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Chpt 12

Chpt 12

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  • 1. Splash Screen
  • 2. Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Imperialist Vision Section 2 The Spanish-American War Section 3 New American Diplomacy Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • 3. Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 4. Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives
    • Analyze how a desire for more trade and markets led to political change between 1877 and 1898.
    • Cite the motivations for and methods of American expansion in the Pacific.
    Section 1: The Imperialist Vision
  • 5. Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: The Spanish-American War
    • Describe the circumstances that led to war between the United States and Spain in 1898.
    • Explain how the war made the United States a world power.
  • 6. Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: New American Diplomacy
    • Critique Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy as president.
    • Explain the Open Door policy and its effects on relations between the United States and Asia.
  • 7. Intro 5 Why It Matters During this era, economic and military competition from world powers convinced the United States it must be a world power. The United States became an empire when it acquired the Philippines and territory in the Caribbean. American influence in Central and South America grew as the United States took a more active role in Latin American affairs.
  • 8. Intro 6 The Impact Today Events of this time continue to influence American politics.
    • The United States continues to use its navy to protect its overseas interests.
    • The Panama Canal serves as a major route for international commerce.
    • Puerto Rico remains tied to the United States as a commonwealth.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 9. Intro 7 continued on next slide
  • 10. Intro 8
  • 11. End of Intro
  • 12. Section 1-1 Guide to Reading In the late 1800s, many Americans wanted the United States to expand its military and economic power overseas.
    • imperialism
    Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names
    • protectorate
    • Anglo-Saxonism
    • Matthew C. Perry
    • Queen Liliuokalani
    • Pan-Americanism
    • Alfred T. Mahan
    • Henry Cabot Lodge
  • 13. Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about the development of the United States as a world power, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 392 of your textbook.
    • Analyze how a desire for more trade and markets led to political change between 1877 and 1898.
    Reading Objectives
    • Cite the motivations for and methods of American expansion in the Pacific.
  • 14. Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Global Connections America’s growing trade with the world and rivalry with European nations led to a naval buildup and a search for territory overseas.
  • 15. Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 16. Section 1-5 (pages 392–394) Building Support for Imperialism Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Beginning in the 1880s, Americans wanted the United States to become a world power.
    • Their change in attitude was a result of economic and military competition from other nations and a growing feeling of cultural superiority.
    • Imperialism, the economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker nations, was a view held by many Europeans nations as they expanded their power overseas.
  • 17. Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • To protect their investments, European nations exerted control over territories where they had invested capital and sold products.
    • Some areas became colonies while others became protectorates.
    • In a protectorate, the imperial power allowed local rulers to remain in control while protecting them against rebellion and invasion.
    Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) (pages 392–394)
  • 18. Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In return, local rulers had to accept advice from the Europeans on how to govern their country.
    • Americans wanted to develop overseas markets to keep the economy strong.
    • Social Darwinists argued that as nations competed, only the strongest would survive.
    • Americans used these ideas to justify expanding American power overseas.
    Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) (pages 392–394)
  • 19. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • John Fiske, a historian and writer, wrote about “Anglo-Saxonism,” the idea that the English-speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of government and were destined to dominate the planet.
    • Josiah Strong linked missionary work to Anglo-Saxonism, convincing many Americans to support imperialism.
    Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) (pages 392–394)
  • 20. Section 1-9 Why did Americans increasingly support imperialism during the 1880s? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) (pages 392–394)
  • 21. Section 1-10 Americans wanted to develop overseas markets to keep the economy strong. Social Darwinists argued that as nations competed, only the strongest would survive. John Fiske wrote about “Anglo-Saxonism,” the idea that the English-speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of government and were destined to dominate the planet. Anglo-Saxonism was a popular idea because it fit with the idea of Manifest Destiny. Josiah Strong linked missionary work to Anglo-Saxonism, convincing many Americans to support imperialism. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) (pages 392–394)
  • 22. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 394–395) Expansion in the Pacific
    • Americans expanded across the Pacific Ocean and toward East Asia looking for overseas markets.
    • Americans hoped to trade with China and Japan, but Japan only allowed trade with the Chinese and the Dutch.
    • In 1852 President Franklin Pierce ordered Commodore Matthew C. Perry to travel to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty.
  • 23. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In 1854 the Japanese, impressed by American technology and power, signed a treaty opening two ports to American trade.
    • By the 1890s, Japan had a powerful navy and had set out to build its own empire in Asia.
    • Following an 1872 recession in Hawaii, the United States exempted Hawaiian sugar from tariffs in 1875.
    Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) (pages 394–395)
  • 24. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • When the treaty later came up for renewal, the Senate insisted that Hawaii give the United States exclusive rights to a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
    • The trade treaty led to a boom in the Hawaiian sugar industry.
    • The McKinley Tariff in 1890 gave subsidies to sugar producers in the United States, causing the sale of Hawaiian sugar to decline.
    • As a result, the Hawaiian economy also declined.
    Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) (pages 394–395)
  • 25. Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In 1891 Queen Liliuokalani became the queen of Hawaii.
    • She disliked the influence of American settlers in Hawaii.
    • In 1893 a group of planters, supported by U.S. Marines, forced the queen to give up her power after she unsuccessfully tried to impose a new constitution that reasserted her authority as ruler of the Hawaiian people.
    • The group of planters set up a temporary government and asked the United States to annex the islands.
    Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) (pages 394–395)
  • 26. Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the United States expand in the Pacific? Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) (pages 394–395)
  • 27. Section 1-16 In 1852 President Franklin Pierce ordered Commodore Matthew C. Perry to travel to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty. In 1854 the Japanese signed a treaty opening two ports to American trade. During an 1872 recession in Hawaii, the United States exempted Hawaiian sugar from tariffs. When the treaty later came up for renewal, the Senate insisted that Hawaii give the United States exclusive rights to a naval base at Pearl Harbor. In 1893 Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii was forced, by a group of planters supported by U.S. Marines, to give up her power after she unsuccessfully tried to impose a new constitution that reasserted her authority as ruler of the Hawaiian people. The planters set up a temporary government and asked the United States to annex the islands. Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) (pages 394–395)
  • 28. Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 395–396) Trade and Diplomacy in Latin America
    • In the 1800s, the United States wanted to increase its influence in Latin America by increasing the sale of American products in the region.
    • Americans wanted Europeans to realize that the United States was the dominant power in the region.
  • 29. Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Secretary of State James G. Blaine led early efforts to expand American influence in Latin America.
    • He proposed the idea that the United States and Latin America work together in what came to be called Pan-Americanism.
    • In 1889 the first Pan-American conference was held in Washington, D.C.
    Trade and Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.) (pages 395–396)
  • 30. Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The goals of the conference were to create a customs union between Latin America and the United States, and to create a system for American nations to work out their disputes peacefully.
    • The Latin Americans rejected both ideas.
    • Latin Americans agreed to create the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics, an organization that worked to promote cooperation among the nations of the Western Hemisphere.
    Trade and Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.) (pages 395–396)
  • 31. Section 1-20
    • Today this organization is called the Organization of American States (OAS).
    Trade and Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.) (pages 395–396)
  • 32. Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What were the two goals of the first Pan-American conference? James G. Blaine wanted to create a customs union between Latin America and the United States, and create a system for American nations to work out their disputes peacefully. Trade and Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.) (pages 395–396)
  • 33. Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 396–397) Building a Modern Navy
    • Americans were willing to risk war to defend American interests overseas.
    • This led to American support for a large modern navy.
    • Captain Alfred T. Mahan of the United States Navy published his lectures in a book called The Influence of Seapower Upon History, 1660–1783.
  • 34. Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The book suggested that a nation needed a large navy to protect its merchant ships and to defend its right to trade with other countries.
    • Mahan felt it necessary to acquire territory overseas for naval bases.
    • Henry Cabot Lodge and Albert J. Beveridge, two powerful senators, pushed for the construction of a new navy.
    • By the late 1890s, the United States was on its way to becoming one of the top-ranked naval powers in the world.
    Building a Modern Navy (cont.) (pages 396–397)
  • 35. Section 1-24
    • In the spring of 1898, war began between Spain and the United States.
    Building a Modern Navy (cont.) (pages 396–397)
  • 36. Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What were the ideas that convinced Congress to pay for building a strong, modern U.S. navy? Businesses wanted new markets overseas, and Anglo-Saxonism convinced many Americans that they had a destiny to dominate the world. European imperialism threatened America’s security. United States Navy Captain Alfred T. Mahan suggested that a nation needed a large navy to protect its merchant ships and to defend its right to trade with other countries. He felt it necessary to acquire territory overseas for naval bases. Building a Modern Navy (cont.) (pages 396–397)
  • 37. Section 1-26 Checking for Understanding __ 1. the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation __ 2. a country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country A. imperialism B. protectorate Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B A
  • 38. Section 1-27 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain why Secretary of State James G. Blaine convened the Pan-American conference in 1889. He convened the conference to support peace and increase trade among the Americas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 39. Section 1-28 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Global Connections What events in the world convinced Americans to support a large navy? Germany tried to control the Samoa Islands, a Chilean mob attacked American soldiers, and the United States backed Venezuela in a border dispute.
  • 40. Section 1-29 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Forming an Opinion Do you think the United States should have supported the planters in their attempt to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii? Why or why not? Answers will vary.
  • 41. Section 1-30 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Art Study the painting on page 394 of your textbook. How is the U.S. Navy portrayed in relation to the Japanese residents of Yokohama? Do you think the artist shows any bias in this representation? Why or why not? The U.S. troops are more numerous and surround the Japanese representatives. The author does show probable bias.
  • 42. Section 1-31 Close Cite the motivations for and the methods of American expansion in the Pacific.
  • 43. End of Section 1
  • 44. Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading The United States defeated Spain in a war, acquired new overseas territories, and became an imperial power.
    • José Martí
    Main Idea Key Terms and Names
    • William Randolph Hearst
    • Joseph Pulitzer
    • yellow journalism
    • jingoism
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • Platt Amendment
  • 45. Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the Spanish-American War, complete a graphic organizer like the one on page 399 of your textbook by listing the circumstances that contributed to war with Spain.
    • Describe the circumstances that led to war between the United States and Spain in 1898.
    Reading Objectives
    • Explain how the war made the United States a world power.
  • 46. Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy The United States fought Spain to help Cubans gain their independence.
  • 47. Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 48. Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 399–401) The Coming of War Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Cuba, a Spanish colony, provided wealth for Spain with sugarcane plantations.
    • In 1868 Cuban rebels declared independence and began a guerrilla attack against Spanish authorities.
    • After the attack failed, the Cuban rebels fled to the United States to plan a new revolution.
    • Writer and poet José Martí, an exiled leader of Cuba’s revolution, fled to New York City.
  • 49. Section 2-6
    • He raised money from Americans and began purchasing weapons and training troops to prepare for an invasion of Cuba.
    • In 1894, after the United States imposed new tariffs on sugar, the economy of Cuba was devastated.
    • Martí and his followers began a new rebellion in February of 1895.
    • They seized control of eastern Cuba, declared its independence, and set up the Republic of Cuba in September 1895.
    The Coming of War (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 399–401)
  • 50. Section 2-7
    • At the start of the Cuban revolution, Americans were neutral.
    • But after reports in two newspapers, the New York Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst and the New York World owned by Joseph Pulitzer, Americans began to side with the rebels.
    • The newspapers, trying to outdo each other, began to use yellow journalism by running exaggerated stories of Spanish attacks on Cubans.
    The Coming of War (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 399–401)
  • 51. Section 2-8
    • The Cuban rebels attacked and destroyed American property, hoping for American intervention in the war.
    • The Spanish appointed General Valeriano Weyler to serve as governor.
    • He caused the deaths of tens of thousands of Cuban villagers by sending them to reconcentration camps.
    • This led Americans to call for intervention in the war.
    The Coming of War (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 399–401)
  • 52. Section 2-9
    • The Spanish ambassador to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, wrote a private letter, describing President McKinley as weak and seeking admiration of Americans.
    • The New York Journal printed the letter, causing Americans to become angry over the insult.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Coming of War (cont.) (pages 399–401)
  • 53. Section 2-10
    • In February 1898, the U.S.S. Maine, anchored in Havana, Cuba, exploded, killing 266 American officers and sailors.
    • Although no one knows why the ship exploded, many Americans blamed Spain.
    • President William McKinley did not want to intervene in the war, fearing it would cost the United States too many lives and hurt the economy.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Coming of War (cont.) (pages 399–401)
  • 54. Section 2-11
    • Within the president’s own political party, jingoism was very strong.
    • In 1898, after much pressure, McKinley authorized Congress to declare war on Spain.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Coming of War (cont.) (pages 399–401)
  • 55. Section 2-12 What factors led Americans to call for war against Spain in the late 1800s? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Coming of War (cont.) (pages 399–401) After sensational reports in two newspapers, the New York Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst and the New York World owned by Joseph Pulitzer, Americans began to side with the rebels. The Cuban rebels attacked and destroyed American property, hoping for American intervention in the war. The Spanish Governor of Cuba, General Valeriano Weyler, caused the deaths of tens of thousands of Cuban villagers by sending them to reconcentration camps. This led Americans to call for intervention in the war. The Spanish ambassador to the U.S. wrote a letter describing President McKinley as weak. This angered Americans. In February 1898, the U.S.S. Maine, anchored in Havana, Cuba, exploded, killing 266 American officers and sailors. Many Americans blamed Spain.
  • 56. Section 2-13 (pages 401–403) A War on Two Fronts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The United States Navy’s North Atlantic Squadron blockaded Cuba.
    • An American fleet in British Hong Kong was ordered to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines–a Spanish colony.
    • In May 1898, Commodore George Dewey led a squadron that destroyed or captured Spanish warships in Manila Bay in the Philippines.
  • 57. Section 2-14
    • McKinley sent 20,000 American troops to the Philippines and, along the way, seized the island of Guam–a Spanish possession in the Pacific.
    • The American army was untrained and unequipped.
    • Poor conditions in training camps resulted in more Americans dying in training than in battle.
    A War on Two Fronts (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 401–403)
  • 58. Section 2-15
    • In June, American troops advanced toward Santiago Harbor in Cuba.
    • One group attacked the village of El Caney, and another group attacked San Juan Heights.
    • Among the American troops were the “Rough Riders” led by Colonel Leonard Wood, with Theodore Roosevelt as second in command.
    • Both attacks were American victories.
    A War on Two Fronts (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 401–403)
  • 59. Section 2-16
    • Along with the Rough Riders were the all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments.
    • About one-fourth of the American troops fighting in Cuba were African American.
    • Spanish resistance ended with the surrender of Santiago.
    • On August 12, 1898, Spain and the United States agreed to a cease-fire.
    A War on Two Fronts (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 401–403)
  • 60. Section 2-17 Who were the “Rough Riders”? The “Rough Riders” were a group of volunteer cavalry regiment from the American West. The group was a mix of cowboys, miners, and law officers with Theodore Roosevelt as second in command. They attacked Kettle Hill on foot and assisted in the capture of San Juan Hill. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. A War on Two Fronts (cont.) (pages 401–403)
  • 61. Section 2-18 (pages 403–405) An American Empire is Born Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Many Americans supported annexing the Philippines because it would provide a naval base in Asia, a stopover on the way to China, a large market for American goods, and the ability to teach “less civilized” peoples.
    • On December 10, 1898, the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris.
    • Cuba became an independent country.
  • 62. Section 2-19
    • The United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and paid Spain $20 million for the Philippines.
    • This treaty made the United States an imperial power.
    • Controlling its new empire was not easy for the United States.
    • Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino revolutionary, ordered his troops to attack American soldiers stationed in the Philippines.
    An American Empire is Born (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 403–405)
  • 63. Section 2-20
    • American General Arthur MacArthur was forced to set up reconcentration camps resulting in thousands of Filipinos dying.
    • William Howard Taft, the first U.S. civilian governor of the Philippines, introduced reforms in education, transportation, and health care to try to win over the Filipino people.
    • These reforms slowly lessened Filipino hostility toward American rule.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An American Empire is Born (cont.) (pages 403–405)
  • 64. Section 2-21
    • By April 1902, all Filipino resistance stopped.
    • In 1946 the United States granted independence to the Philippines.
    • In 1900 Congress passed the Foraker Act, making Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory.
    • Congress gradually allowed the people a degree of self-government.
    • In 1917 Puerto Ricans were made citizens of the United States.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An American Empire is Born (cont.) (pages 403–405)
  • 65. Section 2-22
    • In 1947 the island was given the right to elect its own governor.
    • Today the debate on whether to grant Puerto Rico statehood, to become an independent country, or to continue as a Commonwealth and part of the United States still exists.
    • After the war, the United States set up a military government in Cuba.
    • Steps were taken to ensure that Cuba would remain tied to the United States.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An American Empire is Born (cont.) (pages 403–405)
  • 66. Section 2-23
    • The Platt Amendment specified that (1) Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that would weaken its power or allow another foreign power to gain territory in Cuba; (2) Cuba had to allow the United States to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba; (3) Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment; and (4) the United States would have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order.
    An American Empire is Born (cont.) (pages 403–405)
  • 67. Section 2-24
    • Cuba reluctantly accepted the Amendment.
    • It was repealed in 1934.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An American Empire is Born (cont.) (pages 403–405)
  • 68. Section 2-25 How did the Foraker Act affect Puerto Rico? This act meant that the Puerto Ricans were not citizens and had no constitutional rights. It also gave Congress the power to pass whatever laws it wanted for the island. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. An American Empire is Born (cont.) (pages 403–405)
  • 69. Section 2-26 Checking for Understanding __ 1. extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy __ 2. type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers A. yellow journalism B. jingoism Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B
  • 70. Section 2-27 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain why many Americans blamed Spain for the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine . Cuba was fighting for its independence from Spain, and many Americans saw the Spanish as tyrants.
  • 71. Section 2-28 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government and Democracy Why did many Filipinos feel betrayed by the U.S. government after the Spanish-American War? The Filipinos did not want their homeland annexed.
  • 72. Section 2-29 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting Do you think President McKinley could have taken a different course of action with Spain over Cuba? If so, what kind? If no, why not? Answers will vary.
  • 73. Section 2-30 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Art Examine the painting on page 391 of your textbook. Considering what you have learned about the Rough Riders and this battle, what is inaccurate about the painting? What kind of artistic bias is evident in this painting? The Rough Riders are on horseback in the painting, but in battle they were actually on foot. The painting glorifies the Rough Riders.
  • 74. Section 2-31 Close Explain how the war made the United States a world power.
  • 75. End of Section 2
  • 76. Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading Under President Theodore Roosevelt, the United States increased its power on the world stage.
    • sphere of influence
    Main Idea Key Terms and Names
    • Open Door policy
    • Boxer Rebellion
    • “ Great White Fleet”
    • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
    • Roosevelt Corollary
    • dollar diplomacy
  • 77. Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the increasing presence of the United States in the world, complete a graphic organizer like the one on page 408 of your textbook by listing the reasons President Roosevelt gave for wanting a canal in Central America.
    • Critique Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy as president.
    Reading Objectives
    • Explain the Open Door policy and its effects on relations between the United States and Asia.
  • 78. Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Continuity and Change The commercial interests of the United States spurred its involvement in distant parts of the world, such as China and Latin America.
  • 79. Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 80. Section 3-5 (pages 408–409) Theodore Roosevelt’s Rise to Power Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In the 1900 election, President McKinley defeated William Jennings Bryan by a wide margin.
    • On September 6, 1901, Leon Czolgosz shot President McKinley, who died a few days later.
    • Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley’s vice president, became the youngest person to become president.
  • 81. Section 3-6
    • Roosevelt believed the United States had a duty to shape the “less civilized” parts of the world.
    • He wanted the United States to become a world power.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rise to Power (cont.) (pages 408–409)
  • 82. Section 3-7 How did Theodore Roosevelt view the role of the United States in the world? He believed the U.S. had a duty to shape the “less civilized” parts of the world, and he wanted the U.S. to become a world power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rise to Power (cont.) (pages 408–409)
  • 83. Section 3-8 (pages 409–411) American Diplomacy in Asia Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In 1899 the United States was a major power in Asia.
    • Between 1895 and 1900, American exports to China quadrupled.
    • In 1894 war began between China and Japan over what is now Korea.
    • This ended in a Japanese victory.
    • In the peace treaty, China gave Korea independence and Japan territory in Manchuria.
  • 84. Section 3-9
    • The war showed that China was weaker than people had thought, and that Japan had successfully adopted Western technology.
    • Japan’s rising power worried Russia.
    • Russia forced Japan to give back the part of Manchuria to China and later made China lease the territory to Russia.
    • Leasing a territory meant it would still belong to China but a foreign power would have control.
    American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 409–411)
  • 85. Section 3-10
    • This leasehold became the center of a sphere of influence, an area where a foreign nation controlled economic development such as railroad and mining.
    • President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay supported an Open Door policy in China.
    • They believed all countries should be allowed to trade with China.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) (pages 409–411)
  • 86. Section 3-11
    • Hay sent notes to countries with leaseholds in China asking to keep ports open to all nations.
    • Hay expected all powers would abide by this plan.
    • Secret Chinese societies were organized to end foreign control.
    • Members of the Boxers started the Boxer Rebellion.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) (pages 409–411)
  • 87. Section 3-12
    • Group members invaded foreign embassies in Beijing and killed more than 200 foreigners and took others prisoner.
    • An international force stopped the rebellion in August 1900.
    • Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace prize in 1906 for his efforts in ending the war between Japan and Russia.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) (pages 409–411)
  • 88. Section 3-13
    • After the peace treaty between Japan and Russia, relations between the United States and Japan worsened.
    • Each nation wanted greater influence in Asia.
    • They agreed to respect each other’s territorial possessions, to uphold the Open Door policy, and to support China’s independence.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) (pages 409–411)
  • 89. Section 3-14
    • The Great White Fleet, 16 battleships of the new United States Navy, was sent around the world to show the country’s military strength.
    • Visiting Japan did not help the tension that already existed.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) (pages 409–411)
  • 90. Section 3-15 What did Roosevelt do to end the war between Japan and Russia? Roosevelt convinced Russia to recognize Japan’s territorial gains, and he persuaded Japan to stop fighting and seek no further territory. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.) (pages 409–411)
  • 91. Section 3-16 (pages 412–413) A Growing Presence in the Caribbean Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In 1901 the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty signed by the U.S. and Great Britain gave the United States exclusive rights to build and control any proposed canal through Central America.
    • A French company that had begun to build a canal through Panama offered to sell its rights and property in Panama to the United States.
  • 92. Section 3-17
    • In 1903 Panama was still a part of Colombia, which refused John Hay’s offer to purchase the land and gain rights to build the canal.
    • Panamanians decided to declare their independence from Colombia and make their own deal with the United States to build the canal.
    • The short uprising against Colombia was supported by the United States, which sent ships to Panama to prevent Colombia from interfering.
    A Growing Presence in the Caribbean (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 412–413)
  • 93. Section 3-18
    • The United States recognized Panama’s independence, and the two nations signed a treaty to have the canal built.
    • Construction of the 50-mile canal took ten years.
    • It shortened the distance from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean by about 8,000 nautical miles.
    A Growing Presence in the Caribbean (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 412–413)
  • 94. Section 3-19
    • The 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine stated that the United States would intervene in Latin American economic and political affairs when necessary to maintain stability in the Western Hemisphere.
    • The corollary was first applied to the Dominican Republic when it fell behind in its debt payments to European nations.
    • Latin American nations resented the growing American influence.
    A Growing Presence in the Caribbean (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 412–413)
  • 95. Section 3-20
    • The new president of the United States, William Howard Taft, continued Roosevelt’s policies.
    • He believed that if American business leaders supported Latin American development, everyone would benefit.
    • His policy came to be called dollar diplomacy.
    A Growing Presence in the Caribbean (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 412–413)
  • 96. Section 3-21 How did the United States gain the rights to build the Panama Canal? Panamanians decided to declare their independence from Colombia and make their own deal with the United States to build the canal. The short uprising against Colombia was supported by the United States that sent ships to Panama to prevent Colombia from interfering. The United States recognized Panama’s independence, and the two nations signed a treaty to have the canal built. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. A Growing Presence in the Caribbean (cont.) (pages 412–413)
  • 97. Section 3-22 Checking for Understanding __ 1. section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers __ 2. a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interest abroad __ 3. a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence A. sphere of influence B. Open Door policy C. dollar diplomacy Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C B A
  • 98. Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continuity and Change Why do you think Latin American nations resented American influence in the region? Possible answers: They wanted the right to self-determination. They knew that America would act in its own interests, not the interests of Latin American countries. Reviewing Themes
  • 99. Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing How did the Open Door policy and dollar diplomacy affect U.S. relations with other countries? The Open Door policy kept China open to U.S. trade. Dollar diplomacy generally created Latin American resentment. Critical Thinking
  • 100. Section 3-25 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Graphs Examine the graph on page 409 of your textbook. Why do you think such a small number of U.S. exports went to China and Japan? Possible answers: American products were in little demand; the Chinese and Japanese could not afford them.
  • 101. Section 3-26 Close Explain the Open Door policy and its effects on relations between the United States and Asia.
  • 102. End of Section 3
  • 103. Chapter Summary 1
  • 104. End of Chapter Summary
  • 105. Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation __ 2. a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad __ 3. a country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country __ 4. extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy A. imperialism B. protectorate C. yellow journalism D. jingoism E. sphere of influence F. Open Door policy G. dollar diplomacy G B A D
  • 106. Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 5. type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers __ 6. a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence __ 7. section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers F C A. imperialism B. protectorate C. yellow journalism D. jingoism E. sphere of influence F. Open Door policy G. dollar diplomacy E
  • 107. Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts Why did the United States seek to become a world power in the 1890s? It wanted to compete economically and militarily with other countries, and there was a growing feeling of superiority.
  • 108. Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did yellow journalism contribute to American support of the Cuban revolution? Newspapers that practiced yellow journalism made up outrageous stories about the Spanish treatment of the Cuban people. They inflamed American citizens’ negative sentiments toward the Spanish.
  • 109. Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1898? Cuba became an independent country, the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam, and the United States agreed to pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines.
  • 110. Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did President Theodore Roosevelt help negotiate peace between Japan and Russia? He wanted to prevent any single nation from monopolizing trade in the Far East.
  • 111. Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What was dollar diplomacy? It was the policy that placed less emphasis on military force and more on investing American dollars in Latin America.
  • 112. Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Government and Democracy Why did American sugarcane planters in Hawaii revolt against Queen Liliuokalani? She attempted to impose a new constitution and to decrease the power of American planters.
  • 113. Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Explaining What was the significance of the year 1898 as a turning point for the United States? The United States declared war on Spain. After the war the U.S. gained territory outside the continental United States and established itself as a world power. The United States also annexed Hawaii in 1898.
  • 114. Chapter Assessment 10 Geography and History The map below shows the expansion of the United States in 1900. Study the map and answer the questions on the following slides.
  • 115. Chapter Assessment 11 Interpreting Maps Approximately how far west is the island of Guam from the west coast of the United States? Guam is approximately 6,500 miles (10,500 kilometers) from the west coast of the United States. Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 116. Chapter Assessment 12 Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Applying Geography Skills Why did the United States acquire so much island territory in the Pacific? The United States acquired it for military and trade purposes.
  • 117. Chapter Assessment 13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which of the following statements about the Platt Amendment is true? A It guaranteed that Cuba would be independent by 1915. B It prevented the United States from intervening in Cuban foreign affairs. C It essentially made Cuba a U.S. protectorate. D It opened up territory in Cuba to a variety of foreign powers. Test-Taking Tip Eliminate answers you know are incorrect. The Platt Amendment laid out conditions desired by the United States, and so you can eliminate answers that would not be beneficial to the United States.
  • 118. Chapter Assessment 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the cause of the Boxer Rebellion in China? The fear of foreign control of China caused several secret societies to band together and attack foreign embassies.
  • 119. End of Chapter Assessment
  • 120. CC 2-1 Language Arts “Yellow” journalism takes its name from the “Yellow Kid” comic strip, which featured a scrappy little bald kid in a flashy yellow nightshirt. Drawn by R.F. Outcault, the comic strip first ran in 1895 in Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World. The bright yellow ink attracted readers. Therefore, yellow journalism came to refer to flashy, unsubstantiated news accounts.
  • 121. CC 3-1 Science Constructing the Panama Canal involved three main engineering projects. First, the workers had to excavate the Gaillard Cut, which was 300 feet (91 meters) wide across the isthmus. Next, they had to build a dam across the Chagres River to create an artificial lake. Finally, they had to construct the canal’s locks. The hardest job was digging the Gaillard Cut, because the hill through which the cut runs consists of soft volcanic material. When workers dug a hole, more rock and earth would slide into the space or push up from below.
  • 122. FYI 1-1 In 1826, many years before the Pan-American conference was held in Washington, D.C., Simón Bolívar convened the Congress of Panama with the idea of creating an association of states in the Western Hemisphere. The OAS charter was signed in 1948. At the same conference, participants also signed the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, which was the first international statement expressing human rights principles.
  • 123. FYI Contents 2 President McKinley Tenth Calvary Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 124. FYI 2-1a When President McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war, the House of Representatives voted 311 to 6 in support of the declaration. The Senate was more evenly divided, voting 42 to 35. To appease some reluctant members of Congress, the Teller Amendment was added to the declaration. The amendment called for the United States to help Cuba become an independent country once the war had ended.
  • 125. FYI 2-2b The Tenth Cavalry was one of four African American units to serve in Cuba. Although their courage was highly praised, they were not considered equals. The U.S. Army did not abolish segregated units until 1948.
  • 126. FYI Contents 3 The Boxers John Hay U.S. Legislators Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 127. FYI 3-1a The Boxers, also known as the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, were members of a secret society opposed to foreign influence in China. As the Boxers laid siege to the foreign legations in Beijing, diplomats, foreign civilians, and Chinese Christians were trapped behind barricades for nearly 60 days before an international rescue team ended the uprising.
  • 128. FYI 3-2b John Hay studied law in an office next to Abraham Lincoln. He was Lincoln’s assistant private secretary when Lincoln was president.
  • 129. FYI 3-3c Many U.S. legislators opposed Roosevelt’s corollary, claiming that his actions were unconstitutional because it was the Senate’s right to make such decisions. Most Americans approved of the corollary, however, so the Senate agreed in 1907 to a treaty that maintained United States control of Dominican customs.
  • 130. Moment in History 2 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 131. You Don’t Say 1-1 Annex The word annex comes from Latin and literally means “to bind to.”
  • 132. You Don’t Say Contents 2 Strong Ego Literature Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 133. You Don’t Say 2-1a Strong Ego William Randolph Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to cover events after the explosion of the Maine . When the expected conflict between the United States and Spain did not immediately materialize, the artist asked if he should return home. Hearst called back, “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.”
  • 134. You Don’t Say 2-2b Literature Rudyard Kipling wrote “The White Man’s Burden” in 1899 to persuade the Americans to make the Philippines a colony.
  • 135. You Don’t Say Contents 3 Anti-Imperialist Regulating the Canal Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 136. You Don’t Say 3-1a Anti-Imperialist William Jennings Bryan was nominated for president three times. He lost in 1896, 1900, and 1908. In part his anti-imperialist stand helped defeat him. He did go on to become secretary of state under President Woodrow Wilson. In that post Bryan continued to oppose U.S. expansionist policies.
  • 137. You Don’t Say 3-2b Regulating the Canal Water flows in an out of the locks by gravity, so no pumps are needed. Locks are used to handle changes in elevation along the course of the canal and in tide level near the seacoast. Cut is an engineering term for an artificially created passageway or channel.
  • 138. TECH Skill Builder 1 Using an Electronic Spreadsheet Electronic spreadsheets can help people manage numbers quickly and easily. Historians use spreadsheets to easily manipulate statistical data. You can use a spreadsheet any time a problem involves numbers that can be arranged in rows and columns. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 139. TECH Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill A spreadsheet is an electronic worksheet that follows a basic design of rows and columns. Each column (vertical) is assigned a letter or number. Each row (horizontal) is assigned a number. Each point where a column and row intersect is called a cell . The cell’s position on the spreadsheet is labeled according to its column and row. Therefore, Column A, Row 1 is referred to as cell A1; Column B, Row 2 is B2, and so on. Spreadsheets use standard formulas to calculate numbers. You create a simple mathematical equation that uses these standard formulas, and the computer does the calculations for you. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Using an Electronic Spreadsheet
  • 140. TECH Skill Builder 3 Practicing the Skill Use these steps to create a spreadsheet that will provide the population densities (population per square mile) of the states in the United States in 1900. Using an Electronic Spreadsheet 1. In cell A1 type State ; in cell B1 type Population; in cell C1 type Land area (square miles); in cell D1 type Population per square mile. 2. In cells A2–A46, type each state’s name. In cell A47, type the words Total for the United States. 3. In cells B2–B46, enter the population of each of the states listed in cells A2–A46. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 141. TECH Skill Builder 4 Practicing the Skill (cont.) 4. In cells C2–C46, enter the land area (square miles) of each state shown in cells A2–A46. Using an Electronic Spreadsheet 5. In cell D2, create a formula to calculate the population per square mile. The formula tells what cells (B2 ÷ C2) to divide. Copy this formula into cells D3–D46. 6. Use the process in step 5 to create and copy a formula to calculate the nation’s total population (B2 + B3 + B4 . . .) for cell B47. 7. Use the process in step 5 to create and copy a formula to calculate the nation’s population per square mile (B47 ÷ C47) for cell D47. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 142. TECH Skill Builder 5 This spreadsheet will give the population density of each state. Use an almanac, a statistical abstract, or other reference source to obtain each state’s land area and population in 1900. Remember that Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Alaska, and Hawaii were not states in 1900. Using an Electronic Spreadsheet Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  • 143. M/C 1-1
  • 144. M/C 2-1 Spanish-American War in the Philippines and the Caribbean, 1898 U.S. Deaths in the Spanish-American War Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 145. M/C 2-1a
  • 146. M/C 2-1b
  • 147. M/C 3-1
  • 148. M/C 3-2
  • 149. Technology and History 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 150. Why It Matters Transparency
  • 151. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 152. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 153. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 154. GO 1
  • 155. GO 2
  • 156. GO3
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