Ctel2

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Ctel2

  1. 1. CTEL EXAM PREP MODULE 2 Mark Rounds
  2. 2. Contact Information <ul><li>work phone: 858-571-7223 </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>blog: roundsctel.blogspot.com </li></ul>
  3. 3. Module 2 <ul><li>Domain 2 - Foundations of English Language/Literacy Development and Content Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Domain 3 - Approaches and Methods for ELD and Content Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Domain 1 - Assessment of English Learners </li></ul>
  4. 4. Domain 2-Foundations <ul><li>Foundations of Programs for English Learners(004) </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of English Language Literacy(005) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE(006) </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE(007) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Resource Use in ELD and SDAIE(008) </li></ul>
  5. 5. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 2 004 Foundations of Programs for English Learners Reading: CTEL Text, Ch. 4
  6. 6. (004) Benchmarks 117-123 <ul><li>1700-European immigrants settle in rural enclaves and run their own non-English-speaking schools </li></ul><ul><li>1839-Ohio is the first state to adopt a bilingual education law, allowing schools to operate in German and English at parent request </li></ul><ul><li>1847-Louisiana passes similar law for French & English </li></ul><ul><li>1848-Treaty gave Mexicans the right to speak Spanish in CA </li></ul><ul><li>1864-Congress prohibits Native Americans from being taught in their own language </li></ul>
  7. 7. (004) Benchmarks 117-123 <ul><li>1870-School Superintendent in St. Louis points out socio-cultural weaknesses if people lose ability in native language </li></ul><ul><li>1879-Children are punished when caught using native language </li></ul><ul><li>1888-Legislation attempted in both states </li></ul><ul><li>1900-At least 600,000 taught in German </li></ul><ul><li>1906-Congress passes first English-only law </li></ul><ul><li>1917-Anti-German sentiment begins to extend to other languages </li></ul>
  8. 8. (004) Benchmarks 117-123 <ul><li>1934-The de facto policy continues into the 40’s & 50’s </li></ul><ul><li>1959-Cuban immigrants arrive in Miami </li></ul><ul><li>1961-Full bilingual program for Cuban immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>1968-Act provided money for programs of native language instruction </li></ul><ul><li>1974-Supreme Court determines that schools that do not make special provisions for students learning English are not providing equal educational opportunities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. (004) Benchmarks 117-123 <ul><li>1980-Ordinance is in response to new waves of immigrants who are poorer and less educated </li></ul><ul><li>1994-Prop 187 would have made it illegal to provide education to illegal residents. Was overturned on appeal </li></ul><ul><li>1998-Ed. Code 300-340-Required that instruction be overwhelmingly in English </li></ul><ul><li>2001-Provided federal funding to schools to support the instruction of English Learners </li></ul><ul><li>2004-Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ensures an equitable education for students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>2004-CA schools must provide equitable access to textbooks and facilities, and facilities and teachers must be appropriately authorized </li></ul>
  10. 10. (004) Lau vs Nichols 126 <ul><li>Supreme Court decision (1974) of a suit brought by native Chinese speaker in San Francisco schools </li></ul><ul><li>Made illegal those educational practices that excluded children from effective education on the basis of language </li></ul><ul><li>Court ruled that simply providing same instruction and materials in English was not equitable </li></ul>
  11. 11. (004) NCLB (Title III) 124 <ul><li>States that “English Learners will develop high levels of academic proficiency and meet the same challenging academic standards as do their native-English speaking peers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Funding for ELs and immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability requires annual progress in learning English, progress towards reclassification, and academic progress </li></ul><ul><li>Also see 129 </li></ul>
  12. 12. (004) IDEA 123 <ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities Education Act </li></ul><ul><li>Reauthorized previous Special Education law </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulates that children not be labeled disabled if poor school achievement is due to ethnic, linguistic, or racial difference </li></ul>
  13. 13. (004) Prop 227 125 <ul><li>Ed. Code 300-340 </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction overwhelmingly in English </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative programs through waiver process </li></ul><ul><li>The single year flies in the face of academic language acquisition research…4-9 years </li></ul>
  14. 14. (004) Williams vs CA 126 <ul><li>Requires equity in provision of textbooks, maintenance of facilities, and appropriately authorized staff (including teachers of English Learners) </li></ul>
  15. 15. (004) Heritage Language 127 <ul><li>AKA “developmental bilingual programs” </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for students with a primary language other than English. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals include maintenance and development of native language </li></ul>
  16. 16. (004) Dual Immersion 127 <ul><li>Half EL, half EO </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is for students to be proficient in both languages … AKA additive bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>High level of academic competence in two languages by ELs and EOs </li></ul>
  17. 17. (004) English Only 128 <ul><li>Goal of assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that common language is a unifier </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that students will be more academically successful </li></ul>
  18. 18. (004) Equity Issues 130 <ul><li>Program Placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of time in program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Ed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention/promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropout rates/expulsion and detention rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>
  19. 19. (004)Types and Models 134-137 Structured English Immersion English Language Mainstream Dual Language Transitional Bilingual Education Placement Criteria Less than reasonable fluency Reasonable fluency Parental exception waiver Parental exception waiver Exit Criteria Reasonable fluency Fully fluent Parent choice District criteria Program Length 1 year Until redesignated Parent choice District criteria Class Composition District policy ELs and EOs 50/50 ideal Depends on models Language Composition Overwhelmingly in English Overwhelmingly in English Depends on model Depends on model Required Components <ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(CBELD) </li></ul><ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(SDAIE) </li></ul><ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(L1/L2) </li></ul><ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(L1/L2) </li></ul>
  20. 20. (004) ELD 137-138 <ul><li>Goal: Language Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Developing SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: Appropriate for development of language ONLY. Content will not be grade-level appropriate </li></ul>
  21. 21. (004) Content-Based ELD 138 <ul><li>Goal: Access to core </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Develop language through core content </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: While providing access to some core content, concepts do not provide grade-level academics. </li></ul>
  22. 22. (004) SDAIE 140 <ul><li>Goal: Access to grade-level core content </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Mastery of grade-level core content through specially designed, language-based strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: Delivery may only include essential standards due to need for slower pacing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Parental Exception Waivers Waiver Type Prerequisites Conditions Time Frame A. English Speakers Knows English based on standardized tests NA Within 20 instructional days B.Older Students 10 years or older Informed belief Within 20 instructional days C.Special Needs Already placed for not less than 30 days in an English Language classroom Informed belief, with approval No later than 10 days after 30 day placement or 20 instructional days
  24. 24. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 2 005 Foundations of English Literacy Reading: from CTEL Text, Ch. 6
  25. 25. (005) Oral and Written <ul><li>Oral Language Written Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Experience Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written Language Oral Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using text to paraphrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. (005) Vocabulary Knowledge <ul><li>How well developed vocabulary is </li></ul><ul><li>Level of vocabulary: social vs academic </li></ul>
  27. 27. (005) Educational Background <ul><li>Prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>Previous schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge(familiarity with concepts) </li></ul>
  28. 28. (005) Level of English Proficiency <ul><li>Beginner </li></ul><ul><li>Early Intermediate </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul><ul><li>Early Advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced </li></ul>
  29. 29. (005) Primary Language <ul><li>How well developed literacy skills are </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic differences between primary language and English </li></ul>
  30. 30. (005) Motivation <ul><li>Necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal importance </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation (e.g. teacher, peers) </li></ul>
  31. 31. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Integrates listening, speaking, reading, and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Being cognizant of integrating L S R W while teaching Math, Social Studies, Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: After a science experiment, use the Language Experience Approach to develop literacy through science </li></ul>
  32. 32. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Provides a balanced, comprehensive reading program </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between phonics and comprehension; integrates L S R W </li></ul>
  33. 33. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Uses standards-based thematic unit organization </li></ul><ul><li>Themes based on standards </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 6th grade Ancient Egypt </li></ul>
  34. 34. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Creates a language-rich environment </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible contextualized print </li></ul>
  35. 35. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Adapts instruction and materials to meet the special needs of English Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally and linguistically appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Use effective strategies (graphic organizers, visuals, contextualization, realia, etc.) </li></ul>
  36. 36. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Plans meaningful and purposeful literacy activities </li></ul><ul><li>Relating your content and instruction to real life </li></ul>
  37. 37. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Selects appropriate reading materials </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of genres, multicultural text, high interest, relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that EL proficiency level is taken into consideration </li></ul>
  38. 38. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Utilizes English Learners’ prior knowledge to promote English language development in reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to students’ backgrounds </li></ul>
  39. 39. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Scaffolds literacy activities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide well structured activities with ample support </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Brainstorm/outline before required to write </li></ul>
  40. 40. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Provides organized, systematic, explicit instruction in key skills </li></ul><ul><li>Make no assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Skills must be taught </li></ul>
  41. 41. (005) Effective Approaches 157 <ul><li>Frontloading Vocabulary 247 </li></ul><ul><li>Language Experience Approach 229 </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Journals 233 </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Process Writing 234-236 </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers 158-162 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Reading Activities </li></ul>
  42. 42. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 2 006 Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE Reading: from CTEL Text, Ch. 6
  43. 43. (006) ELD Standards 91 <ul><li>Think-Pair-Share </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about the ELD Standards? </li></ul>
  44. 44. (006) ELD Standards <ul><li>The Role of ELD Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Native Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of English Proficiency </li></ul>
  45. 45. (006) Relationship between ELA and ELD ELA HIGHWAY R W L,S
  46. 46. (006) English Language Development <ul><li>Read page 32 silently </li></ul><ul><li>Make a short private list of the implications for classroom planning, organization, and instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your list with your table </li></ul><ul><li>Add anything brought up by a table mate that didn’t make your list </li></ul>
  47. 47. (006) SDAIE 176-186 <ul><li>What is SDAIE? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should receive SDAIE and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is SDAIE more than “just good teaching”? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of primary language in a SDAIE class? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some successful SDAIE strategies? </li></ul>
  48. 48. (006) ELD vs SDAIE <ul><li>Venn Diagram p.33 </li></ul>
  49. 49. (006) Content and Language 240 <ul><li>Read pp. 240-242 of CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Objectives and Language Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content Standard: Show the meaning of addition… </li></ul><ul><li>CONTENT Objective: Students deepen their understanding of the CONCEPT OF ADDITION… </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE Objective: Students will use key VOCABULARY…while TELLING their addition stories. They will STATE… </li></ul>
  50. 50. (006) Grouping Strategies 168-174 <ul><li>Read page 35 </li></ul>
  51. 51. (006) Language Development <ul><li>Primary Language Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Proficiency Level Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Group w/Proficient English Speakers </li></ul>
  52. 52. (006) Conceptual Development <ul><li>Primary Language Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Proficiency Level Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Knowledge/Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Level </li></ul>
  53. 53. (006) Classroom Community Development <ul><li>Mixed/Heterogeneous </li></ul>
  54. 54. (006) Physical Setting <ul><li>Supports Student Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Arrangement of Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurations for whole group vs small group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher and Student Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Rich Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display and use a variety of print materials in primary language and English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offers Stimuli for Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of wall space to display content-related information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of technology and multimedia </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. (006) Organizing <ul><li>Role of Paraprofessionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide and monitor small group instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide individual support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist in primary language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older students, parents, community members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team Teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By subject matter or proficiency level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia and specially designed software </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 2 007 Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE Reading: from CTEL Text, Ch. 7
  57. 57. (007) Cummins’ Grid A C B D Cognitively Undemanding Cognitively Demanding Context Embedded Context Reduced Complete Quadrant Activity p.40
  58. 58. (007) Scaffolding 155 <ul><li>In table groups, brainstorm at least one example per category on the concept map on page 41. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. (007) Modification <ul><li>Modifying… </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul><ul><li>stress </li></ul><ul><li>intonation </li></ul><ul><li>repetition </li></ul><ul><li>amplification </li></ul>
  60. 60. (007) Primary Language <ul><li>Using cognates </li></ul><ul><li>Primary language text materials </li></ul><ul><li>Peer support </li></ul>
  61. 61. (007) Prior Knowledge <ul><li>KWL chart </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipation guide </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion/brainstorm </li></ul>
  62. 62. (007) Contextualization <ul><li>Embed language in understandable context such as… </li></ul><ul><li>Realia - manipulatives, hands-on props </li></ul><ul><li>Visual support – multimedia and technology resources, charts/maps, nonverbal language </li></ul>
  63. 63. (007) Assessment <ul><li>Formative </li></ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul><ul><li>Re-teaching as a result </li></ul>
  64. 64. (007) Checking for Understanding <ul><li>Monitoring comprehension frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Checking for different levels of comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective questioning techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing questions appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of questions </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. (007) Explicit Teachings <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the strategy a name… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you use the strategy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how strategy helps… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell when and how strategy can be used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. (007) Content-Specific Discourse <ul><li>pp.248-249 </li></ul><ul><li>List some of the discourse skills that are critical to a content area that you teach in the specific categories… </li></ul>
  67. 67. (007) Discourse Skills <ul><li>Content Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math/Science/Social Studies/etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declarative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of fact/opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form/Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is language is used in content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autobiography, Folktale, Non-fiction, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 3 008 Effective Resource Use for ELD and SDAIE
  69. 69. (008) In the CA H/SS Standards <ul><li>White- 63 Male, 11 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Black- 12 Male, 5 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Latino- 0 Male, 1 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Asian- 0 Male, 0 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Native- 4 Male, 0 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Total- 79 Male, 17 Female </li></ul>
  70. 70. (008) Textbook Analyses <ul><li>Picture Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>“ People to Study” Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Anthology Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Storyline Analysis </li></ul>
  71. 71. (008) Brainstorm… <ul><li>How can you modify materials to meet the cognitive, linguistic, cultural, and academic needs of English Learners? </li></ul><ul><li>What should you consider in choosing basic and supplementary materials? </li></ul>
  72. 72. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 3 009 Approaches and Methods for ELD and Content Instruction
  73. 73. (009) Brainstorm… <ul><li>Reflect on some of the ways you were taught a foreign language in high school and college. </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the activities that you participated in? </li></ul><ul><li>How well did you learn the language? </li></ul>
  74. 74. (009) Natural Approach 62 <ul><li>Theoretical Base: Krashen’s Monitor Model </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features: Closely resembles the way that a child acquires a first language. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Because it is based in acquisition, it is effective when followed explicitly. </li></ul>
  75. 75. (009) Total Physical Response <ul><li>Theoretical Base: James Asher, based on association between language and body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Comprehension and building a receptive vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening precedes speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding is developed through body movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking is never forced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Allows for low-stress acquisition of receptive vocabulary </li></ul>
  76. 76. (009) CALLA 166 <ul><li>Theoretical Base: Chamot & O’Malley </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Development of learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features: CALLA is targeted at EL students at the early intermediate and intermediate levels of English language proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Because of its cognitive and metacognitive strategies, CALLA is designed provide transitional instruction from CBELD to SDAIE classrooms </li></ul>
  77. 77. (009) Structured Interactions <ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and written </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes language output </li></ul><ul><li>Can negotiate meaning in a supportive context </li></ul><ul><li>Use during ELD and content instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic groups--homogeneous, heterogeneous, etc. </li></ul>
  78. 78. (009) Strategies <ul><li>Oral Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered Heads Together </li></ul><ul><li>Think--Pair--Share </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Party </li></ul><ul><li>Written Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Write Around </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Paragraph Strips </li></ul>
  79. 79. (009) Explicit Instruction 194-95 <ul><li>Error Correction </li></ul><ul><li>Teachable moment </li></ul><ul><li>To explain or clarify </li></ul><ul><li>Language structure </li></ul><ul><li>Word meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Development </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by ELD Standards </li></ul>
  80. 80. (009) Implicit Instruction 196 <ul><li>Error Correction </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Using correct syntactical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Development </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive journal (writing) </li></ul><ul><li>SSR (reading) </li></ul>
  81. 81. (009) Content-Based ELD 197 <ul><li>Who? - K-3, B-A…4-12, B-EI </li></ul><ul><li>What? - Content instruction is given at the students’ ELD level (not necessarily grade level) </li></ul><ul><li>Which Standards? - Integrates ELD standards with content standards </li></ul><ul><li>When? - Throughout the day (outside of ELD instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? - To provide access to core while developing English </li></ul><ul><li>How? - tapping prior knowledge, contextualization, graphic organizers, brainstorming, visuals, C.L., etc. </li></ul>
  82. 82. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 3 010 ELD--Listening and Speaking
  83. 83. (010) ELD Standards Sequence <ul><li>Read the information on p. 55 </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sequence of student answers to the question, “Do you like math?” to match each proficiency level. </li></ul>
  84. 84. (010) Strategies to Develop Skills <ul><li>Read the information on p. 56 </li></ul><ul><li>Choose one skill on which to focus on from each of the three categories (three skills total). </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm one strategy per skill to teach students that skill. </li></ul>
  85. 85. (010) Strategies that Promote L/S <ul><li>Frontloading… </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching key vocabulary before they encounter it </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly teaching language functions </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Small group discussion in L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Preview/review </li></ul><ul><li>Use primary language text before English text </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming… </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold with sentence frames </li></ul>
  86. 86. (010) Strategies that Promote L/S <ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching interactive structure first before it is used academically </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-class and small group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching turn-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Role-plays </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing questioning and answering techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence frames </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Think-Pair-Share(or other coop. strategy) to reflect on lesson </li></ul>
  87. 87. (010) ELD Speaking Sequence <ul><li>Choose one of the strategies on p. 59 </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the “ELD Standards Sequence for Oral Communication (p.57) to a content area that you teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a scaffolded sequence for each proficiency level on p.60. </li></ul>
  88. 88. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 3 011 ELD--Reading and Writing
  89. 89. (011) ELD Writing Standard <ul><li>Write short narratives that include examples of writing appropriate for LA and other content areas </li></ul><ul><li>Independently create cohesive paragraphs that develop a central idea with consistent use of standard English grammatical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Create simple sentences or phrases with some assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Write an increasing number of words and simple sentences appropriate for LA and other content areas </li></ul><ul><li>Create multi-paragraph narrative compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Write multi-paragraph narrative and expository compositions and examples appropriate for content areas, with consistent use of grammatical forms </li></ul>
  90. 90. (011) ELD Reading Standard <ul><li>Read simple text and orally respond to factual comprehension questions by using key words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Read simple text and orally respond to factual comprehension questions by using simple sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Read literature and orally respond with detailed sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and trace the development of an author’s argument, point of view, or perspective in text </li></ul>
  91. 91. (011) Reading Comprehension <ul><li>Brainstorm additional steps to provide more scaffolding for this reading comprehension standard… p.61 </li></ul>
  92. 92. (011) Strategies to Develop Skills <ul><li>Lists of skill on pp.62-63 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strategies to teach 2 skills from each category… </li></ul>
  93. 93. (011) Multicultural Texts and Genres Text Genre Proficiency Levels Reading Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughters Anne Frank Folklore Autobiography Early Intermediate Advanced Writing Outsiders House on Mango Street Persuasive Essay Descriptive Essay Intermediate Early Advanced
  94. 94. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 3 012 Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) Reading: CTEL Text, Ch. 4
  95. 95. (012) Key Components of SDAIE <ul><li>Tap into prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualize the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a positive affective domain </li></ul><ul><li>Teach study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the use of the textbook </li></ul>
  96. 96. (012) Scaffolding Strategies <ul><li>Provides a personal connection between learner and topic. Builds on known concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Helps simplify complex concepts. Creates an experiential environment </li></ul><ul><li>The more familiar students are with the features of the text, the more successful… </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies procedures and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters autonomy through self monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-teach terms so they will be understood in the lesson </li></ul>
  97. 97. (012) Scaffolding Strategies <ul><li>Students extend their understanding by applying it in novel formats </li></ul><ul><li>To promote critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is most effective when students have opportunities to discuss and process content </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways of determining student performance to provide more accurate evidence as to whether learning has taken place </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies misconceptions and further develops proficiency in English </li></ul>
  98. 98. (012) SDAIE Lesson Plan Format <ul><li>Grade Level </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standard </li></ul><ul><li>ELD Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. (012) SDAIE Lesson Plan <ul><li>Grade Level-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standard - 5.3.2 Students know when liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water. </li></ul><ul><li>ELD Standard - Write brief expository compositions(e.g. description, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and problem and solution) that include a thesis and some points of support. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment - Students will write a one paragraph composition highlighting the cause and effect relationships of the different forms of water. </li></ul>
  100. 100. (012) SDAIE Lesson Plan <ul><li>Learning Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Into - Using the think-pair-share cooperative grouping model, students will write brief 1-2 sentence narratives of any experience that they have had with the different forms of water. As the T-P-S model dictates, they will pair up to relate their sentences to a partner, then share out in table groups. -Students will read summary of the lesson reading in table groups in order to preload content. -Class will review the concept of comparing and contrasting using actual forms of water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through - Using a graphic organizer that pictorially represents the water cycle, students will develop understanding of the relationships the different forms of water have with one another. Students will then compare and contrast their charts with the charts of table mates. -Students will develop a paragraph comparing and contrasting the different elements of the water cycle based on teacher-modeled representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond - Students will create a haiku that describes water in its liquid, solid and gaseous forms </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 1 002 Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment Reading: CTEL Text, Ch. 3
  102. 102. (002) CELDT <ul><li>What? - State Test of ELD, Based on Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Who? - All English learners </li></ul><ul><li>Why? - Initial Identification, Annual Assessment, Redesignation, Reclassification </li></ul><ul><li>When? - Annual Assessment- 7/1-10/31, Initial Assessment-30 days from enroll date </li></ul><ul><li>4 grade spans: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 </li></ul><ul><li>4 parts: L, S, R, W </li></ul><ul><li>5 Levels: B, EI, I, EA, A </li></ul>
  103. 103. (002) ID and Placement <ul><li>Chart on p. 78 </li></ul>
  104. 104. (002) Home Language Survey <ul><li>Example on p. 79 </li></ul>
  105. 105. (002) Parent must be notified… <ul><li>Language assessment and academic assessment results </li></ul><ul><li>Placement in Structured English Immersion classroom </li></ul><ul><li>The opportunity to apply for a parental exception waiver </li></ul>
  106. 106. (002) Redesignation/Reclassification <ul><li>Possible Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation of language proficiency and curriculum mastery </li></ul><ul><li>CELDT score </li></ul><ul><li>Parental consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Objective data from standardized tests </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  107. 107. (002) Identification <ul><li>CELDT Score: Early Advanced </li></ul><ul><li>L/S: Intermediate or above </li></ul><ul><li>R: Intermediate or above </li></ul><ul><li>W: Intermediate or above </li></ul><ul><li>A student who falls below these criteria is an EL. </li></ul>
  108. 108. (002) Reclassification <ul><li>CELDT: Meets criteria on previous slide </li></ul><ul><li>Objective criteria: ELA score of BASIC on California Content Standards Test. District determines score. </li></ul><ul><li>Other criteria identified by district: i.e. teacher observation, grades, writing sample, etc. </li></ul>
  109. 109. (002) Validity 102 <ul><li>A test is valid if it measures what it claims to be measuring. </li></ul>
  110. 110. (002) Reliability 102 <ul><li>A test is reliable if it yields predictably similar scores over several administrations. </li></ul>
  111. 111. (002) Traditional Assessment <ul><li>What are traditional forms of assessment? </li></ul>
  112. 112. (002) Textbook Tests 103 <ul><li>Purpose - to test what is in the book </li></ul><ul><li>Feature - test outcomes of instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - limited to “correct” responses </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - partner work, text features </li></ul>
  113. 113. (002) Performance-Based Tests 104 <ul><li>Purpose - to assess what is taught </li></ul><ul><li>Feature - open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - time </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - design groups for optimal language performance, scoring rubrics </li></ul>
  114. 114. (002) Curriculum Tasks 104 <ul><li>Purpose - assess multiple standards </li></ul><ul><li>Feature - may be open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - how to assess “correctness” </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - partner work, scoring rubrics </li></ul>
  115. 115. (002) Authentic Tests 104 <ul><li>Purpose - assess classroom performance </li></ul><ul><li>Feature - student shares in process </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - lack of comparison group for accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - portfolios, group or individual </li></ul>
  116. 116. (002) Teacher-Made Tests 105 <ul><li>Purpose - assess teaching of material </li></ul><ul><li>Feature - usually discrete point </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - reliability/validity </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - focus on message, not form </li></ul>
  117. 117. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 1 001 Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction
  118. 118. (001) ELD Standards <ul><li>ELD Standards are a pathway to the ELA standards for ELs. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELD standards establish clear performance expectations for ELs. The ELD standards are to be used to plan/provide instruction for English Language Development. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELD standards are based on proficiency levels and grade-level spans in L/S, R, and W. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELD standards are based on the same components as the ELA standards. An English Learner may require more explicit steps to reach a standard. </li></ul><ul><li>The CELDT is aligned with the ELD standards. </li></ul>
  119. 119. (001) Standards-Based… <ul><li>STANDARDS inform ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSMENT informs INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Students engage in LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Students DEMONSTRATE what they know </li></ul><ul><li>Students experience LEARNING, or </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher RETEACHES </li></ul>
  120. 120. (001) Standards and EL Students <ul><li>ELs must have access to the core in order to meet standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must develop benchmarks to show that these students are moving toward the standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must teach to the ELD standards. </li></ul>
  121. 121. (001) Building a Scaffolded Assessment <ul><li>Read the information on p.90 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the exercise on p.91 </li></ul>
  122. 122. (001) SDAIE Lesson Plan <ul><li>Content Area </li></ul><ul><li>Grade Level </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Content Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual Clues </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Key Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>INTO/THROUGH/BEYOND </li></ul>
  123. 123. CTEL MODULE 2 DOMAIN 1 003 Language and Content-Area Assessment
  124. 124. (003) Language Assessments <ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark Assessments/Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Story Tell/Retell </li></ul><ul><li>SOLOM </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>CELDT </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standards Test </li></ul><ul><li>Other commercial assessments </li></ul>
  125. 125. (003) Academic… <ul><li>Discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Memory difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Motor disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Social-emotional functioning </li></ul>
  126. 126. (003) Identification… <ul><li>Background experience and previous school settings </li></ul><ul><li>Response to classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>Level of acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Physical needs </li></ul>
  127. 127. (003) Similarities… <ul><li>Pragmatics-language in context </li></ul><ul><li>Prosody-patterns of stress and intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Phonology-sounds in language </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax-arrangement of words in sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics-word meaning </li></ul>
  128. 128. (003) Underachievement… <ul><li>All ethnic groups score lower than whites </li></ul><ul><li>Except for Asian-Americans all attain lower levels of education </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons are unclear </li></ul>
  129. 129. (003) Overachievement… <ul><li>“ Model Minorities” become over-qualified for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher expectations of some groups elicit higher achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Some subgroups resist assimilation </li></ul>
  130. 130. (003) Issues… <ul><li>Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency is to blame students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need is to provide high quality curriculum and instruction and know about the students and their families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of language minority students are retained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational gaps continue </li></ul></ul>

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