Chapter 4, Section 4

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Chapter 4, Section 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4, Section 4 <ul><li>Groups within Society </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand major features of primary and secondary groups </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the purposes that groups fulfill </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is a Group? <ul><li>Must consist of two or more people </li></ul><ul><li>Must be interaction among members </li></ul><ul><li>Members must have shared expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Members must possess sense of common identity </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do groups differ? <ul><li>Size: dyad -group with two members; triad -group with three members </li></ul><ul><li>-in which group is it easier to make decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>-magic number 15? What size is able to make decisions with most ease? </li></ul><ul><li>Time: not continuous…should it be? </li></ul><ul><li>3) Organization: formal group -structure, goals, activities clearly defined; informal group -no official structure or established rules of conduct </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Groups <ul><li>Primary Group - small group of people who interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis; relationships often intimate and face-to-face; communication deep and intense; structure is informal </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Group - small group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature; reaction to part of individual’s self; person’s importance lies in function he or she performs; individual can be replaced easily; generally organized around specific goals: factory, political party, classroom </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3)Reference Group - any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt; groups of friends, school clubs, cliques… </li></ul><ul><li>4)In-Group - the group that a person belongs to and identifies with; tend to separate themselves from other groups, view selves positively, compete with out-groups </li></ul><ul><li>5)Out-Group - any group that the person does not belong to or identifies with </li></ul><ul><li>6)E-communities - people interact primarily via Internet; characteristics of “real-life” relationships, only on-line </li></ul><ul><li>7) Social Networks - both direct and indirect relationships; no clear boundaries, yet provide feeling of community; knowing “right” person can be important </li></ul>
  6. 6. Group Functions <ul><li>Groups must define boundaries. How: symbols, uniforms, dress, gestures, signals, handshakes, language, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Groups must select leaders. How: various methods - by board of directors, based on ability, elections…which is most effective? </li></ul><ul><li>-two types of leaders: 1) instrumental - task-oriented 2) expressive - emotion-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Groups must set goals, make decisions, assign tasks, control members’ behavior </li></ul>

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