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    Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Presentation Transcript

    • Splash Screen
    • Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 Causes of the Depression Section 2 Life During the Depression Section 3 Hoover Responds Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives
      • Describe the characteristics of the 1920s stock market.
      • Identify the causes of the Great Depression.
      Section 1: Causes of the Depression
    • Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: Life During the Depression
      • Describe how the Great Depression affected American families.
      • Discuss how artists portrayed the effects of the Depression.
    • Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: Hoover Responds
      • Evaluate President Hoover’s attempts to revive the economy.
      • Analyze the limitations of Hoover’s recovery plans.
    • Intro 5 Why It Matters Prosperity in the United States seemed limitless before the Great Depression struck. Overproduction and agricultural problems contributed to the economic catastrophe. President Hoover looked to voluntary business action and limited government relief as solutions, but these efforts failed. Meanwhile, millions of Americans lost their jobs and life savings. Artists and writers depicted this suffering, and many people turned to lighthearted films to escape their difficult lives.
    • Intro 6 The Impact Today Events of this period remain important.
      • Hoover’s model of business-government cooperation is still influential.
      • John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath and Grant Wood’s painting American Gothic are permanent artistic legacies.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Intro 7 continued on next slide
    • Intro 8
    • End of Intro
    • Section 1-1 Guide to Reading Inflated stock prices, overproduction, high tariffs, and mistakes by the Federal Reserve led to the Great Depression.
      • Alfred E. Smith
      Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names
      • stock market
      • bull market
      • margin
      • margin call
      • speculation
      • Black Tuesday
      • installment
      • Hawley-Smoot Tariff
    • Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Categorizing As you read about the election of 1928, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 530 of your textbook comparing the backgrounds and issues of the presidential candidates.
      • Describe the characteristics of the 1920s stock market.
      Reading Objectives
      • Identify the causes of the Great Depression.
    • Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Economic Factors The Great Depression was caused by a combination of various economic problems and government policies.
    • Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Section 1-5 The Election of 1928 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • The 1928 election placed former head of the Food Administration and secretary of commerce, Herbert Hoover, on the Republican ticket against Democratic candidate, Alfred E. Smith, a four-time governor of New York and the first Roman Catholic to be nominated for president.
      • The issue of Prohibition played a major role in the campaign.
      • Hoover favored a ban on liquor sales.
      • Smith opposed the ban.
      (pages 530–531)
    • Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Religious differences between the candidates had a major effect on the campaign.
      • The Catholic issue led to a smear campaign against Smith.
      • The Republicans took full credit for the prosperity of the 1920s, and Herbert Hoover easily won the 1928 election by a landslide.
      The Election of 1928 (cont.) (pages 530–531)
    • Section 1-7 What were the major campaign issues in the election of 1928? The issue of Prohibition played a major role in the campaign. Hoover favored a ban on liquor sales. Smith opposed the ban. Religious differences between the candidates had a major effect on the campaign. The Catholic issue led to a smear campaign against Smith. The Republicans took full credit for the prosperity of the 1920s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Election of 1928 (cont.) (pages 530–531)
    • Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Long Bull Market
      • The stock market was established as a system for buying and selling shares of companies.
      • A long period of rising stock prices is known as a bull market.
      • Prosperous times during the 1920s caused many Americans to invest heavily in the stock market.
      (pages 531–532)
    • Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • As the bull market continued to go up, many investors bought stocks on margin, making a small cash down payment.
      • This was considered safe as long as stock prices continued to rise.
      • If the stock began to fall, the broker could issue a margin call demanding that the investor repay the loan immediately.
      The Long Bull Market (cont.) (pages 531–532)
    • Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In the late 1920s, new investors bid prices up without looking at a company’s earnings and profits.
      • Speculation occurred when investors bet on the market climbing and sold whatever stock they had in an effort to make a quick profit.
      The Long Bull Market (cont.) (pages 531–532)
    • Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why were stock market investors in the 1920s sensitive to any fall in stock prices? Investors were uneasy about any fall in the price of stocks because it meant they might be unable to make money quickly to repay their loans. The Long Bull Market (cont.) (pages 531–532)
    • Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Great Crash
      • By late 1929, a lack of new investors in the stock market caused stock prices to drop and the bull market to end.
      • As stockbrokers advised their customers of margin calls, customers responded by placing their stocks up for sale, causing the stock market to plummet further.
      • Stock prices fell drastically on October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday, resulting in a $10 to $15 billion loss in value.
      (pages 532–533)
    • Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • While this did not cause the Great Depression, it did undermine the economy’s ability to hold out against its other weaknesses.
      • The stock market crash weakened the nation’s banks.
      • Banks lost money on their investments, and speculators defaulted on loans.
      • Because the government did not insure bank deposits, customers lost their money if a bank closed.
      The Great Crash (cont.) (pages 532–533)
    • Section 1-14
      • Bank runs resulted as many bank customers withdrew their money at the same time, causing the bank to collapse.
      The Great Crash (cont.) (pages 532–533)
    • Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the stock market crash weaken the nation’s banks? The stock market crash caused the banks to lose money on their investments, and speculators defaulted on bank loans. Because the government did not insure bank deposits, customers lost their money if a bank closed. Bank runs resulted as many bank customers withdrew their money at the same time, causing the bank to collapse. The Great Crash (cont.) (pages 532–533)
    • Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Roots of the Great Depression
      • Efficient machinery led to overproduction, and Americans could not afford to buy all the goods produced.
      • The uneven distribution of wealth in the United States added to the country’s economic problems.
      • In 1929 the top 5 percent of American households earned 30 percent of the country’s income.
      • More than two-thirds of the nation’s families earned less than $2,500 a year.
      (pages 533–534)
    • Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Low consumption added to the economic problems.
      • Worker’s wages did not increase fast enough to keep up with the quick production of goods.
      • As sales decreased, workers were laid off, resulting in a chain reaction that further hurt the economy.
      The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.) (pages 533–534)
    • Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Many Americans bought on the installment plan, making a down payment and paying the rest in monthly installments.
      • Paying off installment debts left little money to purchase other goods.
      • The Hawley-Smoot Tariff intensified the Depression by raising the tax on imports.
      • Americans purchased less from abroad because of the high cost.
      The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.) (pages 533–534)
    • Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In return, foreign countries raised their own tariffs on American products, causing fewer products to be sold overseas.
      • Instead of raising interest rates to stop speculation, the Federal Reserve Board made the mistake of lowering the rates.
      • This encouraged banks to make risky loans and misled business owners into thinking the economy was still expanding.
      The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.) (pages 533–534)
    • Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the Federal Reserve Board help cause the Depression? Lowering the interest rate instead of raising it helped cause the Depression in two ways. First, it encouraged banks to make risky loans. Second, it made it appear as if the economy was still thriving, which caused businesses to borrow money to further expand their production. The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.) (pages 533–534)
    • Section 1-21 Checking for Understanding __ 1. a system for buying and selling stocks in corporations __ 2. investing money at great risk with the anticipation that the price will rise __ 3. buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest __ 4. a long period of rising stock prices __ 5. demand by a broker that investors pay back loans made for stocks purchased on margin A. stock market B. bull market C. margin D. margin call E. speculation Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. E C A B D
    • Section 1-22 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain the significance of the year 1929. The Great Depression began. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • Section 1-23 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Economic Factors How did the practices of buying on margin and speculation cause the stock market to rise? Speculation drove up market prices beyond the stock’s value.
    • Section 1-24 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Determining Cause and Effect Why did the stock market crash cause banks to fail? Banks had lent money to stock speculators and had invested depositors’ money in stocks.
    • Section 1-25 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Graphs Study the graphs on page 532 of your textbook. Note that decreased demand for automobiles ultimately led to layoffs. These layoffs further decreased the demand for automobiles. What do you think might have ended this cycle? Answers will vary.
    • Section 1-26 Close List the causes of the Great Depression.
    • End of Section 1
    • Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading Many people were impoverished during the Great Depression, but some found ways to cope with the hard times.
      • bailiff
      Main Idea Key Terms and Names
      • shantytown
      • Hooverville
      • hobo
      • Dust Bowl
      • Walt Disney
      • soap opera
      • Grant Wood
      • John Steinbeck
      • William Faulkner
    • Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about life in the United States during the Great Depression, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 535 of your textbook.
      • Describe how the Great Depression affected American families.
      Reading Objectives
      • Discuss how artists portrayed the effects of the Depression.
    • Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Culture and Traditions Radio and motion pictures provided ways to escape the worries that plagued people during the Depression’s early years.
    • Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Depression Worsens Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • By 1933 thousands of banks had closed and millions of American workers were unemployed.
      • Unemployed workers often stood at bread lines to receive free food or at soup kitchens where private charities gave a free meal to the poor.
      • Americans unable to pay their mortgage or rent lost their homes.
      (pages 535–537)
    • Section 2-6
      • Those unable or unwilling to move had a court-ordered eviction notice delivered by a court officer or bailiff who forced nonpaying tenants out onto the street.
      • Many of the homeless built shacks in shantytowns, which they referred to as “Hoovervilles” because they blamed the president for their financial trouble.
      • Hobos, or homeless Americans who wandered around hitching rides on railroad cars, searched for work and a better life.
      The Depression Worsens (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 535–537)
    • Section 2-7
      • As crop prices dropped in the 1920s, many American farmers left their fields uncultivated.
      • A terrible drought in the Great Plains, beginning in 1932, caused the region to become a “Dust Bowl.”
      • Many Midwestern farmers and Great Plains farmers lost their farms.
      • Many families moved west to California hoping to find a better life, but most still faced poverty and homelessness.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Depression Worsens (cont.) (pages 535–537)
    • Section 2-8 What happened to unemployed workers and Midwestern and Great Plains farmers during the Depression? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Depression Worsens (cont.) (pages 535–537)
    • Section 2-9 Unemployed workers often went to bread lines or soup kitchens to receive free food. Americans unable to pay their mortgage or rent lost their homes. Many of the homeless built shacks in shantytowns. Hobos wandered around hitching rides on railroad cars, searching for work and a better life. As crop prices dropped in the 1920s, many American farmers left their fields uncultivated. A terrible drought in the Great Plains, beginning in 1932, caused the region to become a “Dust Bowl.” Many Midwestern farmers and Great Plains farmers lost their farms. Many families moved west to California hoping to find a better life, but most of them still faced poverty and homelessness. The Depression Worsens (cont.) (pages 535–537)
    • Section 2-10 Escaping the Depression Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Americans escaped the hardships of the Depression by going to the movies and listening to radio broadcasts.
      • Stories tended to be about overcoming hardships and achieving success.
      • Walt Disney produced the first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, in 1937.
      • Other films, like The Wizard of Oz, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, and Gone with the Wind, contained stories of triumph over adversity and visions of a better life.
      (pages 537–538)
    • Section 2-11
      • Families gathered around the radio daily to hear news or listen to comedians like George Burns or a dramatic series like the Lone Ranger.
      • Melodramas, called soap operas, became very popular with housewives.
      • Soap operas received their name because makers of laundry soaps often sponsored them.
      Escaping the Depression (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 537–538)
    • Section 2-12 Why were movies and radio programs important during the Depression? Movies and radio programs allowed Americans to escape their own lives and use their imagination. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Escaping the Depression (cont.) (pages 537–538)
    • Section 2-13 The Depression in Art Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Homeless and unemployed Americans were the subjects of art and literature during the 1930s.
      • Artists and writers tried to capture the real life drama of the Depression.
      • Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood emphasized traditional American values in their art.
      (pages 538–539)
    • Section 2-14
      • John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath told the story of an Oklahoma family fleeing the Dust Bowl to find a new life in California.
      • Steinbeck, like many writers of this time, wrote of poverty, misfortune, and social injustice.
      The Depression in Art (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 538–539)
    • Section 2-15
      • Novelist William Faulkner’s literary technique, stream of consciousness, revealed characters’ thoughts and feelings before they spoke–thoughts they dared not reveal.
      • In his novels, he exposed hidden attitudes of Southern whites and African Americans in a fictional Mississippi county.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Depression in Art (cont.) (pages 538–539)
    • Section 2-16 What was emphasized in the work of Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood? The two artists were a part of the regionalist school, which focused on traditional American values, particularly those of the rural Midwest and South. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Depression in Art (cont.) (pages 538–539)
    • Section 2-17 Checking for Understanding __ 1. minor officer of the courts __ 2. name given to the area of southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s __ 3. nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression __ 4. a poor section of town consisting of crudely built dwellings usually made of wood __ 5. a homeless and usually penniless wanderer A. bailiff B. shantytown C. Hooverville D. hobo E. Dust Bowl Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. E C A B D
    • Section 2-18 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain what caused the Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains. Uncultivated fields, depletion of grasslands protecting soil, and drought caused the conditions.
    • Section 2-19 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Culture and Traditions In what ways did people seek to forget about the Depression? Americans looked to radio and motion pictures as an escape.
    • Section 2-20 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Making Inferences Why do you think Life magazine was so popular during the 1930s? Its photos provided a powerful commentary on American life.
    • Section 2-21 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photos Study the photograph on page 536 of your textbook. Think of three adjectives that you would use to describe the people in the photograph. Using these objectives, write a paragraph describing the family pictured. Answers will vary.
    • Section 2-22 Close Discuss how artists captured the effects of the Depression.
    • End of Section 2
    • Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading President Hoover’s philosophy of government guided his response to the Depression.
      • public works
      Main Idea Key Terms and Names
      • Reconstruction Finance Corporation
      • relief
      • foreclose
      • Bonus Army
    • Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing As you read about Hoover’s response to the Depression, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 542 of your textbook by listing his major initiatives and their results.
      • Evaluate President Hoover’s attempts to revive the economy.
      Reading Objectives
      • Analyze the limitations of Hoover’s recovery plans.
    • Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Groups and Institutions President Hoover began using new government agencies to improve the nation’s slumping economy.
    • Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Section 3-5 Promoting Recovery Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In an effort to promote economic recovery, President Herbert Hoover held a series of conferences bringing together the heads of banks, railroads, big business, labor, and government.
      • Hoover received a pledge from industry to keep factories open and stop cutting wages.
      • After the pledge failed, Hoover increased public works –government-financed building projects.
      (pages 542–544)
    • Section 3-6
      • Hoover asked the nation’s governors and mayors to increase public works spending.
      • At the same time, however, Hoover refused to increase government spending or taxes. He feared that deficit spending would actually delay an economic recovery.
      • Americans blamed the Republican Party for the Depression.
      Promoting Recovery (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 542–544)
    • Section 3-7
      • As a result, in the midterm congressional elections of 1930, the Republicans lost 49 seats and their majority in the House of Representatives.
      Promoting Recovery (cont.) (pages 542–544)
    • Section 3-8 How did Hoover promote economic recovery? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Promoting Recovery (cont.) (pages 542–544)
    • Section 3-9 Promoting Recovery (cont.) President Herbert Hoover held a series of conferences bringing together the heads of banks, railroads, big business, labor, and government. Hoover received a pledge from industry to keep factories open and stop cutting wages. After the pledge failed, Hoover increased public works to replace some construction jobs. Hoover asked the nation’s governors and mayors to increase public works spending. At the same time, however, Hoover refused to increase government spending or taxes. He feared that deficit spending would actually delay an economic recovery. (pages 542–544)
    • Section 3-10 Pumping Money Into the Economy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • President Hoover tried to persuade the Federal Reserve Board to put more currency into circulation, but the Board refused.
      • Hoover set up the National Credit Corporation (NCC), which created a pool of money to rescue banks, but it was not enough to help.
      (page 544)
    • Section 3-11
      • By 1932 Hoover felt the government had to provide funding for borrowers.
      • He asked Congress to set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to make loans to banks, railroads, and agricultural institutions.
      • The economy continued to decline when the RFC was too cautious in its loan amounts.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Pumping Money Into the Economy (cont.) (page 544)
    • Section 3-12
      • Hoover opposed the federal government’s participation in relief –money that went directly to very poor families.
      • He felt relief was the responsibility of state and local governments.
      • In July 1932, Congress passed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act to get money for public works and for loans to the states for direct relief.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Pumping Money Into the Economy (cont.) (page 544)
    • Section 3-13 What actions did President Hoover take to try to pump money back into the American economy? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Pumping Money Into the Economy (cont.) (page 544)
    • Section 3-14 Hoover tried to persuade the Federal Reserve Board to put more currency into circulation, but the Board refused. Hoover set up the National Credit Corporation (NCC), which created a pool of money to rescue banks, but it was not enough to help. Hoover asked Congress to set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to banks, railroads, and agricultural institutions. The economy continued to decline when the RFC was too cautious in its loan amounts. Pumping Money Into the Economy (cont.) (page 544)
    • Section 3-15 In an Angry Mood Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • By 1931 discontent over the economy led to violence.
      • Looting, rallies, and hunger marches began.
      • During a hunger march at the nation’s capital, police denied protestors food, water, and medical treatment.
      • Congress intervened, stressing the marchers’ right to petition their government.
      • Congress permitted them to march on to Capitol Hill.
      (pages 544–546)
    • Section 3-16
      • Between 1930 and 1934, creditors foreclosed, or took possession of, almost a million farms.
      • Some farmers destroyed their crops, hoping the reduction in supply would cause the prices to go up.
      • In 1924 Congress enacted a $1,000 bonus to be paid to veterans in 1945.
      • In 1931 Congress introduced legislation that would authorize veterans to receive their bonuses early.
      In an Angry Mood (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 544–546)
    • Section 3-17
      • In 1932 the “Bonus Army” marched to Washington, D.C., to ask Congress to approve the legislation.
      • After Hoover refused to meet with the Bonus Army and the Senate voted the new bonus bill down, some of the marchers left.
      • Some marchers stayed, moving into deserted buildings in Washington, D.C.
      • When Hoover ordered the buildings cleared, disputes between the remaining people and the police (and later the army) resulted in several deaths.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In an Angry Mood (cont.) (pages 544–546)
    • Section 3-18 What positive things did Hoover do as president? Hoover did more to expand the role of the federal government than any previous president. His authorization of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was the first time an American president had used federal power to intervene in the economy during peacetime. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. In an Angry Mood (cont.) (pages 544–546)
    • Section 3-19 Checking for Understanding __ 1. projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use __ 2. to take possession of a property from a mortgagor because of defaults on payments __ 3. aid for the needy, welfare A. public works B. relief C. foreclose Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C B A
    • Section 3-20 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize three major initiatives taken by Hoover to improve the economy and the results of each. Conferences with industry leaders did not secure cooperation. Funding from the National Credit Corporation and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was insufficient.
    • Section 3-21 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Groups and Institutions What did business leaders promise Hoover they would do to help the economy? Did they keep their promises? They promised to keep factories open and stop slashing wages. They did not keep their promises.
    • Section 3-22 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting How did President Hoover’s philosophy of government guide his response to the Depression? Belief in volunteerism and loans, rather than direct relief, restricted his actions.
    • Section 3-23 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Picturing History Study the photographs on page 545 of your textbook. The farmers shown would rather dump their milk than sell it. What did they hope to achieve by their actions? The farmers hoped to drive up prices by limiting supply.
    • Section 3-24 Close Analyze the limitations of Hoover’s recovery plans.
    • End of Section 3
    • Chapter Summary 1
    • End of Chapter Summary
    • Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a long period of rising stock prices __ 2. a poor section of town consisting of crudely built dwellings usually made of wood __ 3. demand by a broker that investors pay back loans made for stocks purchased on margin __ 4. nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression __ 5. projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use A. bull market B. margin C. margin call D. installment E. bailiff F. shantytown G. Hooverville H. Dust Bowl I. public works J. foreclose F C A G I
    • Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. buying an item on credit with a monthly plan to pay off the value of the good __ 7. buying stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest __ 8. name given to the area of the southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s __ 9. to take possession of a property from a mortgagor because of defaults on payments __ 10. minor officer of the courts B H D J E A. bull market B. margin C. margin call D. installment E. bailiff F. shantytown G. Hooverville H. Dust Bowl I. public works J. foreclose
    • Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts What was the character of the stock market in the late 1920s, and what caused it to crash? It was a bull market that crashed because stocks were overvalued and many people had purchased stocks on margin.
    • Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did artists and writers capture the effects of the Great Depression? They focused on pictures and stories of the homeless and unemployed.
    • Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did “Okies” migrate to California during the Great Depression, and what happened to them once they got there? They migrated searching for work. Many ended up working as homeless migrant laborers.
    • Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What three major initiatives did President Hoover take to try to help the economy of the United States? Hoover initiated voluntary conferences with industry leaders, the National Credit Corporation, and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
    • Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What did World War I veterans do to try to get their service bonuses early? They marched to Washington to petition Congress and then became squatters in unoccupied buildings.
    • Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Culture and Traditions Many people in the United States were impoverished during the Depression, yet 60 to 90 million weekly viewers paid to see movies. Why do you think movies were so popular? Movies gave people an escape from their own lives.
    • Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Evaluating Do you think President Hoover could have done more to end the Great Depression? Why or why not? Answers will vary.
    • Chapter Assessment 10 Economics and History The graph below shows changes in crop prices from 1910 to 1935. Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides.
    • Chapter Assessment 11 Interpreting Graphs What trend does this graph show about wheat and corn prices in the 1930s? They declined sharply in the early 1930s, then rose steadily. Economics and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • Chapter Assessment 12 Economics and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Between which 10-year span did the greatest increase and decrease in farm prices occur? The ten-year period in which there was the greatest overall difference in farm prices was between 1910 and 1920. This was found by adding the price points of all three crops and figuring the difference.
    • Chapter Assessment 13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following sentence. A major reason for the collapse of the American economy after 1929 was A high interest rates. B decreased farm production. C low tariffs at home and abroad. D overproduction of consumer goods. Test-Taking Tip If you are not sure of the answer, use the process of elimination. For example, farmers were not prosperous in the 1920s because their huge crops forced down agricultural prices. Therefore, answer B is incorrect.
    • Chapter Assessment 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What does the phrase “Dust Bowl” refer to? Starting in 1932, a prolonged drought caused great clouds of dust to blanket the region from Texas to the Dakotas.
    • End of Chapter Assessment
    • CC 1-1 Economics The growing gap between the rich and poor in the 1920s revels that many business leaders had forgotten Henry Ford’s insight into the importance of paying workers enough so that they could buy the products they were making.
    • CC 3-1 Music The music of Woody Guthrie gave an uplifting voice to people who struggled through the Depression. Unlike swing or big-band songs. Guthrie’s lyrics told of rough living and fighting back. The guitarist drew upon the traditional times of farmers and workers to write the workers’ anthems for decades to come.
    • F/F/F 2-Folklore Hobo Signs The hundreds of thousands of hobos who roamed the country developed intricate symbols that they wrote on trees, fences, or buildings to warn or inform other hobos. Many became a part of American folklore. At the height of the Great Depression there may have been as many as 250,000 teenage hobos.
    • FYI Contents 1 Manufacturing Output Financiers and the Panic Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
    • FYI 1-1a By 1932 the nation’s manufacturing output stood at 47 percent of its 1929 level.
    • FYI 1-2b Some of the country’s leading financiers had tried to avert the crash by pumping money into the market, but others wanted to profit from the panic. The president of Chase National Bank sold 42,506 shares of his own bank’s stock, bought them back later in the year at a lower price, and made a profit of $4 million.
    • FYI Contents 3 Monopoly Rockefeller Center Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
    • FYI 3-1a Ironically the board game Monopoly was invented during the Depression. Charles Darrow was an unemployed Pennsylvania engineer when he designed the famous game in the early 1930s.
    • FYI 3-2b In 1931 a Christmas tree was placed amid the rubble from some demolished buildings. Workers who still had jobs decorated the tree with tin cans and paper. A few years later at the same site, the official Rockefeller Center tree tradition was inaugurated.
    • Moment in History 2 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • TECH Skill Builder 1 Building a Database Do you have a collection of sports cards, CDs, or DVDs? Have you ever kept a list of the names, addresses, and phone numbers of friends and relatives? If you have collected information and kept it in a list or file, then you have created a database. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • TECH Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill An electronic database is a collection of facts that are stored in a file on a computer. The information is organized in fields. A database can be organized and recognized in any way that is useful to you. By using a database management system (DBMS)–special software developed for record keeping–you can easily add, delete, change, or update information. You give commands to the computer that tell it what to do with the information, and it follows these commands. When you want to retrieve information, the computer searches through the file, finds the information, and displays it on the screen. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Building a Database
    • TECH Skill Builder 3 Practicing the Skill The Great Depression is a well-known period in American history. Follow the steps on the following slides to build a database containing the events that led to the Great Depression and its effects on the country. Building a Database
    • TECH Skill Builder 4 1. Determine what facts you want to include in your database. 2. Follow instructions to set up fields in the DBMS that you are using. Then enter each item of data in its assigned field. Facts should surround the events of the Great Depression. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Identify fields that will fit with the facts you have gathered. Building a Database Practicing the Skill (cont.)
    • TECH Skill Builder 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 3. Determine how you want to organize the facts in the database–chronologically by the date of the event, or alphabetically by the name of the event. 4. Follow the instructions in your computer program to place the information in the order you selected. Data can be sorted in various ways. You are encouraged to experiment with different choices. Data can be sorted in various ways. You are encouraged to experiment with different choices. Building a Database Practicing the Skill (cont.)
    • Cause
    • M/C 1-1 Causes Cyclical Effect Stock Prices, 1920–1932
    • M/C 1-1a
    • M/C 1-2a
    • M/C 1-3a
    • M/C 2-1
    • AV1
    • Why It Matters Transparency
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • GO 1
    • GO 2
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