapid Physical Chemical Weathering coarse Fine Coarse Intermediate to fine Texture shallow deep shallow Deep Depth Cold Climate Warm Climate Dry Climate Wet Climate Soil characteristic
  • 6.  
  • 7. Vegetation Region #1: Forestlands
    • -either broadleaf or needleleaf
    • Broadleaf: maple, oak, birch, cottonwood
    • - also known as deciduous trees
    • Typically deciduous trees lose or shed leaves at least once during year.
    • Deciduous trees almost exclusively located in Northern Hemisphere
    • Needleleaf: pine, fir, cedar
    • - also known as coniferous trees (they are cone bearing)
  • 8. Vegetation Region #2: Grasslands
    • Flat regions, dotted with a few trees
    • In Tropical Grassland region: called savannas
    • In Northern Hemisphere: called steppe
    • Look at the map on page 66. Using your prior knowledge of these areas how are grasslands different in Northern and Southern Hemisphere?
    • Which continent has the greatest area of tropical rain forest?
    • What vegetation regions are found in US? In Europe?
  • 9. Vegetation Regions #3 and #4: Desert and Tundra
    • Extreme climates
    • Vegetation adapt to tolerate heat or cold
    • In tundra: moss, lichen
    • In desert: cacti, sagebrush
  • 10. Human Impact on Environment
    • What impact does man have on the environment?