Chapter 1, Section 2


Published on

Chapter One, Section 2 notes for Geography 10 at ISD

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 1, Section 2

  1. 1. Geographer’s Tools Chapter One, Section 2 presentation
  2. 2. Some definitions…you need to know <ul><li>Globe - three-dimensional representation of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Map - two-dimenstional graphic presentation of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Cartographer - mapmaker </li></ul><ul><li>Map projection - way of drawing earth’s surface that reduces distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic map - representation of natural and man-made features on the earth </li></ul>
  3. 3. How does a cartographer do his/her job? <ul><li>First step: surveying - observe, measure, record the specific area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation, differences in land cover, variations in temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done by using aerial photography or by satellites, then by using data and computer software </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 2 Satellites used today: <ul><li>Landsat: series of satellites that orbit more than 100 miles above Earth </li></ul><ul><li>GOES: Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite is a weather satellite that flies in orbit and in sync with Earth’s rotation. This is mainly used for forecasting the weather. </li></ul>
  5. 5. GIS and GPS <ul><li>Two “new” tools used by geographers </li></ul><ul><li>GIS: Geographic Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores information about world in digital database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can combine info from a variety of sources and display it in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographers must ask, what is the problem, then the GIS provides the information </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>GPS: Global Positioning System </li></ul><ul><li>-originally used with military </li></ul><ul><li>-uses series of 24 satellites called Navstars </li></ul><ul><li>-exact position (latitude, longitude, altitude, and time) is displayed on hand-held receiver </li></ul><ul><li>-widely used by hikers, explorers, sailors, and drivers, among others… </li></ul>
  7. 7. What makes a map a map? <ul><li>Elements on maps include: </li></ul><ul><li>Title: explains subject, gives idea of what information the map conveys </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. Labels: words or phrases that explain features on the map </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. Legend: lists and explains the symbols and use of color on the map </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>4. Lines of latitude: imaginary lines that measure distance north or south of the equator </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lines of longitude: imaginary lines that measure distance east or west of the prime meridian </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>6. Scale: shows the ratio between a unit of length on the map and a unit of distance on the earth </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>7. Symbols: represent items such as capitals, cities, economic activities, natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>8. Colors: variety of information </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scales <ul><li>Small scale: used to show a large area but little detail </li></ul><ul><li>To see relative location in a region or between regions </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale: used to show a small area but with more detail </li></ul><ul><li>To see relative location within a specific region </li></ul>
  14. 14. Using the Geographic Grid <ul><li>Refer to the information on page 17-19 </li></ul><ul><li>You should be able to identify the artic circle, the tropics, the equator, the antarctic, the north and south pole, how many degrees N and S, how many degrees E and W </li></ul><ul><li>We will practice in class… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Projections <ul><li>Planar: on a flat surface; also called an azimuthal projection; distorts the size and shape </li></ul><ul><li>Conical: onto a cone; shows accurate shape, but distorts landmasses at edges; used to show how landmasses extend east and west </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise: onto a cylinder; shows entire earth on one map; three main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercator: shapes distorted and compressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homolosine: “interrupted map”; oceans are divided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robinson: used more commonly in textbooks; accurate sizes and shapes, but land near poles appear flat </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of maps in use… <ul><li>Physical Maps - assists with identifying types of landform and bodies of water in a specific area. Color, shading, and contour lines are used to indicate elevation(also known as altitude or relief) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Political Map <ul><li>Shows features on earth’s surface that humans created </li></ul><ul><li>Cities, states, provinces, territories, countries </li></ul>
  18. 20. Thematic Maps <ul><li>Qualitative map - use colors, symbols, dots, or lines to help you see patterns related to a specific area or idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartograms - present information about a country based on a set of data other than land area; size of country is drawn in proportion to that data rather than to its land size </li></ul><ul><li>Flow-line map - illustrate movement of people, goods, ideas, animals, or even glaciers </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.