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Module 2 Domain 2 - Foundations of English Language/Literacy Development and Content Instruction Domain 3 - Approaches and Methods for ELD and Content Instruction Domain 1 - Assessment of English Learners
CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 004 Foundations of Programs for English Learners Reading: CTEL Text, Ch. 4
(004) Benchmarks 117-123 1700-European immigrants settle in rural enclaves and run their own non-English-speaking schools 1839-Ohio is the first state to adopt a bilingual education law, allowing schools to operate in German and English at parent request 1847-Louisiana passes similar law for French & English 1848-Treaty gave Mexicans the right to speak Spanish in CA 1864-Congress prohibits Native Americans from being taught in their own language
(004) Benchmarks 117-123 1870-School Superintendent in St. Louis points out socio-cultural weaknesses if people lose ability in native language 1879-Children are punished when caught using native language 1888-Legislation attempted in both states 1900-At least 600,000 taught in German 1906-Congress passes first English-only law 1917-Anti-German sentiment begins to extend to other languages
(004) Benchmarks 117-123 1934-The de facto policy continues into the 40’s & 50’s 1959-Cuban immigrants arrive in Miami 1961-Full bilingual program for Cuban immigrants 1968-Act provided money for programs of native language instruction 1974-Supreme Court determines that schools that do not make special provisions for students learning English are not providing equal educational opportunities.
(004) Benchmarks 117-123 1980-Ordinance is in response to new waves of immigrants who are poorer and less educated 1994-Prop 187 would have made it illegal to provide education to illegal residents. Was overturned on appeal 1998-Ed. Code 300-340-Required that instruction be overwhelmingly in English 2001-Provided federal funding to schools to support the instruction of English Learners 2004-Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ensures an equitable education for students with disabilities 2004-CA schools must provide equitable access to textbooks and facilities, and facilities and teachers must be appropriately authorized
(004) Lau vs Nichols 126 Supreme Court decision (1974) of a suit brought by native Chinese speaker in San Francisco schools Made illegal those educational practices that excluded children from effective education on the basis of language Court ruled that simply providing same instruction and materials in English was not equitable
(004) Lau Remedies 126-127 Published by US Commissioner for Ed. Standardized requirements for identifying and evaluating ELs. Defined instructional treatments, procedures to transfer to all-English classes, and professional standards for teachers. Still in use in states without regulations.
(004) NCLB (Title III) 124 States that “English Learners will develop high levels of academic proficiency and meet the same challenging academic standards as do their native-English speaking peers.” Funding for ELs and immigrants Accountability requires annual progress in learning English, progress towards reclassification, and academic progress Also see 129
(004) IDEA 123 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorized previous Special Education law Stipulates that children not be labeled disabled if poor school achievement is due to ethnic, linguistic, or racial difference
(004) Prop 227 125 Ed. Code 300-340 Instruction overwhelmingly in English Alternative programs through waiver process The single year flies in the face of academic language acquisition research…4-9 years
(004) Williams vs CA 126 Requires equity in provision of textbooks, maintenance of facilities, and appropriately authorized staff (including teachers of English Learners)
(004) Heritage Language 127 AKA “developmental bilingual programs” Designed for students with a primary language other than English. Goals include maintenance and development of native language
(004) Dual Immersion 127 Half EL, half EO Goal is for students to be proficient in both languages … AKA additive bilingualism High level of academic competence in two languages by ELs and EOs
(004) English Only 128 Goal of assimilation Belief that common language is a unifier Belief that students will be more academically successful
(004) Equity Issues 130 Program Placement Length of time in program Tracking Special Ed Student Data Retention/promotion Dropout rates/expulsion and detention rates Staffing Teacher qualification Teacher retention Funding
(004)Types and Models 134-137
Parental Exception Waivers
(004) ELD 137-138 Goal: Language Proficiency Purpose: Developing SKILLS Limitations: Appropriate for development of language ONLY. Content will not be grade-level appropriate
(004) Content-Based ELD 138 Goal: Access to core Purpose: Develop language through core content Limitations: While providing access to some core content, concepts do not provide grade-level academics.
(004) SDAIE 140 Goal: Access to grade-level core content Purpose: Mastery of grade-level core content through specially designed, language-based strategies Limitations: Delivery may only include essential standards due to need for slower pacing.
CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 005 Foundations of English Literacy Reading: from CTEL Text, Ch. 6
(005) Oral and Written Oral Language Written Language Language Experience Approach Written Language Oral Language Using text to paraphrase
(005) Vocabulary Knowledge How well developed vocabulary is Level of vocabulary: social vs academic
(005) Level of English Proficiency Beginner Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced Advanced
(005) Primary Language How well developed literacy skills are Linguistic differences between primary language and English
(005) Motivation Necessity Personal importance Affiliation (e.g. teacher, peers)
(005) Pedagogical Practices Integrate listening, speaking, reading, and writing Being cognizant of integrating L S R W while teaching Math, Social Studies, Science. Example: After a science experiment, use the Language Experience Approach to develop literacy through science
(005) Pedagogical Practices Provides a balanced, comprehensive reading program Balance between phonics and comprehension; integrates L S R W
(005) Pedagogical Practices Uses standards-based thematic unit organization Themes based on standards Example: 6th grade Ancient Egypt
(005) Pedagogical Practices Creates a language-rich environment Accessible contextualized print
(005) Pedagogical Practices Adapts instruction and materials to meet the special needs of English Learners Culturally and linguistically appropriate Use effective strategies (graphic organizers, visuals, contextualization, realia, etc.)
(005) Pedagogical Practices Plans meaningful and purposeful literacy activities Relating your content and instruction to real life
(005) Pedagogical Practices Selects appropriate reading materials Variety of genres, multicultural text, high interest, relevant Make sure that EL proficiency level is taken into consideration
(005) Pedagogical Practices Utilizes English Learners’ prior knowledge to promote English language development in reading and writing Connect to students’ backgrounds
(005) Pedagogical Practices Scaffolds literacy activities Provide well structured activities with ample support Example: Brainstorm/outline before required to write
(005) Pedagogical Practices Provides organized, systematic, explicit instruction in key skills Make no assumptions Skills must be taught
CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 006 Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE Reading: from CTEL Text, Ch. 6
(006) ELD Standards The Role of ELD Standards Relationship to Native Speakers Levels of English Proficiency
(006) Relationship between ELA and ELD ELA HIGHWAY R W L,S
(006) SDAIE 176-186 What is SDAIE? Who should receive SDAIE and why? Why is SDAIE more than “just good teaching”? What is the role of primary language in a SDAIE class? What are some successful SDAIE strategies?
(006) ELD vs SDAIE Venn Diagram p.33
(006) Content and Language 240 Read pp. 240-242 of CTEL Text Content Objectives and Language Objectives Content Standard: Students know causes and effects of different types of severe weather… CONTENT Objective: Students will be able to DEFINE and DESCRIBE… RECOGNIZE… LANGUAGE Objective: Students will PARTICIPATE in discussions…DEFINE and DESCRIBE…will be able to PRESENT…
(006) Grouping Strategies 168-174 Mixed with proficient English speakers For hands-on, concrete activities Mixed with same native-language background For conceptually demanding or abstract content Preview-review… Description on page 35
(006) Language Development Primary Language Groups Proficiency Level Groups Mixed Group w/Proficient English Speakers
(006) Conceptual Development Primary Language Groups Proficiency Level Groups Prior Knowledge/Schooling Reading Level
(006) Classroom Community Development Mixed/Heterogeneous
(006) Physical Setting Supports Student Interaction Physical Arrangement of Furniture Configurations for whole group vs small group Teacher and Student Movement Language Rich Environment Display and use a variety of print materials in primary language and English Offers Stimuli for Conversation Use of wall space to display content-related information Use of technology and multimedia
(006) Organizing Role of Paraprofessionals Provide and monitor small group instruction Provide individual support Assist in primary language instruction Volunteers Older students, parents, community members Team Teaching By subject matter or proficiency level Technology Multimedia and specially designed software
CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 007 Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE Reading: from CTEL Text, Ch. 7
(007) Cummins’ Grid Cognitively Undemanding A C Context Embedded Context Reduced B D Complete Quadrant Activity p.40 Cognitively Demanding
(007) Contextualization Embed language in understandable context such as… Realia - manipulatives, hands-on props Visual support – multimedia and technology resources, charts/maps, nonverbal language
(007) Assessment Formative Summative Re-teaching as a result
(007) Checking for Understanding Monitoring comprehension frequently Checking for different levels of comprehension Literal Inferential Evaluative Effective questioning techniques Wait time Framing questions appropriately Different types of questions
(007) Explicit Teachings Name Give the strategy a name… Model How do you use the strategy? Explain Describe how strategy helps… Apply Tell when and how strategy can be used Example …
(007) Content-Specific Discourse pp.248-249 List some of the discourse skills that are critical to a content area that you teach in the specific categories…
(007) Discourse Skills Content Area Math/Science/Social Studies/etc. Procedural Steps in the process Declarative Statement of fact/opinion Form/Function How is language is used in content Genre Autobiography, Folktale, Non-fiction, etc.
CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 008 Effective Resource Use for ELD and SDAIE
(008) Brainstorm… How can you modify materials to meet the cognitive, linguistic, cultural, and academic needs of English Learners? What should you consider in choosing basic and supplementary materials?
CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 009 Approaches and Methods for ELD and Content Instruction
(009) Brainstorm… Reflect on some of the ways you were taught a foreign language in high school and college. What were some of the activities that you participated in? How well did you learn the language?
(009) Natural Approach 62 Theoretical Base: Krashen’s Monitor Model Goal: Comprehension Key Features: Closely resembles the way that a child acquires a first language. Effectiveness: Because it is based in acquisition, it is effective when followed explicitly.
(009) Total Physical Response Theoretical Base: James Asher, based on association between language and body movement Goal: Comprehension and building a receptive vocabulary Key Features: Listening precedes speaking Understanding is developed through body movement Speaking is never forced Effectiveness: Allows for low-stress acquisition of receptive vocabulary
(009) CALLA 166 Theoretical Base: Chamot & O’Malley Goal: Development of learning strategies Key Features: CALLA is targeted at EL students at the early intermediate and intermediate levels of English language proficiency. Effectiveness: Because of its cognitive and metacognitive strategies, CALLA is designed provide transitional instruction from CBELD to SDAIE classrooms
(009) Structured Interactions Meaningful Purposeful Oral and written Maximizes language output Can negotiate meaning in a supportive context Use during ELD and content instruction Dynamic groups--homogeneous, heterogeneous, etc.
(009) Strategies Oral Strategies Numbered Heads Together Think--Pair--Share Tea Party Written Strategies Write Around Cooperative Paragraph Strips
(009) Explicit Instruction 194-95 Error Correction Teachable moment To explain or clarify Language structure Word meaning Grammar Development Guided by ELD Standards
(009) Implicit Instruction 196 Error Correction Modeling Providing feedback Using correct syntactical structure Grammar Development Interactive journal (writing) SSR (reading)
(009) Content-Based ELD 197 Who? - K-3, B-A…4-12, B-EI What? - Content instruction is given at the students’ ELD level (not necessarily grade level) Which Standards? - Integrates ELD standards with content standards When? - Throughout the day (outside of ELD instruction) Why? - To provide access to core while developing English How? - tapping prior knowledge, contextualization, graphic organizers, brainstorming, visuals, C.L., etc.
CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 010 ELD--Listening and Speaking
(010) ELD Standards Sequence Read the information on p. 55 Create a sequence of student answers to the question, “Do you like math?” to match each proficiency level.
(010) Skills that Promote L/S Read the information on p. 56 Choose one skill on which to focus on from each of the three categories (three skills total). Brainstorm one strategy per skill to teach students that skill.
(010) Strategies that Promote L/S Frontloading… Teaching key vocabulary before they encounter it Explicitly teaching language functions Pre-teaching Small group discussion in L1 Preview/review Use primary language text before English text Brainstorming… Scaffold with sentence frames
(010) Strategies that Promote L/S Cooperative Learning Teaching interactive structure first before it is used academically Whole-class and small group discussions Teaching turn-taking Role-plays Modeling Interviews Practicing questioning and answering techniques Sentence frames Debriefing Think-Pair-Share(or other coop. strategy) to reflect on lesson
(010) ELD Speaking Sequence Choose one of the strategies on p. 59 Apply the “ELD Standards Sequence for Oral Communication (p.57) to a content area that you teach. Create a scaffolded sequence for each proficiency level on p.60.
CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 011 ELD--Reading and Writing
(011) ELD Writing Standard Write short narratives that include examples of writing appropriate for LA and other content areas Independently create cohesive paragraphs that develop a central idea with consistent use of standard English grammatical forms Create simple sentences or phrases with some assistance Write an increasing number of words and simple sentences appropriate for LA and other content areas Create multi-paragraph narrative compositions Write multi-paragraph narrative and expository compositions and examples appropriate for content areas, with consistent use of grammatical forms
(011) ELD Reading Standard Read simple text and orally respond to factual comprehension questions by using key words and phrases Read simple text and orally respond to factual comprehension questions by using simple sentences Read literature and orally respond with detailed sentences Identify and trace the development of an author’s argument, point of view, or perspective in text
(011) Strategies to Develop Skills Lists of skills on pp.60-61
(011) Multicultural Texts and Genres
CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 012 Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) Reading: CTEL Text, Ch. 4
(012) Key Components of SDAIE Tap into prior knowledge Contextualize the lesson Provide a positive affective domain Teach study skills Modify the use of the textbook
(012) Scaffolding Strategies Provides a personal connection between learner and topic. Builds on known concepts Helps simplify complex concepts. Creates an experiential environment The more familiar students are with the features of the text, the more successful… Clarifies procedures and expectations Fosters autonomy through self monitoring Pre-teach terms so they will be understood in the lesson
(012) Scaffolding Strategies Students extend their understanding by applying it in novel formats To promote critical thinking skills Learning is most effective when students have opportunities to discuss and process content Different ways of determining student performance to provide more accurate evidence as to whether learning has taken place Clarifies misconceptions and further develops proficiency in English
(012) SDAIE Lesson Plan Format Grade Level Content Standard ELD Standard Assessment Learning Opportunities Into Through Beyond
(012) SDAIE Lesson Plan Grade Level-5 Content Standard - 5.3.2 Students know when liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water. ELD Standard - Write brief expository compositions(e.g. description, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and problem and solution) that include a thesis and some points of support. Assessment - Students will write a one paragraph composition comparing and contrasting the different forms of water.
(012) SDAIE Lesson Plan Learning Opportunities
Into - Using the think-pair-share cooperative grouping model, students will write brief 1-2 sentence narratives of any experience that they have had with the different forms of water. As the T-P-S model dictates, they will pair up to relate their sentences to a partner, then share out in table groups. -Students will read summary of the lesson reading in table groups in order to preload content. -Class will review the concept of comparing and contrasting using actual forms of water.
Through - Using a graphic organizer that pictorially represents the water cycle, students will develop understanding of the relationships the different forms of water have with one another. Students will then compare and contrast their charts with the charts of table mates. -Students will develop a paragraph comparing and contrasting the different elements of the water cycle based on teacher-modeled representation.
Beyond - Students will create a haiku that describes water in its liquid, solid and gaseous forms
CTEL Module 2 Domain 1 002 Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment Reading: CTEL Text, Ch. 3
(002) CELDT What? - State Test of ELD, Based on Standards Who? - All English learners Why? - Initial Identification, Annual Assessment, Redesignation, Reclassification When? - Annual Assessment- 7/1-10/31, Initial Assessment-30 days from enroll date 4 grade spans: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 4 parts: L, S, R, W 5 Levels: B, EI, I, EA, A
(002) ID and Placement Chart on p. 76
(002) Home Language Survey Example on p. 77
(002) Parent must be notified… Language assessment and academic assessment results Placement in an EL classroom The opportunity to apply for a parental exception waiver
(002)Redesignation/Reclassification Possible Criteria: Teacher evaluation of language proficiency and curriculum mastery CELDT score Parental consultation Objective data from standardized tests etc.
(002) Identification CELDT Score: Early Advanced L/S: Intermediate or above R: Intermediate or above W: Intermediate or above A student who falls below these criteria is an EL.
(002) Reclassification CELDT: Meets criteria on previous slide Objective criteria: ELA score of BASIC on California Content Standards Test. Other criteria identified by district: i.e. teacher observation, grades, writing sample, etc.
(002) Validity 102 A test is valid if it measures what it claims to be measuring.
(002) Reliability 102 A test is reliable if it yields predictably similar scores over several administrations.
(002) Traditional Assessment Limits of Traditional(Standardized) Assessments Time Linguistic Bias Cultural Bias Test Anxiety Equivalent Versions Rapport
(002) Textbook Tests 103 Purpose - to test what is in the book Feature - test outcomes of instructions Limitations - limited to “correct” responses Modifications - partner work, text features
(002) Performance-Based Tests 104 Purpose - to assess what is taught Feature - open-ended Limitations - time Modifications - design groups for optimal language performance, scoring rubrics
(002) Curriculum Tasks 104 Purpose - assess multiple standards Feature - may be open-ended Limitations - how to assess “correctness” Modifications - partner work, scoring rubrics
(002) Authentic Tests 104 Purpose - assess classroom performance Feature - student shares in process Limitations - lack of comparison group for accountability Modifications - portfolios, group or individual
(002) Teacher-Made Tests 105 Purpose - assess teaching of material Feature - usually discrete point Limitations - reliability/validity Modifications - focus on message, not form
CTEL Module 2 Domain 1 001 Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction
(001) ELD Standards ELD Standards are a pathway to the ELA standards for ELs. The ELD standards establish clear performance expectations for ELs. The ELD standards are to be used to plan/provide instruction for English Language Development. The ELD standards are based on proficiency levels and grade-level spans in L/S, R, and W. The ELD standards are based on the same components as the ELA standards. An English Learner may require more explicit steps to reach a standard. The CELDT is aligned with the ELD standards.
(001) Standards-Based… STANDARDS inform ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT informs INSTRUCTION Students engage in LEARNING Students DEMONSTRATE what they know Students experience LEARNING, or Teacher RETEACHES
(001) Standards and EL Students ELs must have access to the core in order to meet standards. Teachers must develop benchmarks to show that these students are moving toward the standards. Teachers must teach to the ELD standards.
(001) Building a Scaffolded Assessment Read the information on p.88 Complete the exercise on p.89
(001) SDAIE Lesson Plan Content Area Grade Level Content Standard Content Objectives Graphic Organizers Contextual Clues Strategies Key Vocabulary INTO/THROUGH/BEYOND
CTEL Module 2 Domain 1 003 Language and Content-Area Assessment
(003) Language Assessments Informal Teacher Observation Benchmark Assessments/Checklist Story Tell/Retell SOLOM Formal CELDT Content Standards Test Other commercial assessments
(003) Academic… Discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal learning Perceptual disorders Metacognitive deficits Memory difficulties Motor disorders Social-emotional functioning
(003) Identification… Background experience and previous school settings Response to classroom environment Level of acculturation Learning styles Physical needs
(003)Underachievement… All ethnic groups score lower than whites Except for Asian-Americans all attain lower levels of education Reasons are unclear
(003) Overachievement… “Model Minorities” become over-qualified for jobs Teacher expectations of some groups elicit higher achievement Some subgroups resist assimilation
(003) Issues… Dropouts Tendency is to blame students The need is to provide high quality curriculum and instruction and know about the students and their families Retention 10% of language minority students are retained Tracking Educational gaps continue