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Chapter 4, Section 4


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Geo: Chapter 4, section 4 notes

Geo: Chapter 4, section 4 notes

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  • 1. Chapter 4, Section 4 Urban Geography
  • 2. Goals
    • To explain how urban areas develop
    • To describe common reasons of city locations
    • To identify the basic land-use patterns in cities
    • To describe the functions of cities
  • 3. Growth of Urban Areas
    • -An urban geographer studies how people use space in cities.
    • - cities - areas with large populations and are centers of business and culture
    • - suburbs - built-up area around the central city; mostly residential
    • - metropolitan area - the city and its suburbs; examples: NYC, D.C., Baltimore(B-more)
  • 4. Metamorphosis of a City
    • Urbanization is the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle.
    • How might urbanization affect an area, a society, a culture, a way of life? What factors change?
    • Is urbanization a good or bad thing? Why? Or, does it have advantages and disadvantages?
  • 5. Gentrification…
    • Movement of more affluent individuals into a lower-class area.
    • What is the motivation for this?
    • How does it affect the people living there?
    • Check out this video about Harlem, NY:
    • Check out this video about gentrification in NY:
  • 6. City Locations
    • allow good transportation (river, lake, coast)
    • Natural resources = Sacremento and gold
    • Waterways = Chicago and Great Lakes
    • Economic activity = Pittsburgh and iron
    • Military, cultural, educational reasons
  • 7. Land Use in a City
    • Residential: single-family housing, apartment buildings, etc…
    • Industrial: areas reserved for manufacturing goods
    • Commercial: areas used for private business and buying and selling of retail
    • CBD--central business district- core of a city; business offices and stores
    • Typically, as you move away from CBD, lower land value and less expensive housing
  • 8. Concentric Zone Model
    • Core: CBD
    • Circular model --bull’s-eye
    • Lower income housing closer to CBD
    • What city follows this model?
  • 9. Sector Model
    • CBD in core
    • Activities in wedges or sectors (usually follow transportation lines)
    • Residences in one area, some inter-mixture, but not much
  • 10. Multiple Nuclei Model
    • Nuclei or districts found throughout entire urban area
    • CBD may not be circular
    • Districts and sectors differ in size according to demand
  • 11. Understanding the three models
    • How are these models different? The same?
    • What general concepts of an “urban” area change or stay the same?
    • What happens to business activity in each? Residences?
    • Which model does Dakar most closely follow?
  • 12. Functions of Cities
    • Retail, entertainment, transportation, business, education, government, manufacturing, wholesaling, residential, recreation, religious
    • Manhattan = over 70 museums, subway system
    • Essential=water supply, mass transportation
    • Why are these elements essential?
    • Use real-life cities to explain why…