chapter 14

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chapter 14

  1. 1. Splash Screen
  2. 2. Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 The United States Enters World War I Section 2 The Home Front Section 3 A Bloody Conflict Section 4 The War’s Impact Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  3. 3. Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  4. 4. Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the causes and results of American intervention in Mexico and the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the causes of World War I and why the United States entered the war. </li></ul>Section 1: The United States Enters World War I
  5. 5. Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: The Home Front <ul><li>Analyze how the United States raised an army and won support for World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the economy was controlled to support the war. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: A Bloody Conflict <ul><li>Discuss the fighting techniques used in World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterize the American response to the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intro 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 4: The War’s Impact <ul><li>Describe the effects of the postwar recession on the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the causes of and reaction to the Red Scare. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intro 6 Why It Matters The United States reluctantly entered World War I after German submarines violated American neutrality. After the war ended, President Wilson supported the Treaty of Versailles, believing its terms would prevent another war. The U.S. Senate, however, rejected the treaty. It did not want the country to be tied to European obligations. Instead, Americans turned their attention to the difficult adjustment to peacetime.
  9. 9. Intro 7 The Impact Today The experience of World War I had a long-term effect on American history. <ul><li>The United States continues to be involved in European affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The horrors of the conflict helped reshape how people view warfare. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  10. 10. Intro 8 continued on next slide
  11. 11. Intro 9
  12. 12. End of Intro
  13. 13. Section 1-1 Guide to Reading Although the United States tried to remain neutral, events soon pushed the nation into World War I. <ul><li>Pancho Villa </li></ul>Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names <ul><li>guerilla </li></ul><ul><li>nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Ferdinand </li></ul><ul><li>Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Central Powers </li></ul><ul><li>propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>contraband </li></ul><ul><li>U-boat </li></ul><ul><li>Sussex Pledge </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmermann telegram </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about the start of World War I, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 448 of your textbook by identifying the factors that contributed to the conflict. <ul><li>Discuss the causes and results of American intervention in Mexico and the Caribbean. </li></ul>Reading Objectives <ul><li>Explain the causes of World War I and why the United States entered the war. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Continuity and Change Ties with the British influenced American leaders to enter World War I on the side of the Allies.
  16. 16. Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  17. 17. Section 1-5 Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>President Wilson was opposed to imperialism and believed democracy was necessary to keep the nation stable and prosperous. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted a world free from revolution and war. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1911 a revolution in Mexico forced its leader, Porfirio Díaz, to flee the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The new leader, Francisco Madero, was a poor administrator. </li></ul>(pages 448–449)
  18. 18. Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>General Victoriano Huerta took over in Mexico and presumably had Madero murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson refused to recognize the new government and prevented weapons from reaching Huerta. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914 Wilson sent U.S. marines to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz to overthrow Huerta. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico. </li></ul>Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (cont.) (pages 448–449)
  19. 19. Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>International mediation of the dispute placed Venustiano Carranza as Mexico’s new president. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican forces opposed to Carranza conducted raids into the United States, hoping Wilson would intervene. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa led a group of guerrillas, an armed group that carries out surprise attacks, into New Mexico, and a number of Americans were killed. </li></ul>Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (cont.) (pages 448–449)
  20. 20. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico to capture Villa. </li></ul><ul><li>Pershing was unsuccessful. Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign relations. </li></ul>Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (cont.) (pages 448–449)
  21. 21. Section 1-9 What was President Wilson’s foreign policy in Mexico? Wilson refused to recognize the new Mexican government led by General Victoriano Huerta, who had seized power in Mexico. Wilson sent U.S. marines to Mexico to overthrow Huerta. When anti-American riots broke out in Mexico, Wilson was forced to accept international mediation over the dispute. Venustiano Carranza was made Mexico’s president. Mexican forces, led by Pancho Villa, were opposed to Carranza and conducted raids into the U.S. Wilson sent General John J. Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa. Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (pages 448–449)
  22. 22. Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Outbreak of World War I <ul><li>The roots of World War I can be traced back to the 1860s, when Prussia began a series of wars in order to unite German states. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1871 Germany was united. The new German nation changed European politics. </li></ul><ul><li>France and Germany were enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy. </li></ul>(pages 449–452)
  23. 23. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Russia and France formed the Franco-Russian Alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain remained neutral until the early 1900s, when it began an arms race with Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>This increased tensions between the two countries, causing the British to gain closer relations with France and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>The three countries became known as the Triple Entente. </li></ul>The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) (pages 449–452)
  24. 24. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Nationalism, intense pride for one’s homeland, was a powerful idea in Europe in the late 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>The right to self-determination, the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government, was a basic idea of nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>This idea led to a crisis in the Balkans where different national groups within the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires began to seek independence. </li></ul>The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) (pages 449–452)
  25. 25. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In June 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was killed by a Bosnian revolutionary. </li></ul><ul><li>Video: causes of WWI </li></ul><ul><li>This act set off a chain of events that led to World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 28, Austria declared war on Serbia. </li></ul><ul><li>On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Two days later Germany declared war on France. </li></ul>The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) (pages 449–452)
  26. 26. Schlieffen plan
  27. 27. Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Allies –France, Russia, Great Britain, and later Italy–fought for the Triple Entente. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and Austria-Hungary joined the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria to form the Central Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and France became locked in a bloody stalemate along hundreds of miles of trenches. </li></ul><ul><li>The stalemate lasted three years. </li></ul>The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) (pages 449–452)
  28. 28. Section 1-15 <ul><li>The Central Powers had greater success on the Eastern Front, capturing hundreds of miles of territory and taking hundreds of thousands of prisoners. </li></ul>The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) (pages 449–452)
  29. 29. Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) What factors led to the start of World War I? (pages 449–452)
  30. 30. Section 1-17 The Outbreak of World War I (cont.) The roots of World War I can be traced back to the 1860s, when Prussia began a series of wars in order to unite German states. By 1871 Germany was united. The new German nation changed European politics. France and Germany were enemies. Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia and France formed the Franco-Russian Alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Great Britain remained neutral until the early 1900s, when it began an arms race with Germany. This increased tensions between the two countries, causing the British to gain closer relations with France and Russia. Nationalism led to a crisis in the Balkans where different national groups within the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires began to seek independence. In June 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was killed by a Bosnian revolutionary. This event caused the alliances of Europe to declare war on each other. (pages 449–452)
  31. 31. Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Neutrality <ul><li>Wilson declared the United States to be neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not want his country pulled into a foreign war. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans, however, began showing support for one side or the other with many immigrants supporting their homelands. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Americans favored the Allied cause. </li></ul>(pages 452–453)
  32. 32. Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>President Wilson’s cabinet was pro-British, believing that an Allied victory would preserve an international balance of power. </li></ul><ul><li>The British skillfully used propaganda, or information used to influence opinion, to gain American support. </li></ul>American Neutrality (cont.) (pages 452–453)
  33. 33. Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Companies in the United States had strong ties to the Allied countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Many American banks gave loans to the Allies. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, American prosperity was tied to the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The money would only be paid back if the Allies won. </li></ul>American Neutrality (cont.) (pages 452–453)
  34. 34. Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did propaganda influence Americans? The British cut the transatlantic telegraph cable from Europe to the United States to limit news about the war to mainly British communication. Outrageous reports about German war atrocities convinced many Americans to support the Allies. American Neutrality (cont.) (pages 452–453)
  35. 35. Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Moving Toward War <ul><li>While most Americans supported the Allies, they did not want to enter the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The British navy blockaded Germany to keep it from getting supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>The British redefined contraband, or prohibited materials, to stop neutral parties from shipping food to Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>To get around the blockade, Germany deployed submarines known as U-boats. </li></ul>(pages 453–455)
  36. 36. Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Germany threatened to sink any ship that entered the waters around Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking civilians ships without warning violated an international treaty and outraged the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lusitania, a British passenger liner, was hit by the Germans, killing almost 1,200 passengers–including 128 Americans. </li></ul>Moving Toward War (cont.) (pages 453–455)
  37. 37. Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Americans instructed Germany to stop U-boat strikes. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany did not want the U.S. to join the war and strengthen the Allies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sussex Pledge, a promise made by Germany to stop sinking merchant ships, kept the United States out of the war for a bit longer. </li></ul>Moving Toward War (cont.) (pages 453–455)
  38. 38. Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A German official, Arthur Zimmermann, cabled the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>In return, Mexico would regain territory it had earlier lost to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zimmermann telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to American newspapers. </li></ul>Moving Toward War (cont.) (pages 453–455)
  39. 39. Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In February 1917, Germany went back to unrestricted submarine warfare and, soon after, sank six American merchant ships. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Germany. </li></ul>Moving Toward War (cont.) (pages 453–455)
  40. 40. Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What events led to the United States declaring war against Germany? Moving Toward War (cont.) (pages 453–455)
  41. 41. Section 1-27a The British navy blockaded Germany to keep it from getting supplies. To get around the blockade, Germany deployed U-boats. The Lusitania, a British passenger liner, was hit by the Germans, killing almost 1,200 passengers including 128 Americans. A German official, Arthur Zimmermann, cabled the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany. In return, Mexico would regain territory it had earlier lost to the United States. The Zimmermann telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to American newspapers. In February 1917, Germany went back to unrestricted submarine warfare and, soon after, sank six American merchant ships. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Germany. Moving Toward War (cont.) (pages 453–455)
  42. 42. Section 1-28 Checking for Understanding __ 1. the spreading of ideas about an institution or individual for the purpose of influencing opinion __ 2. armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare __ 3. German submarine, term means Unterseeboot (undersea boat) __ 4. loyalty and devotion to a nation __ 5. goods whose importation, exportation, or possession is illegal A. guerrilla B. nationalism C. propaganda D. contraband E. U-boat Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A E C B D
  43. 43. Section 1-29 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Name the two alliances that Europe was divided into at the start of World War I. The Triple Alliance and Triple Entente were the two alliances. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  44. 44. Section 1-30 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continuity and Change Why did most of President Wilson’s cabinet members support the British? They believed that Allied victory was the only way to preserve the international balance of power, and they cited the close historical ties with Britain and France.
  45. 45. Section 1-31 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Synthesizing How did European nationalism contribute to the outbreak of World War I? Each major ethnic group in European empires wanted its own country.
  46. 46. Section 1-32 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Time Lines Examine the time line on page 451 of your textbook. How does the order in which countries declared war reflect the European alliance system? When one country declared war, its allies declared war.
  47. 47. Section 1-33 Close Discuss the causes of World War I and why the United States entered the war.
  48. 48. End of Section 1
  49. 49. Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading To successfully fight the war, the United States had to mobilize the entire nation. <ul><li>conscription </li></ul>Main Idea Key Terms and Names <ul><li>War Industries Board </li></ul><ul><li>Bernard Baruch </li></ul><ul><li>victory garden </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty Bond </li></ul><ul><li>Victory bond </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Public Information </li></ul><ul><li>espionage </li></ul>
  50. 50. Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about how the United States mobilized for war, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 456 of your textbook. <ul><li>Analyze how the United States raised an army and won support for World War I. </li></ul>Reading Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the economy was controlled to support the war. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy To fight the war, the federal government created new agencies to mobilize the economy, draft soldiers, and build public support.
  52. 52. Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  53. 53. Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Building Up the Military Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>As the United States entered the war; it was necessary to recruit more soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Many progressives thought conscription, or forced military service, violated both democratic and republican principles. </li></ul><ul><li>A new system of conscription, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted. </li></ul>(pages 456–457)
  54. 54. Section 2-6 <ul><li>African American soldiers faced discrimination and prejudice within the army, where they served in racially segregated units under white officers. </li></ul><ul><li>Many African Americans won praise from their commanders and received war medals. </li></ul><ul><li>World War I was the first war in which women officially served. </li></ul>Building Up the Military (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 456–457)
  55. 55. Section 2-7 <ul><li>The navy enlisted some 11,000 women, whose jobs included clerical positions, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, and torpedo assemblers. </li></ul><ul><li>The army, choosing not to enlist women, hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas during the war. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Building Up the Military (cont.) (pages 456–457)
  56. 56. Section 2-8 What was selective service? Selective service was a new system of forced military service. It required all men ages 21–30 to register to be drafted for war. A lottery randomly decided the order in which they were called to service. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Building Up the Military (cont.) (pages 456–457)
  57. 57. Section 2-9 Organizing Industry Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>President Wilson and Congress agreed that the government should not control the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, they wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and government to ensure efficient use of resources during the mobilization of the American economy for war. </li></ul>(pages 457–458)
  58. 58. Section 2-10 <ul><li>In 1917 the War Industries Board (WIB) was created to coordinate the production of war materials. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1918 the WIB was reorganized and Bernard Baruch, a wealthy Wall Street stockbroker, was appointed to run it. </li></ul>Organizing Industry (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 457–458)
  59. 59. Section 2-11 <ul><li>The Food Administration, under the direction of Herbert Hoover, was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve energy. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing Industry (cont.) (pages 457–458)
  60. 60. Section 2-12 <ul><li>To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds. </li></ul>Organizing Industry (cont.) <ul><li>By buying bonds, Americans were loaning the government money that would be repaid with interest in a specified number of years. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 457–458)
  61. 61. Section 2-13 What were some actions of the WIB under the leadership of Bernard Branch? The WIB told manufacturers what they could and could not make. It also controlled the flow of raw materials, ordered construction of new factories, and with the president’s approval, set prices. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Organizing Industry (cont.) (pages 457–458)
  62. 62. Section 2-14 Mobilizing the Workforce Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>To prevent strikes, the government established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) in 1918. </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, the labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war production with a strike. </li></ul>(page 459)
  63. 63. Section 2-15 <ul><li>The war increased the need for women in the workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>They took factory and manufacturing jobs and positions in the shipping and railroad industries. </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, women returned to their previous jobs or left the workforce. </li></ul>Mobilizing the Workforce (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 459)
  64. 64. Section 2-16 <ul><li>The war stopped the flow of immigrants to the United States, which allowed African Americans wartime jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in the North. </li></ul><ul><li>This “Great Migration” changed the racial makeup of many Northern cities. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Mobilizing the Workforce (cont.) (page 459)
  65. 65. Section 2-17 <ul><li>Many Mexicans moved north, providing labor for the farms and ranches in the American Southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexicans also moved to cities to take wartime factory jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>They faced discrimination and hostility from Americans. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Mobilizing the Workforce (cont.) (page 459)
  66. 66. Section 2-18 What was the “Great Migration?” Wartime job openings attracted hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the South to settle in the North. It was a massive population movement during the war. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Mobilizing the Workforce (cont.) (page 459)
  67. 67. Section 2-19 Ensuring Public Support Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Committee on Public Information (CPI), was a new government agency that attempted to “sell” the idea of war to the American people. </li></ul><ul><li>Pamphlets and speeches helped deliver patriotic messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Espionage, or spying to acquire secret government information, was addressed in the Espionage Act of 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>It set up consequences for people who aided the enemy. </li></ul>(pages 459–461)
  68. 68. Section 2-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Sedition Act of 1918 went a step further by making it illegal to criticize the president or the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicions of disloyalty led to the mistreatment of German Americans. Anti-German feelings sometimes led to violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical labor activists, socialists, pacifists, and anyone appearing disloyal also came under attack. </li></ul>Ensuring Public Support (cont.) (pages 459–461)
  69. 69. Section 2-21 <ul><li>In the case of Schenck v. the United States (1919), the Supreme Court ruling limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.” </li></ul>Ensuring Public Support (cont.) (pages 459–461)
  70. 70. Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ensuring Public Support (cont.) How did the government ensure the American public’s support of the war? The Committee on Public Information attempted to “sell” the idea of war to the American people through pamphlets and speeches. The Espionage Act of 1917 set up consequences for people who aided the enemy. The Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to criticize the president or the government. In the case of Schenck v. the United States (1919), the Supreme Court ruling limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.” (pages 459–461)
  71. 71. Section 2-23 Checking for Understanding __ 1. requiring people to enter military service __ 2. spying, especially to gain government secrets __ 3. gardens planted by American citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more for the troops A. conscription B. victory garden C. espionage Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C B A
  72. 72. Section 2-24 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe the contributions of African Americans during the war. About 400,000 African Americans were drafted to serve in the war; many received high praise for their courage from French generals.
  73. 73. Section 2-25 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government and Democracy How did government efforts to ensure support for the war conflict with democratic ideals? The government’s efforts limited free speech and freedom of the press.
  74. 74. Section 2-26 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing How did World War I cause the federal government to change its relationship with the business world? Special boards were created that encouraged cooperation between business and government.
  75. 75. Section 2-27 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Posters Examine the posters on page 458 of your textbook. How do these images encourage support for the war? How effective do you think they would be today? Answers will vary.
  76. 76. Section 2-28 Close Explain how the economy was controlled to support the war.
  77. 77. End of Section 2
  78. 78. Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading After four years of fighting, the war in Europe ended in November 1918. <ul><li>“ no man’s land” </li></ul>Main Idea Key Terms and Names <ul><li>convoy </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk </li></ul><ul><li>armistice </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteen Points </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>reparations </li></ul>
  79. 79. Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the battles of World War I, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 464 of your textbook by listing the kinds of warfare and technology used in the fighting. <ul><li>Discuss the fighting techniques used in World War I. </li></ul>Reading Objectives <ul><li>Characterize the American response to the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Individual Action American troops played a major role in helping end the war, while President Wilson played a major role in the peace negotiations.
  81. 81. Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  82. 82. Section 3-5 Combat in World War I Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By 1917 World War I had claimed millions of European lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans, however, believed their troops could bring the war to a quick end. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers dug trenches as a means of protection from modern weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>“ No man’s land” was the space between the opposing trenches. </li></ul>(pages 464–466)
  83. 83. Section 3-6 <ul><li>Soldiers would charge the enemy by scrambling out of the trenches. </li></ul><ul><li>This inefficient military move made soldiers easy targets. </li></ul><ul><li>In major battles, both sides lost several hundred thousand men. </li></ul>Combat in World War I (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 464–466)
  84. 84. Section 3-7 <ul><li>To break through enemy lines and reduce casualties, new technologies were created. </li></ul><ul><li>Poison gas, first used by the Germans, caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks were unsuccessfully used. </li></ul><ul><li>Airplanes dropped small bombs on the enemy and engaged in air battles. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Combat in World War I (cont.) (pages 464–466)
  85. 85. Section 3-8 How did the nature of warfare change in World War I? The nature of warfare changed as troops dug trenches as a means of protection from modern weapons. New technologies were created to break through enemy lines. The technologies included rapid-fire machine guns, poison gas, tanks, and airplanes that dropped small bombs and that attached machine guns for air battles. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Combat in World War I (cont.) (pages 464–466)
  86. 86. Section 3-9 The Americans and Victory Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>“ Doughboys” was a nickname for American soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Although inexperienced, the American soldiers boosted the morale of Allied forces. </li></ul><ul><li>American Admiral William S. Sims proposed convoys, in which merchant ships and troop transports were gathered into groups and brought across the Atlantic by warships. </li></ul>(pages 466–468)
  87. 87. Section 3-10 <ul><li>The result was a reduction in shipping losses and ensured that American troops would get to Europe safely. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Russians supported the war effort, their government was not equipped to handle the major problems of the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1917 Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Party, overthrew the government and replaced it with a Communist one. </li></ul>The Americans and Victory (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 466–468)
  88. 88. Section 3-11 <ul><li>Lenin pulled Russia out of the war and agreed with Germany to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, removing German armies from Russian lands in exchange for territory. </li></ul><ul><li>This closed the Eastern Front for Germany. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Americans and Victory (cont.) (pages 466–468)
  89. 89. Section 3-12 <ul><li>In March of 1918, Germany launched a massive attack along the Western Front and pushed deeply into Allied lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans troops captured the village of Cantigny, and with French assistance the German attack of Paris was blocked. </li></ul><ul><li>The American and French troops held their ground. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Americans and Victory (cont.) (pages 466–468)
  90. 90. Section 3-13 <ul><li>In September 1918, American General Pershing put together the most massive attack in American history, causing one German position after another to fall to the advancing American troops. </li></ul><ul><li>On November 11, 1918, Germany finally signed an armistice, or cease-fire, that ended the war. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Americans and Victory (cont.) (pages 466–468)
  91. 91. Section 3-14 Why did Russia pull out of the war? After Lenin overthrew the Russian government and set up a Communist government, he pulled Russia out of the war to focus on establishing a Communist state. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Americans and Victory (cont.) (pages 466–468)
  92. 92. Section 3-15 A Flawed Peace Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In January 1919, leaders of the victorious Allied nations met to resolve the issues caused by the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson’s plan, called the Fourteen Points, addressed “the principle of justice to all people and nationalities.” </li></ul><ul><li>The points proposed by Wilson included eliminating the general causes of the war through free trade and disarmament, open diplomacy instead of secret agreements, and the right to self-determination. </li></ul>(pages 468–469)
  93. 93. Section 3-16 <ul><li>The points required the evacuation of the Central Powers from all countries invaded during the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourteenth point, known as the League of Nations, called for member nations to help preserve peace and prevent future wars. </li></ul>A Flawed Peace (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 468–469)
  94. 94. Section 3-17 <ul><li>The other Allied governments felt that Wilson’s plan was too lenient toward Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Versailles, video: failure of the Treaty of Versailles signed by Germany, weakened Wilson’s proposal. The treaty stripped Germany of its armed forces and made it pay reparations, or war damages to the Allies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations were opposed by many United States lawmakers. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A Flawed Peace (cont.) (pages 468–469)
  95. 95. Section 3-18 <ul><li>The “Reservationists,” led by Henry Cabot Lodge, supported the League but wanted to change the treaty with amendments that would preserve the nation’s freedom to act independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson, exhausted by trying to sell his plan to Americans, suffered a stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate refused to ratify the treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, the United States negotiated separate peace treaties with each of the Central Powers. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A Flawed Peace (cont.) (pages 468–469)
  96. 96. Section 3-19 What were the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? The treaty stripped Germany of its armed forces and made it pay reparations to the Allies. The sum was more than Germany could afford to pay. The Treaty also required Germany to acknowledge guilt for the outbreak and devastation caused by World War I. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. A Flawed Peace (cont.) (pages 468–469)
  97. 97. Section 3-20 Checking for Understanding __ 1. a temporary agreement to end fighting __ 2. payment by the losing country in a war to the winner for the damages caused by the war __ 3. a group that travels with something, such as a ship, to protect it A. convoy B. armistice C. reparations Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C A B
  98. 98. Section 3-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the four nations that dominated the Paris peace conference in 1919. Italy, Britain, France, and the United States were the four nations that dominated the Paris peace conference in 1919.
  99. 99. Section 3-22 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Individual Action Why did President Wilson propose his Fourteen Points? He wanted to provide justice for all peoples and nationalities.
  100. 100. Section 3-23 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing What impact did John J. Pershing and the Battle of the Argonne Forest have on World War I? The battle shattered German defenses and opened a hole in the German line.
  101. 101. Section 3-24 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts Examine the map and chart on page 467 of your textbook. Prepare a quiz with questions based on information from both. Give the quiz to some of your classmates. Quizzes will vary.
  102. 102. Section 3-25 Close Characterize the American response to the Treaty of Versailles.
  103. 103. End of Section 3
  104. 104. Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading As American society moved from war to peace, turmoil in the economy and fear of communism caused a series of domestic upheavals. <ul><li>cost of living </li></ul>Main Idea Key Terms and Names <ul><li>general strike </li></ul><ul><li>Red Scare </li></ul><ul><li>A. Mitchell Palmer </li></ul><ul><li>J. Edgar Hoover </li></ul><ul><li>deport </li></ul>
  105. 105. Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the war’s aftermath, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 471 of your textbook to list the effects of the end of World War I on the American economy. <ul><li>Describe the effects of the postwar recession on the United States. </li></ul>Reading Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the causes of and reaction to the Red Scare. </li></ul>
  106. 106. Section 4-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Continuity and Change The postwar period proved a difficult readjustment period for the United States, in part because of economic turmoil and the fear of communism.
  107. 107. Section 4-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  108. 108. Section 4-5 An Economy In Turmoil Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>After World War I ended, rapid inflation resulted when government agencies removed their controls from the American economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation increased the cost of living –the cost of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials people need. </li></ul><ul><li>While workers needed higher wages to keep up with the cost of living, companies wanted to lower wages due to an increase in operating costs. </li></ul>(pages 471–473)
  109. 109. Section 4-6 <ul><li>The number of members in unions increased greatly during the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Unions were better organized than before. </li></ul><ul><li>Business leaders wanted to break the power of unions. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of these factors was a large number of strikes. </li></ul>An Economy In Turmoil (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 471–473)
  110. 110. Section 4-7 <ul><li>General strikes –strikes that involve all workers living in a certain location–worried Americans because they were commonly used in Europe by Communists and other radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Seattle general strike involved more than 60,000 people and brought the city to a halt for five days. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An Economy In Turmoil (cont.) (pages 471–473)
  111. 111. Section 4-8 <ul><li>In 1919, 75 percent of the police force of Boston went on strike. </li></ul><ul><li>The governor of Massachusetts, Calvin Coolidge, called in the National Guard to stop looting. </li></ul><ul><li>When the police tried to return to work, Coolidge fired them, and a new police force was hired to replace them. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An Economy In Turmoil (cont.) (pages 471–473)
  112. 112. Section 4-9 <ul><li>One of the largest strikes in American history took place when 350,000 steelworkers went on strike for higher pay, shorter hours, and recognition of their union. </li></ul><ul><li>The failure of their strike set back the union cause in the steel industry until 1937. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An Economy In Turmoil (cont.) (pages 471–473)
  113. 113. Section 4-10 What caused Coolidge to become the Republican choice for vice president in the 1920 election? Coolidge had agreed that the striking police officers should be fired because they had jeopardized public safety. This brought Coolidge public attention and support. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. An Economy In Turmoil (cont.) (pages 471–473)
  114. 114. Section 4-11 Racial Unrest Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In the summer of 1919, race riots occurred in many Northern cities. </li></ul><ul><li>They were caused by the return of hundreds of thousands of American soldiers who needed to find employment. </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans, who moved North to work, were now competing for the same jobs as the soldiers. </li></ul>(page 473)
  115. 115. Section 4-12 <ul><li>The worst violence occurred in Chicago where whites and African Americans entered each other’s neighborhoods and attacked one another. </li></ul><ul><li>The violence lasted almost two weeks. </li></ul>Racial Unrest (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 473)
  116. 116. Section 4-13 What caused racial unrest in Northern cities after the war? Hundreds of thousands of American soldiers returned to the workforce after the war. They competed for jobs and housing with African Americans who had moved to Northern cities during the war to work in factories. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Racial Unrest (cont.) (page 473)
  117. 117. Section 4-14 The Red Scare Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>After World War I, Americans associated communism with disloyalty and unpatriotic behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The numerous strikes in the U.S. in 1919 made Americans fear that Communists, or “reds,” might take control. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to a nationwide panic known as the Red Scare. </li></ul>(pages 473–475)
  118. 118. Section 4-15 <ul><li>The postal service intercepted 30 parcels addressed to leaders in the business and political arena that were set to explode upon opening. </li></ul><ul><li>One bomb damaged the home of United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Although no one ever took responsibility for the packages, most people felt it was Communists or revolutionaries trying to destroy the American way of life. </li></ul>The Red Scare (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 473–475)
  119. 119. Section 4-16 <ul><li>Palmer set up a special division in the Justice Department called the General Intelligence Division, headed by J. Edgar Hoover. </li></ul><ul><li>Today this is known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). </li></ul><ul><li>Palmer organized raids on various radical organizations, mostly rounding up immigrants who were then deported, or expelled from the country. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Red Scare (cont.) (pages 473–475)
  120. 120. Section 4-17 How did the Red Scare change the attitude of Americans toward immigrants? Americans linked radicalism with immigrants. This led Congress to limit immigration. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Red Scare (cont.) (pages 473–475)
  121. 121. Section 4-18 An End to Progressivism Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Warren G. Harding won the election in 1920 with a campaign that called for a return to “normalcy,” or a return to the simpler days before the Progressive Era reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Harding won the election by a landslide. </li></ul><ul><li>The American people liked the idea of returning to a simpler time. </li></ul>(page 475)
  122. 122. Section 4-19 Why did Americans like the idea of a return to “normalcy”? Americans had a general sense of disillusionment because of economic problems, labor unrest, and racial tensions. They wanted an end to the upheaval. They liked the idea of returning to simpler times before reform. An End to Progressivism (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (page 475)
  123. 123. Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Checking for Understanding __ 1. a strike involving all the workers in a particular geographic location __ 2. the cost of purchasing goods and services essential for survival __ 3. to expel individuals from the country A. cost of living B. general strike C. deport Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A C B
  124. 124. Section 4-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe the conditions that African Americans faced after the end of World War I. They faced racism and intense competition for housing and jobs.
  125. 125. Section 4-22 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continuity and Change Why did Republican Warren G. Harding win the election of 1920? He campaigned on a return to “normalcy,” which many wanted.
  126. 126. Section 4-23 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing How did the Palmer raids deprive some citizens of their civil rights? They abused civil liberties by searching without a warrant, jailing suspects indefinitely, and limiting lawyer-client communication.
  127. 127. Section 4-24 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 472 of your textbook. How might parades such as this one mobilize African Americans to work for an end to discrimination? African Americans would note that they had fought for their country and deserved to be treated equally.
  128. 128. Section 4-25 Close Create a graphic organizer showing the causes of and the reactions to the Red Scare.
  129. 129. End of Section 4
  130. 130. Chapter Summary 1
  131. 131. End of Chapter Summary
  132. 132. Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. German submarine, term means Unterseeboot (undersea boat) __ 2. payment by the losing country in a war to the winner for the damages caused by the war __ 3. goods whose importation, exportation, or possession is illegal __ 4. the spreading of ideas about an institution or individual for the purpose of influencing opinion __ 5. requiring people enter military service A. guerrilla B. propaganda C. contraband D. U-boat E. conscription F. victory garden G. espionage H. armistice I. reparations J. deport I C D B E
  133. 133. Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. gardens planted by American citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more for the troops __ 7. to expel individuals from the country __ 8. spying, especially to gain government secrets __ 9. a temporary agreement to end fighting __ 10. armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare J G F H A A. guerrilla B. propaganda C. contraband D. U-boat E. conscription F. victory garden G. espionage H. armistice I. reparations J. deport
  134. 134. Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts What factors contributed to the start of World War I in Europe? The alliance system, the naval buildup, nationalism in the Balkans, and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand all led to the start of World War I.
  135. 135. Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What role did American women play in the war effort during World War I? Women filled noncombat positions such as nurses, clerical help, and other jobs vacated by men who had become soldiers.
  136. 136. Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What did the American government do to solve the problem of supplying its troops? A draft was initiated to alleviate the shortage of troops. Convoys ensured they–and supplies–could get to Europe safely.
  137. 137. Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? Germany was stripped of its armed forces, forced to accept guilt for the war, and made to pay reparations to the Allies.
  138. 138. Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were the Palmer raids? The Palmer raids were raids of various radical organizations to round up suspects to deport or imprison.
  139. 139. Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Government and Democracy  Do you think government action to suppress opposition to World War I was justified? Why or why not? Possible positive answer: It protected American people from Communist propaganda. Possible negative answer: It violated civil rights and liberties.
  140. 140. Chapter Assessment 9 Geography and History The map to the right shows the geographical changes in Europe after World War I. Study the map and answer the questions on the following slides.
  141. 141. Chapter Assessment 10 Interpreting Maps  After World War I, what new countries were formed using territory that had belonged to Austria-Hungary? Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, and parts of Yugoslavia, Italy, and Poland were formed. Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  142. 142. Chapter Assessment 11 Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Applying Geography Skills  What countries acquired territory from the former Russian Empire? Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, and part of Romania acquired territory.
  143. 143. Chapter Assessment 12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which of the following was one of the primary causes of World War I? F A complex set of alliances among European nations G The exile of Mexican General Victoriano Huerta H The dissatisfaction of Russian peasants J The breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Test-Taking Tip Eliminate answers you know are incorrect. For example, the breakup of Austria-Hungary took place after World War I, so you can eliminate that answer. Similarly, the exile of Huerta occurred in Mexico, which had little effect on European nations. You also can eliminate that answer.
  144. 144. Chapter Assessment 13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the name of the Austrian archduke whose assassination started World War I? Franz Ferdinand was the Austrian archduke.
  145. 145. End of Chapter Assessment
  146. 146. CC 1-1 Government Concerning the Mexican Revolution, President Wilson cautioned “watchful waiting.” Interventionists termed his policy “deadly drifting.” One critic joked about Wilson’s diplomacy by making up an ironic dance step he called the Wilson Tango. It consisted of one step forward, two steps back, one to the side, and then a hesitation.
  147. 147. CC 3-1 Health Although the Russian people had faced war, revolution, and civil war, their greatest danger came in the form of lice. Lice carry Rickettsia bacteria, which causes typhus. After the revolution of 1917, Russia experienced the worst typhus epidemic in history. Between 1917 and 1921, over 2.5 million Russians died of typhus. The use of fumigants prevented a similar outbreak on the Western Front.
  148. 148. FYI Contents 1 Christmas Day 1914 Abdul Hamid Europe German U-boats Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  149. 149. FYI 1-1a On Christmas Day 1914, the fighting stopped, and British and German soldiers met in no-man’s-land to chat, play soccer, and pose for photographs. Officers quickly ended these goodwill meetings and the soldiers returned to war.
  150. 150. FYI 1-2b The last Ottoman sultan with any political and military power was Abdul Hamid. He was responsible for the massacres of Armenian men, women, and children living in Anatolia from 1894 to 1896. Although there was widespread condemnation in the West, the Ottomans did gain one friend among European nations–Germany. Hamid was overthrown in 1908 by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Two important members of CUP, Enver Bey and Talaat Bey, forged the alliance with Germany that would carry over into World War I.
  151. 151. FYI 1-2c Until the outbreak of World War I, Europe had not had a major war for almost 100 years, since the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
  152. 152. FYI 1-2d The first German U-boat was built in1906. During World War I, Germany was able to put several types of U-boats into service.
  153. 153. FYI Contents 2 United States Posters Mass Media Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  154. 154. FYI 2-1a Some of the posters printed by the United States government contained highly charged language and images. One showed two German soldiers robbing a house after shooting the owner; the soldiers were labeled “Hindenburglers.” Another, entitled “Halt the Hun,” showed an American soldier preventing a German soldier from bayoneting a defenseless woman and her baby.
  155. 155. FYI 2-2b The mass media of the World War I era consisted only of newsprint. Neither film nor radio had developed as a medium for spreading ideas. Considering these limitations, World War I propaganda was extremely effective.
  156. 156. FYI Contents 3 Flying Aces Ten Days That Shook The World Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  157. 157. FYI 3-1a Three pilots who flew bombers in World War I were among the best-known fighters of the war. American Eddie Rickenbacker shot down 22 planes during the war. Flying aces from other countries also became famous. Manfred von Richthofen of Germany, known as the “Red Baron,” was credited with 80 victories, and Rene Fonck of France with 75.
  158. 158. FYI 3-2b John Reed was an eyewitness to the 1917 revolution in Russia. Back in the United States, he wrote Ten Days That Shook the World and helped lead the Communist Labor Party. For his Communist activities, Reed was indicted for sedition. In 1919 he returned to Russia and was elected to the Second Congress of the Communist International.
  159. 159. FYI Contents 4 Black Socks Red Scare Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  160. 160. FYI 4-1a As fresh memories of the war, economic problems, labor unrest, and racial tension combined to create a sense of disillusionment, scandal marred a symbol of American life. In 1919 eight members of the Chicago White Sox were accused of taking mob money to lose the World Series to the Cincinnati Reds. The players, dubbed the Black Sox, were acquitted in court but were banned from professional baseball for life.
  161. 161. FYI 4-2b During the Red Scare, many Americans believed that people who promoted radical causes should be treated without regard for their rights. Others, such as journalist William Allen White, argued that the arrests and deportation of alleged Communists gave radical causes more publicity than they deserved.
  162. 162. Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  163. 163. You Don’t Say Contents 3 Stalemate Ace Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  164. 164. You Don’t Say 3-1a Stalemate A stalemate occurs in the game of chess when one player cannot make any move without putting his or her king in a position to be captured, and thus lose the game. It is an apt term for the deadlock along the Western Front.
  165. 165. You Don’t Say 3-2b Ace The term ace originally referred to a pilot who shot down five enemy planes. It later came to mean anyone who was exceptionally good at something.
  166. 166. CT Skill Builder 1 Analyzing Information The ability to analyze information is important in deciding your position on a subject. For example, you need to analyze a political decision to determine if you should support it. You would also analyze a candidate’s position statements to determine if you should vote for him or her. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  167. 167. CT Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Analyzing Information To analyze information, use the following steps: <ul><li>Identify the topic that is being discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine how the information is organized. What are the main points? </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the information in your own words, and then make a statement of your own based on your understanding of the topic and on what you already know. </li></ul>
  168. 168. CT Skill Builder 3 Practicing the Skill Read the information on the following slides taken from Henry Cabot Lodge’s On the League of Nations speech. Use the steps listed on the previous slide to analyze the information and answer the questions on the following slides. Analyzing Information
  169. 169. CT Skill Builder 4 I am as anxious as any human being can be to have the United States render every possible service to the civilization and the peace of mankind. But I am certain that we can do it best by not putting ourselves in leading strings, or subjecting our policies and our sovereignty to other nations. The independence of the United States is not only more precious to ourselves, but to the world, than any single possession. I will go as far as anyone in world service that the first step to world service is the maintenance of the United States. You may call me selfish if you will, conservative or reactionary, or use any other harsh adjective you see fit to apply. But an American I was born, an American I’ve remained all my life. I can never be anything else but an American, and I must think of the United States first. Analyzing Information Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  170. 170. CT Skill Builder 5 And when I think of the United States first in an argument like this, I am thinking of what is best for the world. For if the United States fails, the best hope of mankind fails with it. I have never had but one allegiance; I cannot divide it now. I have loved but one flag and I cannot share that devotion and given affection to the mongrel banner invented for a league. Internationalism, illustrated by the Bolshevik and by the men to whom all countries are alike, provided they can make money out of them, is to me repulsive. National I must remain and in that way, like all Americans, can render the amplest service to the world. The United States is the world’s best hope, but if you fetter her in the interest through quarrels of other nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence. Analyzing Information Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  171. 171. CT Skill Builder 6 1. What topic is being discussed? 2. What are the main points of this excerpt from Senator Lodge’s speech? The League of Nations is being discussed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Analyzing Information Independence of the United States is precious to us and to the world; he cannot share his devotion to the United States with the League of Nations; getting involved in the intrigues of Europe will endanger the existence of the United States. Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  172. 172. CT Skill Builder 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. 3. Summarize the information in this excerpt, and then provide your analysis based on this information and what you know from the rest of the chapter. Answers will vary. Analyzing Information Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  173. 173. Causes and Effects 1
  174. 174. M/C 1-1
  175. 175. M/C 2-1
  176. 176. M/C 3 Contents Battles of World War I, 1914–1918 Western Front, 1914–1918 World War I Military Deaths Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  177. 177. M/C 3-1a
  178. 178. M/C 3-2a
  179. 179. M/C 3-3a
  180. 180. Vis 1 Western Front, 1914-1918 World War I Military Deaths Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  181. 181. Vis 2
  182. 182. Vis 3
  183. 183. Why It Matters Transparency
  184. 184. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  185. 185. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  186. 186. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  187. 187. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  188. 188. GO 1
  189. 189. GO 2
  190. 190. GO 3
  191. 191. GO 4
  192. 192. HELP To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Maps and Chart button in the top right corner of many slides to link to relevant In-Motion and static maps and charts. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas , History Online , and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature.
  193. 193. End of Custom Shows End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.
  194. 194. End of Slide Show

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