Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2
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Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2






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    Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2 Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Three, Section 2 CLIMATE
    • What’s a happenin’?
      • 19th century Peruvian fishermen found funny fish functions in the ocean
      • During Christmas time waters would become very warm, resulting in poor fishing every 2 to 7 years
      • First, was taken merely as folk knowledge
      • 20th century scientists found global weather patterns disrupted or altered normal human activity
    • Factors affecting climate
      • - convection : the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air.
      • How do winds work?
      • -sunlight heats atmosphere, air expands, creates zone of low pressure, cooler dense air in high-pressure zone rushes to low-pressure area causing wind
      • Global wind patterns: hot air flows towards poles, cold air moves toward equator
      • Because of tilt of earth, winds bend, called the Coriolis effect.
      • - in Northern Hemisphere they turn right
      • - in Southern Hemisphere they turn left
    • Winds, winds, winds
      • Wind patterns in north and south hemispheres are mirror images of each other. Winds are identified by direction from which they blow
      • -Ocean currents are like rivers flowing in the ocean
      • -they move in circular systems
      • -warm waters flow away from equator
      • -cold waters flow toward equator
      • The winds that blow over the ocean currents directly influence climate of lands
      • Example: Europe is as far north as Canada, but enjoys a milder climate because of the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift
      • Ocean currents - also affect amount of precipitation. Cold ocean currents flowing along a coastal region chill the air, preventing warm air to release moisture. See California cool and Benguela cool
    • Questions for Thought:
      • 1) How do ocean currents differ from wind currents?
      • 2) What is general direction of wind and ocean currents?
      • 3) Zones of latitude
      • -there are three general zones: low or tropical, middle or temperate, high or polar
      • Tropical: found on either side of equator, extend to Tropics
      • High-Latitude Polar: encircle North and South Poles
      • Mid-Latitude Temperate: between tropics and polar regions, greater variation in climate
      • 4) Elevation
      • -As altitude increases, air temperature drops (about 3.5 degrees F every 1000 feet)
      • -Climates above 12,000 ft. become Artic like areas
      • Let’s analyze the map on page 56…
      • Questions for thought -
      • 1 - what climates would you find at 2,500 ft. elevation? At 15,000 ft.? 2
      • 2 - what latitude and altitude would you find a desert climate?
      • 3 - Explain how climate zones change as latitude gets higher
    • Changes in Climate
      • Why does the climate change?
      • Is it all because of global warming?
      • Is it all because of human activity?
      • Is it fair to blame one reason?
      • Is some climate change good or benefitial?
      • Scientists = some human, some natural
    • EL NINO (sounds like el nin-yo)
      • Every 2 to 7 years easterly winds over Pacific Ocean SLOW or REVERSE, changing ocean temperature, affecting weather worldwide
      • EL nino brings warm water and heavy rains to Americas, drought-like conditions to Australia and Asia
      • When the reverse occurs we have La NINA (sounds like nin-ya)
      • Controversy exists!
      • Scientists have agreed that air temperatures have increased by one degree since late 1800s.
      • Some predictions suggest the increase will be 3.5 degrees within the next century
      • In part due to earth’s natural warming and cooling cycles
      • In part due to human activity: greenhouse effect - layer of gases trapped in atmosphere causing higher temperatures
      • Greenhouse effect caused by petroleum, burning coal
    • Homework
      • Page 58, 1 - 3