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Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
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Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2


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  • 1. Chapter Three, Section 2 CLIMATE
  • 2. What’s a happenin’?
    • 19th century Peruvian fishermen found funny fish functions in the ocean
    • During Christmas time waters would become very warm, resulting in poor fishing every 2 to 7 years
    • First, was taken merely as folk knowledge
    • 20th century scientists found global weather patterns disrupted or altered normal human activity
  • 3. Factors affecting climate
    • - convection : the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air.
    • How do winds work?
    • -sunlight heats atmosphere, air expands, creates zone of low pressure, cooler dense air in high-pressure zone rushes to low-pressure area causing wind
    • Global wind patterns: hot air flows towards poles, cold air moves toward equator
    • Because of tilt of earth, winds bend, called the Coriolis effect.
    • - in Northern Hemisphere they turn right
    • - in Southern Hemisphere they turn left
  • 4. Winds, winds, winds
    • Wind patterns in north and south hemispheres are mirror images of each other. Winds are identified by direction from which they blow
  • 5.
    • -Ocean currents are like rivers flowing in the ocean
    • -they move in circular systems
    • -warm waters flow away from equator
    • -cold waters flow toward equator
    • The winds that blow over the ocean currents directly influence climate of lands
    • Example: Europe is as far north as Canada, but enjoys a milder climate because of the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift
    • Ocean currents - also affect amount of precipitation. Cold ocean currents flowing along a coastal region chill the air, preventing warm air to release moisture. See California cool and Benguela cool
  • 6. Questions for Thought:
    • 1) How do ocean currents differ from wind currents?
    • 2) What is general direction of wind and ocean currents?
  • 7.
    • 3) Zones of latitude
    • -there are three general zones: low or tropical, middle or temperate, high or polar
    • Tropical: found on either side of equator, extend to Tropics
    • High-Latitude Polar: encircle North and South Poles
    • Mid-Latitude Temperate: between tropics and polar regions, greater variation in climate
  • 8.
    • 4) Elevation
    • -As altitude increases, air temperature drops (about 3.5 degrees F every 1000 feet)
    • -Climates above 12,000 ft. become Artic like areas
    • Let’s analyze the map on page 56…
    • Questions for thought -
    • 1 - what climates would you find at 2,500 ft. elevation? At 15,000 ft.? 2
    • 2 - what latitude and altitude would you find a desert climate?
    • 3 - Explain how climate zones change as latitude gets higher
  • 9. Changes in Climate
    • Why does the climate change?
    • Is it all because of global warming?
    • Is it all because of human activity?
    • Is it fair to blame one reason?
    • Is some climate change good or benefitial?
    • Scientists = some human, some natural
  • 10. EL NINO (sounds like el nin-yo)
    • Every 2 to 7 years easterly winds over Pacific Ocean SLOW or REVERSE, changing ocean temperature, affecting weather worldwide
    • EL nino brings warm water and heavy rains to Americas, drought-like conditions to Australia and Asia
    • When the reverse occurs we have La NINA (sounds like nin-ya)
    • Controversy exists!
    • Scientists have agreed that air temperatures have increased by one degree since late 1800s.
    • Some predictions suggest the increase will be 3.5 degrees within the next century
    • In part due to earth’s natural warming and cooling cycles
    • In part due to human activity: greenhouse effect - layer of gases trapped in atmosphere causing higher temperatures
    • Greenhouse effect caused by petroleum, burning coal
  • 12. Homework
    • Page 58, 1 - 3