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Chapter 4, Section 4
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Chapter 4, Section 4

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SOC: chapter 4, section 4 notes

SOC: chapter 4, section 4 notes


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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 4, Section 4
    • Groups within Society
    • Goals and Objectives:
    • Understand major features of primary and secondary groups
    • Identify the purposes that groups fulfill
  • 2. What is a Group?
    • Must consist of two or more people
    • Must be interaction among members
    • Members must have shared expectations
    • Members must possess sense of common identity
  • 3. How do groups differ?
    • Size: dyad -group with two members; triad -group with three members
    • -in which group is it easier to make decisions?
    • -magic number 15? What size is able to make decisions with most ease?
    • Time: not continuous…should it be?
    • 3) Organization: formal group -structure, goals, activities clearly defined; informal group -no official structure or established rules of conduct
  • 4. Types of Groups
    • Primary Group - small group of people who interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis; relationships often intimate and face-to-face; communication deep and intense; structure is informal
    • Secondary Group - small group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature; reaction to part of individual’s self; person’s importance lies in function he or she performs; individual can be replaced easily; generally organized around specific goals: factory, political party, classroom
  • 5.
    • 3)Reference Group - any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt; groups of friends, school clubs, cliques…
    • 4)In-Group - the group that a person belongs to and identifies with; tend to separate themselves from other groups, view selves positively, compete with out-groups
    • 5)Out-Group - any group that the person does not belong to or identifies with
    • 6)E-communities - people interact primarily via Internet; characteristics of “real-life” relationships, only on-line
    • 7) Social Networks - both direct and indirect relationships; no clear boundaries, yet provide feeling of community; knowing “right” person can be important
  • 6. Group Functions
    • Groups must define boundaries. How: symbols, uniforms, dress, gestures, signals, handshakes, language, etc…
    • Groups must select leaders. How: various methods - by board of directors, based on ability, elections…which is most effective?
    • -two types of leaders: 1) instrumental - task-oriented 2) expressive - emotion-oriented
    • Groups must set goals, make decisions, assign tasks, control members’ behavior

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