Even after Brown V. Board of Education, a student who is Black, Latino, or Native American remains much less likely to succeed in school.
Many minority students come to school with home languages other than English (1 out of 5 in US; 1 out of 4 in CA). Districts find themselves scrambling for teachers and staff who speak their languages.
Many of the early English settlers in North American came to found colonies in which they would be free to establish their form of religious domination.
Today’s immigration policies permit refugees to be accepted for political rather than religious reasons ( Change : current policies permit refugees to be accepted on the basis of religion if the applicant can prove that persecution comes from the government).
Many immigrants are sponsored by special-interest groups that invite them to reside in their local community. Some groups find conditions too foreign and make a secondary migration to another part of the US
We have lived through genocide–we’ve lost everything including family members–and when we came to this country from Cambodia we didn’t want again to be victims of our children being torn from us and lost. We had to give them roots in our community. It’s time to get rod of the melting pot analogy. We’re a garden, and a garden of every color. And to keep a garden healthy you have to have the soil and roots of the plants that are strong. Our language is our roots.
Accommodation– a two-way process: members of the mainstream culture change in adapting to a minority culture, the members of which in turn accept some cultural change as they adapt to a mainstream
Biculturalism– the ability to function successfully in two cultures. The process of becoming bicultural is not without stress, especially for students who are expected to internalize dissimilar, perhaps conflicting values.
Page 22: Although these phases are primarily about the experiences of an individual who permanently moves to another country or state, anyone who has moved at (large or sometimes small distances) or traveled has some similar experiences (although, probably to a much lesser extent)
Alright kids, put a lid on the talking and button your lips please because I need to remind you of a few things. If you want to ace the test tomorrow, you’ll really need to hit the books tonight. Remember when you’re reading the chapters keep your eyes peeled for the key words you’ll come across. Jot down a few notes before you hit the sack, briefly review them tomorrow and you should be sitting pretty come test time tomorrow.
Alright kids, put a lid on the talking and button your lips please because I need to remind you of a few things. If you want to ace the test tomorrow, you’ll really need to hit the books tonight. Remember when you’re reading the chapters keep your eyes peeled for the key words you’ll come across. Jot down a few notes before you hit the sack , briefly review them tomorrow and you should be sitting pretty come test time tomorrow.
Page 24: There is a social component to linguistic competence that every culture has.
If you have never experienced what it means to learn another culture’s sociolinguistic factor’s, you might not have ever reflected on exactly what they are.
Sociolinguistic Factors as they relate to the classroom Gestures “ OK” gesture obscene inBrazil/Turkey “ Come here” (using index finger) is the way to call dog/prostitute in some cultures Classroom gestures need to be taught Facial Expres- sions Americans are often perceived by others as being superficial because of the amount of smiling they do, even to strangers. In some cultures, smiles are reserved for close friends and family Eye Contact Lack of eye contact shows respect in many cultures. In North America, this is often interpreted as the opposite . . Students aren’t listening/don’t care/are defiant. Teacher understanding of this is critical—try NOT making eye contact with someone to see how difficult it is to do the opposite of what one feels “right”.
Sociolinguistic Factors as they relate to the classroom Distance Proxemics Differs among cultures . .i.e. North America (20-24” is comfortable—arm’s distance) vs. Latin America (typically closer. Touching Touching is very personal and intimate in some cultures, while in others it is commonplace. Head patting is very taboo in many cultures. (this could quickly and easily cause a misunderstanding) Styles “ Registers” How you talk depends on your audience. . .i.e. boss, store clerk, students, significant other, friends (students need to know this–you can be less formal with your classmates than is appropriate with your principal)
Sociolinguistic Factors as they relate to the classroom Dialect There is a variation among speakers of the same language. “I’m stuffed” (US-I’m full) vs. (Australia-I’m pregnant!). Speakers of certain dialects may be viewed differently (i.e. less intelligent/belonging to certain social classes, etc.) Figures of Speech “ Ya’ll come back now” said by Texan to Japanese businessman leaving on a bus. (They immediately got off!) Use fewer idioms with beginning level Els and always explain them. Fred Gwynne’s books are a resource. Silence Silence differs dramatically across cultures. In the US, it it interpreted as expressing embarrassment, regret or sorrow. In Asian cultures, it is a token of respect.
Semitic : Semitic languages have been described as taking “two steps forward and one step back” in their discourse structure. An example may be, “I need shoes; I’ll go to the store. I need shoes; I should measure my feet. I need shoes; my old ones are worn out.” While the storyline advances here, the is clearly a great deal of repetition that would not be found in a similar event in English.
Asian/Native American : These languages have a circular logic in such a way that discourse is structured around a topic many times without directly stating the topic. In fact, for speakers of these languages, being too direct is considered to be rude. An example of this structure is, “In the winter the ground is cold and frozen. In the summer it is hot and there are sand burrs. Your feet can get frostbite or burns. You need shoes.” This example talks around the subject of needing shoes but not directly to it.
Spanish/Romance : While these languages, like English, have linear logic, they allow for a great deal of digression that would be considered superfluous in English. “I need shoes. I’ll get some running shoes. You know my sister, she got some running shoes a while ago at J.C. Penney’s. They gave her blisters but they were cheap. Maybe we should go to Penney’s to look for shoes.”
Russian : Has linear logic with some digression. “I need to buy some good running shoes like Nikes. I will run on the team. The team at my school is very good and has won a lot of races and ribbons against teams from all over California. Good running shoes are important for a team to win, my team all has Nikes, and nobody has sore feet. I need to buy some Nikes this week so I can be ready to run.”
Fill in the t-chart entitled “My Class”. List the values implicit in your class on the right and how each cultural value might impact education. Share with your table. . .
Examples My Class Impact Competition Could be a lack of congruence between the classroom culture and child’s culture Cooperation Working in groups of 4 could be difficult for kids who like to work alone. Directness Uncomfortable for some students
CULTURAL CONCEPTS AND PERSPECTIVES (KSA - 001)
“ The first premise is that culture is at the heart of all we do in the name of education, whether that is curriculum, instruction, administration, or performance assessment. Culture refers to a dynamic system of social values, cognitive codes, behavioral standards, worldviews, and beliefs used to give order and meaning to our own lives as well as the lives of others
Even without our being consciously aware of it, culture determines how we think, believe, and behave, and these, in turn, affect how we teach, what we teach, how we relate to children and each other. Our society’s predominant worldview and cultural norms are so deeply ingrained in how we educate children that we seldom think about the possibility that there may be other different but equally legitimate and effective approaches to teaching and learning.” Geneva Gay (2000)