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Chapt 24
 

Chapt 24

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    Chapt 24 Chapt 24 Presentation Transcript

    • Splash Screen
    • Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Movement Begins Section 2 Challenging Segregation Section 3 New Issues Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives
      • Explain the origin of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
      • Discuss the changing role of the federal government in civil rights enforcement.
      Section 1: The Movement Begins
    • Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: Challenging Segregation
      • Evaluate the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
      • Summarize the efforts to establish voting rights for African Americans.
    • Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: New Issues
      • Describe the division between Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the black power movement.
      • Discuss the direction and progress of the civil rights movement after 1968.
    • Intro 5 Why It Matters In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans made major strides. They began by challenging segregation in the South. With the Montgomery bus boycott, Martin Luther King, Jr., achieved national and worldwide recognition. His peaceful resistance inspired many, especially students. After King’s assassination, the civil rights movement shifted focus. Many people in the movement began to see economic opportunity as the key to equality.
    • Intro 6 The Impact Today Changes brought about by the civil rights movement are still with us.
      • Civil rights legislation provides protection against discrimination for all citizens.
      • Economic programs for inner-city residents by government and social service agencies continue.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Intro 7 continued on next slide
    • Intro 8
    • End of Intro
    • Section 1-1 Guide to Reading After World War II, African Americans and other supporters of civil rights challenged segregation in the United States.
      • separate-but-equal
      Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names
      • de facto segregation
      • NAACP
      • sit-in
      • Thurgood Marshall
      • Linda Brown
      • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
      • Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    • Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about the birth of the civil rights movement, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 746 of your textbook by filling in the causes of the civil rights movement.
      • Explain the origin of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
      Reading Objectives
      • Discuss the changing role of the federal government in civil rights enforcement.
    • Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy In the 1950s, African Americans began a movement to win greater social equality.
    • Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Section 1-5 The Origins of the Movement Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • The modern African American civil rights movement began after Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man.
      • An organized boycott of the bus system was just the beginning as African Americans demanded equal rights.
      (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In 1896 the Supreme Court had declared segregation legal in Plessy v. Ferguson.
      • This ruling had established a separate-but-equal doctrine, making laws segregating African Americans legal as long as equal facilities were provided.
      • “ Jim Crow” laws segregating African Americans and whites were common in the South after the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
      The Origins of the Movement (cont.) (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In places without segregation laws, such as in the North, there was de facto segregation –segregation by custom and tradition.
      • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had supported court cases trying to overturn segregation since 1909.
      • It provided financial support and lawyers to African Americans.
      The Origins of the Movement (cont.) (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • African Americans gained political power as they migrated to Northern cities where they could vote.
      • African Americans voted for politicians who listened to their concerns on civil rights issues, resulting in a strong Democratic Party.
      • In Chicago in 1942, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded.
      • CORE used sit-ins as a form of protest against segregation and discrimination.
      The Origins of the Movement (cont.) (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In 1943 CORE used sit-ins to protest segregation in restaurants.
      • These sit-ins resulted in the integration of many restaurants, theaters, and other public facilities in Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and Syracuse.
      The Origins of the Movement (cont.) (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-10 How did the NAACP and CORE challenge the Supreme Court’s decision in Plessy v. Ferguson? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Origins of the Movement (cont.) (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-11 The NAACP supported court cases intended to overturn segregation. It provided lawyers to African Americans and helped cover the costs of their cases. CORE used sit-ins as a form of protest against segregation and discrimination. In 1943 CORE used sit-ins to protest segregation in restaurants. These sit-ins resulted in the integration of many restaurants, theaters, and other public facilities in Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and Syracuse. The Origins of the Movement (cont.) (pages 746–748)
    • Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Civil Rights Movement Begins
      • When African Americans returned from World War II, they had hoped for equality.
      • When this did not occur, the civil rights movement began as African Americans planned protests and marches to end prejudice.
      • African American attorney and chief counsel for the NAACP Thurgood Marshall worked to end segregation in public schools.
      (pages 748–750)
    • Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In 1954 several Supreme Court cases regarding segregation–including the case of Linda Brown –were combined in one ruling.
      • The girl had been denied admission to her neighborhood school in Topeka, Kansas, because she was African American.
      • In the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
      The Civil Rights Movement Begins (cont.) (pages 748–750)
    • Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Brown v. Board of Education convinced African Americans to challenge all forms of segregation, but it also angered many white Southerners who supported segregation.
      • On the day Rosa Parks appeared in court, the Women’s Political Council led African Americans in a boycott against the Montgomery bus system.
      • The Montgomery Improvement Association was created to run the boycott and negotiate with city leaders to end segregation.
      The Civil Rights Movement Begins (cont.) (pages 748–750)
    • Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., elected to head the organization, called for a nonviolent passive resistant approach to end segregation and racism.
      • The boycott of the bus system continued for over a year as African Americans walked or participated in carpools.
      • In December 1956, the United States Supreme Court declared Alabama’s laws requiring segregation on buses to be unconstitutional.
      The Civil Rights Movement Begins (cont.) (pages 748–750)
    • Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, affect African Americans and Southerners? The ruling convinced many African Americans that it was time to challenge other forms of segregation. The ruling enraged many Southerners, who became even more determined to defend segregation. In 1956 a group of 101 Southern members of Congress signed the “Southern Manifesto” which denounced the Supreme Court rulings and encouraged Southerners to defy the Supreme Court by not upholding the ruling to end segregation. The Civil Rights Movement Begins (cont.) (pages 748–750)
    • Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African American Churches
      • African American churches played a key role in the success of the boycott.
      • Churches became a place for forums, planning meetings, and organizing volunteers for civil rights campaigns.
      • The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., challenged the segregation of public transportation, housing, at the voting booths, and in public accommodations.
      (pages 750–751)
    • Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did African American churches and ministers help the civil rights movement? African American churches served as forums for many of the protests and planning meetings. The churches also mobilized many of the volunteers for specific civil-rights campaigns. African American ministers, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., established the SCLC, which was set up to eliminate segregation from American society and to encourage African Americans to register to vote. African American Churches (cont.) (pages 750–751)
    • Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Eisenhower and Civil Rights
      • President Eisenhower became the first president since Reconstruction to send federal troops into the South to protect African Americans and their constitutional rights.
      • In Little Rock, Arkansas, the governor ordered the Arkansas National Guard to prevent African American students from entering the Little Rock high school.
      • President Eisenhower demanded that the troops be removed.
      (pages 751–752)
    • Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • The governor withdrew the troops but left the school to the angry mob.
      • Two African American reporters were beaten, and many windows of the school were broken.
      • Eisenhower ordered the United States Army to surround the school, and escort the students into the building.
      • The troops remained for the entire school year.
      Eisenhower and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 751–752)
    • Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was created to protect the right of African Americans to vote.
      • It marked an important first step in bringing the federal government into the civil rights debate.
      Eisenhower and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 751–752)
    • Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What did the SCLC do after the Civil Rights Act of 1957 was passed? The SCLC began a campaign to register 2 million new African American voters. Eisenhower and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 751–752)
    • Section 1-23 Checking for Understanding __ 1. doctrine established by the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson that permitted laws segregating African Americans as long as equal facilities were provided __ 2. a form of protest involving occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment __ 3. segregation by custom and tradition A. separate-but-equal B. de facto segregation C. sit-in Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C B A
    • Section 1-24 Checking for Understanding (cont.) State the outcome of the Brown v. Board of Education case. Segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • Section 1-25 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government and Democracy Why did the role of the federal government in civil rights enforcement change? The role of the federal government changed because its authority and decisions were challenged by individual states.
    • Section 1-26 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting Do you think the civil rights movement would have been successful in gaining civil rights for African Americans without the help of the NAACP and the SCLC? Explain. The NAACP and the SCLC provided financial support, leadership, and organization to the civil rights movement.
    • Section 1-27 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examining Photographs Study the photograph of Central High School students on page 751 of your textbook. How would you describe Elizabeth Eckford’s demeanor compared to those around her? What might this tell you about her character? Answers will vary.
    • Section 1-28 Close Discuss the changing role of the federal government in civil rights enforcement.
    • End of Section 1
    • Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading African American citizens and white supporters created organizations that directed protests, targeted specific inequalities, and attracted the attention of the mass media and the government.
      • Jesse Jackson
      Main Idea Key Terms and Names
      • Ella Baker
      • Freedom Riders
      • filibuster
      • cloture
      • Civil Rights Act of 1964
      • poll tax
    • Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about challenges to segregation in the South, complete a cause/effect chart like the one on page 753 of your textbook.
      • Evaluate the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
      Reading Objectives
      • Summarize the efforts to establish voting rights for African Americans.
    • Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Science and Technology The civil rights movement gained momentum in the early 1960s due to national television coverage.
    • Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Sit-In Movement
      • In 1960 four African Americans staged a sit-in at a Woolworth’s whites-only lunch counter.
      • This led to a mass movement for civil rights.
      • Soon sit-ins were occurring across the nation.
      • Students like Jesse Jackson from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College felt that sit-ins gave them the power to change things.
      (pages 753–754)
    • Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Sit-In Movement (cont.) Why did the sit-in movement gain attention of Americans across the nation? Even after the demonstrators of the sit-ins were verbally and physically abused, they remained peaceful. (pages 753–754)
    • Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. SNCC Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • As sit-ins became more popular, it was necessary to choose a leader to coordinate the effort.
      • Ella Baker, executive director of the SCLC, urged students to create their own organization.
      • The students formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Early leaders were Marion Barry, and John Lewis.
      (page 754)
    • Section 2-8
      • Robert Moses, an SNCC volunteer from New York, pointed out that most of the civil rights movement was focused on urban areas, and rural African Americans needed help as well.
      • When they went South, SNCC volunteers had their lives threatened and others were beaten.
      • In 1964 three SNCC workers were murdered as they tried to register African Americans to vote.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. SNCC (cont.) (page 754)
    • Section 2-9
      • SNCC organizer Fannie Lou Hamer was arrested in Mississippi after encouraging African Americans to vote.
      • While in jail, she was beaten by police.
      • Later she helped organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
      • She challenged the legality of the segregated Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. SNCC (cont.) (page 754)
    • Section 2-10 What was the role of the SNCC in the civil rights movement? The group led student sit-ins to desegregate public facilities in Southern communities. Members of the group went to rural areas of the Deep South to register African Americans to vote. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. SNCC (cont.) (page 754)
    • Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Freedom Riders Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • In 1961 CORE leader James Farmer asked teams of African Americans and white Americans to travel into the South to integrate bus terminals.
      • The teams became known as Freedom Riders.
      • Violence erupted in several Alabama cities, making national news and shocking many Americans.
      • President John F. Kennedy was compelled to control the violence.
      (pages 754–755)
    • Section 2-12 What happened when the Freedom Riders arrived in Anniston, Birmingham, and Montgomery, Alabama? Angry mobs of white people attacked the Freedom Riders, throwing rocks and slitting the bus tires. In Birmingham, the riders were met by a gang that beat them. The Freedom Riders (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (pages 754–755)
    • Section 2-13 John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • During John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign in 1960, he supported the civil rights movement, which resulted in African American votes that helped him narrowly win the race.
      • Once in office, President Kennedy became cautious on civil rights, realizing that in order to get other programs passed through Congress, he would have to avoid new civil rights legislation.
      (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-14
      • President Kennedy had his brother, Robert F. Kennedy of the Justice Department, actively support the civil rights movement.
      • Robert Kennedy helped African Americans register to vote by having lawsuits filed throughout the South.
      • When violence broke out in Montgomery Alabama, the Kennedy brothers urged the Freedom Riders to stop for a “cooling off ” period.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-15
      • A deal was struck between Kennedy and Senator James Eastland of Mississippi.
      • The senator stopped the violence, and Kennedy agreed not to object if the Mississippi police arrested the Freedom Riders.
      • The CORE used all their funds to bail the riders out of jail, which threatened future rides.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-16
      • Thurgood Marshall offered the use of the NAACP’s Legal Defense Fund, and the rides began again.
      • President Kennedy ordered the Interstate Commerce Commission to increase regulations against segregation at bus terminals.
      • By 1962 segregation on interstate travel had ended.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-17
      • In 1962 James Meredith, an African American air force veteran, tried to register at the segregated University of Mississippi.
      • Meredith was met with the governor blocking his path.
      • President Kennedy ordered 500 federal marshals to escort Meredith to the campus.
      • A full-scale riot broke out with 160 marshals being wounded.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-18
      • The army sent in thousands of troops.
      • For the remainder of the year, Meredith attended classes under federal guard until he graduated the following August.
      • Martin Luther King, Jr., was frustrated with the civil rights movement.
      • As the Cuban missile crisis escalated, foreign policy became the main priority at the White House.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-19
      • King agreed to hold demonstrations in Alabama, knowing they might end in violence but feeling that they were the only way to get the president’s attention.
      • King was jailed, and after his release the protests began again.
      • The televised events were seen by the nation.
      • Kennedy ordered his aides to prepare a civil rights bill.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-20 Why did President Kennedy not take immediate action when violence erupted against the Freedom Riders? Kennedy was meeting with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, and he did not want the violence in the South to make the United States seem weak and divided. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights (cont.) (pages 755–757)
    • Section 2-21 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • After Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the way for two African Americans to register for college, President Kennedy appeared on national television to announce his civil rights bill.
      • Martin Luther King, Jr., wanted to pressure Congress to get Kennedy’s civil rights bill through.
      • On August 28, 1963, he led 200,000 demonstrators of all races to the nation’s capital and staged a peaceful rally.
      (pages 757–759)
    • Section 2-22
      • Opponents of the civil rights bill did whatever they could to slow the procedure to pass it.
      • The bill could easily pass in the House of Representatives, but it faced difficulty in the Senate.
      • Senators could speak for as long as they wanted while debating a bill.
      • A filibuster occurs when a small group of senators take turns speaking and refuse to stop the debate to allow the bill to be voted on.
      The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 757–759)
    • Section 2-23
      • Today a filibuster can be stopped if at least three-fifths of the Senate (60 senators) vote for cloture, a motion which cuts off debate and forces a vote.
      • In 1960 a cloture had to be two-thirds, or 67 senators.
      • The minority of senators opposed to the bill could easily prevent it from passing into law.
      • After Kennedy’s assassination, President Johnson committed himself to getting Kennedy’s program, including the civil rights bill, through Congress.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.) (pages 757–759)
    • Section 2-24
      • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the federal government broad power to stop racial discrimination in the segregation in public places, to bring lawsuits to end school segregation, and to require employers to end discrimination in the workplace.
      The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.) (pages 757–759)
    • Section 2-25 What happened to the civil rights bill after Lyndon Johnson became president? President Johnson’s leadership helped produce the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.) (pages 757–759)
    • Section 2-26 The Struggle for Voting Rights Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 did little to guarantee the right to vote.
      • Many African American voters were attacked, beaten, and killed.
      • Bombs exploded in many African American businesses and churches.
      • Martin Luther King, Jr., decided it was time for another protest to protect African American voting rights.
      (pages 759–760)
    • Section 2-27
      • The protest was staged for Selma, Alabama, where African Americans were the majority of the population while only 3 percent were registered to vote.
      • Their march for freedom began in Selma and headed toward the state capitol in Montgomery.
      • Sheriff Jim Clark ordered 200 state troopers and deputized citizens to rush the peaceful demonstrators.
      The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 759–760)
    • Section 2-28
      • The brutal attack became known as Bloody Sunday, and the nation saw the images on television.
      • On August 3, 1965, the House of Representatives passed the voting bill, with the Senate passing the bill the following day.
      The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 759–760)
    • Section 2-29
      • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 gave the attorney general the right to send federal examiners to register qualified voters, bypassing the local officials who often refused to register African Americans.
      • This resulted in 250,000 new African American voters and an increase in African American elected officials in the South.
      The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 759–760)
    • Section 2-30 How did the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 mark a turning point in the civil rights movement? Two goals were now achieved: to outlaw segregation and to pass federal laws to stop discrimination and protect voting rights. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.) (pages 759–760)
    • Section 2-31 Checking for Understanding __ 1. a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote __ 2. name given to a group of people who traveled to the South in 1961 to protest the South’s refusal to integrate bus terminals __ 3. a motion which ends debate and calls for an immediate vote, possible in the U.S. Senate by a vote of 60 senators __ 4. an attempt to kill a bill by having a group of senators take turns speaking continuously so that a vote cannot take place A. Freedom Riders B. filibuster C. cloture D. poll tax Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A C D B
    • Section 2-32 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 aimed at ending segregation and racial discrimination. The act gave the federal government broad powers to prevent racial discrimination in a number of areas.
    • Section 2-33 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Science and Technology How did television help the civil rights movement? Television brought national attention to the civil rights movement.
    • Section 2-34 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluating How did protesting and lobbying lead to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965? Police resistance to peaceful protests, seen on TV, raised sympathy for the civil rights cause.
    • Section 2-35 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examining Photographs Study the photographs in Chapter 24, Section 2 of your textbook. What elements of the photographs show the sacrifices African Americans made in the civil rights movement? Photographs show the humiliations African Americans endured.
    • Section 2-36 Close Evaluate the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    • End of Section 2
    • Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading In the mid-1960s, civil rights leaders began to understand that merely winning political rights for African Americans would not address the problem of African Americans’ economic status.
      • racism
      Main Idea Key Terms and Names
      • Chicago Movement
      • Richard Daley
      • black power
      • Stokely Carmichael
      • Malcolm X
      • Black Panthers
    • Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the changing focus of the civil rights movement, complete a chart similar to the one on page 761 of your textbook. Fill in five major violent events and their results.
      • Describe the division between Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the black power movement.
      Reading Objectives
      • Discuss the direction and progress of the civil rights movement after 1968.
    • Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Civic Rights and Responsibilities In the late 1960s, the civil rights movement tried to address the persistent economic inequality of African Americans.
    • Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • Section 3-5 Problems Facing Urban African Americans Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • Even after the passage of civil rights laws in the 1950s and 1960s, racism, or prejudice or discrimination toward someone because of their race, was common.
      • The civil rights movement had resulted in many positive gains for African Americans, but their economic and social problems were much more difficult to address.
      (pages 761–763)
    • Section 3-6
      • Race riots broke out in many American cities between 1965 and 1968.
      • A race riot in Watts, a neighborhood in Los Angeles, lasted six days.
      • The worst of the riots occurred in Detroit when the United States Army was forced to send in tanks and soldiers with machine guns to gain control.
      • The Kerner Commission was created to make recommendations that would prevent further urban riots.
      Problems Facing Urban African Americans (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 761–763)
    • Section 3-7
      • It concluded that the problem was white society and white racism.
      • The commission suggested the creation of two million new jobs in inner cities and six million new units of public housing.
      • However, with the massive spending in the Vietnam War, President Johnson never endorsed the recommendation.
      Problems Facing Urban African Americans (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 761–763)
    • Section 3-8 What was the difference between African American workers and white workers by 1965? African American workers found themselves in low-paying jobs with little chance of advancement. Some African Americans were able to get work in blue-collar factory jobs, but few advanced this far compared to whites. In 1965 only 15 percent of African Americans held professional, managerial, or clerical jobs, compared to 44 percent for whites. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Problems Facing Urban African Americans (cont.) (pages 761–763)
    • Section 3-9 The Shift to Economic Rights Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • By the mid-1960s, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was criticized for his nonviolent strategy because it had failed to improve the economic condition of African Americans.
      • As a result, he began focusing on economic issues affecting African Americans.
      • The Chicago Movement was an effort to call attention to the deplorable housing conditions that many African Americans faced.
      (page 763)
    • Section 3-10
      • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and his wife moved into a slum apartment in an African American neighborhood in Chicago.
      • Dr. King led a march through the white suburb of Marquette Park to demonstrate the need for open housing.
      • Mayor Richard Daley had police protect the marchers, and Daley met with King to propose a new program to clean up slums.
      The Shift to Economic Rights (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 763)
    • Section 3-11 What was the result of the meeting between Mayor Richard Daley and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? Daley proposed a plan to clean up the slums. Associations of realtors and bankers agreed to promote open housing. The plan was not effective. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Shift to Economic Rights (cont.) (page 763)
    • Section 3-12 Black Power Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • After 1965 many African Americans began to turn away from the nonviolent teachings of Dr. King.
      • They sought new strategies, which included self-defense and the idea that African Americans should live free from the presence of whites.
      • Young African Americans called for black power, a term that had many different meanings.
      (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-13
      • To some it meant physical self-defense and violence.
      • For others, including SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael, it meant they should control the social, political, and economic direction of their struggle for equality.
      • Black power stressed pride in the African American culture and opposed cultural assimilation, or the philosophy of incorporating different racial or cultural groups into the dominant society.
      Black Power (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-14
      • These ideas were popular in poor urban neighborhoods, although Dr. King and many African American leaders were critical of black power.
      • In the early 1960s, Malcolm X had become a symbol of the Black Power movement.
      • Malcolm X was a member of the Nation of Islam, known as the Black Muslims, who believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites and form their own self-governing communities.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Black Power (cont.) (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-15
      • Malcolm X later broke from the Nation of Islam and began to believe an integrated society was possible.
      • In 1965 three members of the Nation of Islam shot and killed Malcolm X.
      • He would be remembered for his view that although African Americans had been victims in the past, they did not have to allow racism to victimize them now.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Black Power (cont.) (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-16
      • The formation of the Black Panthers was the result of a new generation of militant African American leaders preaching black power, black nationalism, and economic self-sufficiency.
      • The group believed that a revolution was necessary to gain equal rights.
      Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Black Power (cont.) (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-17 Why did the black power movement replace the nonviolent civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Black Power (cont.) (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-18 Dr. King’s nonviolent civil rights movement failed to change the poor economic conditions that many African Americans faced in the 1960s. Some African American leaders called for more aggressive forms of protest. They placed less emphasis on interracial cooperation with sympathetic whites. Many young African Americans called for black power–controlling the social, political, and economic direction of their struggle for equality. It stressed pride in the African American cultural group. It emphasized racial distinctiveness. Black Power (cont.) (pages 764–765)
    • Section 3-19 The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
      • By the late 1960s, the civil rights movement had fragmented into many competing organizations.
      • The result was no further legislation to help African Americans.
      • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated by a sniper on April 4, 1968, creating national mourning as well as riots in more than 100 cities.
      (pages 765–766)
    • Section 3-20
      • In the aftermath of King’s death, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which contained a fair housing provision.
      The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (cont.) (pages 765–766)
    • Section 3-21 What happened to the civil rights movement after Dr. King’s assassination? Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which contained a fair housing provision, outlawed discrimination in the sale and rental of housing, and gave the Justice Department authority to bring suits against discrimination. The civil rights movement, however, lacked the unity of purpose and vision that Dr. King had given it. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (cont.) (pages 765–766)
    • Section 3-22 Checking for Understanding __ 1. prejudice or discrimination against someone because of his or her race __ 2. the mobilization of the political and economic power of African Americans, especially to compel respect for their rights and to improve their condition A. racism B. black power Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B A
    • Section 3-23 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain the goals of the Nation of Islam in the 1960s. It wanted separate self-governing communities for African Americans.
    • Section 3-24 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize the findings of the Kerner Commission. It blamed racism for inner-city problems and urged job and housing programs.
    • Section 3-25 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Civic Rights and Responsibilities How was the Civil Rights Act of 1968 designed to help end discrimination? The Civil Rights Act of 1968 was designed to outlaw housing discrimination.
    • Section 3-26 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identifying Cause and Effect What were the effects of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? It touched off both national mourning and riots, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was passed.
    • Section 3-27 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Political Cartoons The cartoon on page 762 of your textbook suggests that the violence of the mid-1960s was as bad as the violence of the Vietnam War going on at the same time. What images does the cartoonist use to compare violence at home with the violence of the war? The artist uses ocean ships and floating mines.
    • Section 3-28 Close Discuss the direction and progress of the civil rights movement after 1968.
    • End of Section 3
    • Chapter Summary 1
    • End of Chapter Summary
    • Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. doctrine established by the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson that permitted laws segregating African Americans as long as equal facilities were provided __ 2. the mobilization of the political and economic power of African Americans, especially to compel respect for their rights and to improve their condition __ 3. name given to a group of people who traveled the South in 1961 to protest the South’s refusal to integrate bus terminals A. separate-but-equal B. de facto segregation C. sit-in D. Freedom Riders E. filibuster F. cloture G. poll tax H. racism I. black power I D A
    • Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 4. prejudice or discrimination against someone because of his or her race __ 5. segregation by custom and tradition __ 6. a motion which ends debate and calls for an immediate vote, possible in the U.S. Senate by a vote of 60 senators __ 7. a form of protest involving occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment B F H C A. separate-but-equal B. de facto segregation C. sit-in D. Freedom Riders E. filibuster F. cloture G. poll tax H. racism I. black power
    • Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 8. an attempt to kill a bill by having a group of senators take turns speaking continuously so that a vote cannot take place __ 9. a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote G E A. separate-but-equal B. de facto segregation C. sit-in D. Freedom Riders E. filibuster F. cloture G. poll tax H. racism I. black power
    • Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts What event led to the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama? Rosa Parks’s arrest led to the bus boycott.
    • Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why was the decision in Brown v. Board of Education a significant step toward ending segregation? It was the first case in which the Court found segregation to be unconstitutional.
    • Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What was the role of SNCC in the civil rights movement? It worked for the desegregation of public facilities and voter registration.
    • Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the government react to race riots in cities such as Los Angeles and Detroit? It sent in National Guard and U.S. Army troops, and appointed the Kerner Commission.
    • Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were two changes in the focus of the civil rights movement in the mid-1960s? It moved from focusing on ending segregation to focusing on full social and economic equality. It also moved from nonviolent resistance to militancy.
    • Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Civic Rights and Responsibilities Do you agree with the viewpoint of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., or with that of the Black Panthers concerning the civil rights movement? Explain your answer. Answers will vary.
    • Chapter Assessment 10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Evaluating Why did the civil rights movement make fewer gains after 1968? After Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated, the movement fragmented. In addition, economic gains were harder to win.
    • Chapter Assessment 11 Geography and History The map on page 769 of your textbook shows routes of Freedom Riders. Study the map and answer the questions on the following slides.
    • Chapter Assessment 12 Interpreting Maps Which states did the Freedom Riders travel through? What was their final destination? The Freedom Riders traveled through Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Their final destination was Jackson, Mississippi. Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
    • Chapter Assessment 13 Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Applying Geography Skills Why do you think the Freedom Riders faced protests during this trip? The Freedom Riders faced protests because they wanted to desegregate society.
    • Chapter Assessment 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following statement. Test-Taking Tip If you read this question carefully, you will notice that it asks for one difference in civil rights strategies. Three of the answer choices will represent common goals. Be careful to read through all the choices to find the one that represents a different type of strategy. A ending discrimination in housing and unemployment. B using only nonviolent forms of protest. C demanding equal rights for African Americans. D gaining improvements in living conditions for African Americans. One difference between the strategies of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and some later civil rights groups was that King was committed to
    • Chapter Assessment 15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the purpose of the March on Washington? The purpose was to build public support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    • End of Chapter Assessment
    • CC 1-1 Language Arts African American authors wrote about their experiences during the civil rights movement. James Baldwin’s Notes of a Native Son is a classic example of such literature.
    • CC 2-1 Government Like many leading political figures in Southern states, George Wallace opposed integration. Elected in 1962 as the governor of Alabama, his actions and words, such as his statement, “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever,” openly defied the federal government’s efforts. So strong was Southern anger over the segregation issue that Wallace would garner much support in his 1968 and 1972 presidential bids. Wallace eventually apologized for his racist beliefs.
    • CC 3-1 Art Many African American artists used African motifs in their creations, which often expressed outrage with society or portrayed scenes from African American history. An example is Wall of Love by William Walker.
    • You Don’t Say 1 Independent Spirit Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, the great-grandson of an enslaved person “of independent spirit,” served with the NAACP for 25 years, argued 32 major cases for the organization, and won 29 of them.
    • FYI Contents 1 Rosa Parks Hattie McDaniel Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
    • FYI 1-1a Rosa Parks and her husband both lost their jobs as a result of taking part in the bus boycott.
    • FYI 1-2b Hattie McDaniel was the first African American woman to sing on American radio. In the 1930s and 1940s, she appeared in many films, generally in the role of a maid. She won an Academy Award for her role in the movie Gone with the Wind.
    • FYI Contents 2 John Siegenthaler Southern Poverty Law Center Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
    • FYI 2-1a Presidential aide John Siegenthaler recounted the mob scene at the bus terminal: “The Freedom Riders emerging from the bus were being mauled. It looked like two hundred, three hundred people all over them. There were screams and shouts. . . .” The one white man aboard the bus, Jim Zwerg, was viciously attacked–as if the mob was furious that he would side with African Americans.
    • FYI 2-2b In 1989 the Southern Poverty Law Center dedicated the Civil Rights Memorial to those who died during the struggle for civil rights in the South. Located in Montgomery, Alabama–the scene of so many of the events in that cause–the memorial serves to inform and educate young people about the civil rights movement. Maya Lin, the creator of the Vietnam Veterans memorial in Washington, D.C., designed the monument.
    • Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • SW Skill Builder 1 Preparing a Bibliography When you write research reports, you should include a list of the sources used to find your information. This list, called a bibliography, allows you to credit the sources you cited and supports the report’s accuracy. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
    • SW Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill A bibliography is a list of sources used in a research report. These sources include books; articles from newspapers, magazines, and journals; interviews; and other sources. There are two main reasons to write a bibliography. First, those who read your report may want to learn more about the topic. Second, a bibliography supports the reliability of your report. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Preparing a Bibliography
    • SW Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill (cont.) A bibliography follows an established format. The entry for each source contains all the information needed to find that source, including the author, title, page numbers, publisher information, and publication date. You should document this information as you carry out your research. If you neglect this step early in your research, you must locate your sources again in order to credit them in your report. Preparing a Bibliography
    • SW Skill Builder 4 You should arrange bibliographic entries alphabetically by the author’s last name. The following are acceptable formats, followed by sample entries. Note that all lines after the first line are indented. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Books: Author’s last name, first name. Full Title. Place of publication: publisher, copyright date. Hay, Peter. Ordinary Heroes: The Life and Death of Channa Szenes, Israel’s National Heroine. New York: Paragon House, 1986. Learning the Skill (cont.) Preparing a Bibliography
    • SW Skill Builder 5 Articles: Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Name of Periodical in which article appears, volume number (date of issue): page numbers. Watson, Bruce. “The New Peace Corps in the New Kazakhstan.” Smithsonian, Vol. 25 (August 1994): pp. 26–35. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Other Sources: For other kinds of sources, adapt the format for book entries as needed. Learning the Skill (cont.) Preparing a Bibliography
    • SW Skill Builder 6 Practicing the Skill Review the sample bibliography on page 767 of your textbook from a report on Martin Luther King, Jr. Then answer the questions on the following slides. Preparing a Bibliography
    • SW Skill Builder 7 1. Are the bibliography entries in the correct order? Why or why not? 2. What is missing from the second book listing? No, they should be in alphabetical order using the last name of each author. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. The publication date is missing. Preparing a Bibliography Practicing the Skill (cont.)
    • SW Skill Builder 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. 3. What features are missing from the second article listing? Quotes around the title of the article and italics for the New York Times Magazine are missing. Preparing a Bibliography Practicing the Skill (cont.)
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