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CTEL Module3

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    • 1. CALIFORNIA TEACHERS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS (CTEL) Module Three Culture and Inclusion Mark Rounds
    • 2. CTEL Information
      • This is the link to the NES site where you can register, get some sample test questions and study guides: http://www.ctel.nesinc.com/
    • 3. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs)
      • See pages 3 – 7
      • Notice that each domain is cross-referenced to a page number in either the participant guide or the CLAD/CTEL Handbook
      • Page 8 gives the test structure of the first three subtests
      • Page 9: Rationale for Module 3
    • 4. CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN CALIFORNIA AND THE UNITED STATES (KSA - 003) Reading assignment: Ch8 CTEL Handbook
    • 5. “ You Have to Live in Somebody Else's Country to Understand” by Noy Chou
      • What groups and individuals are treated like outsiders in America?
      • What are the possible results or consequences when people feel like outsiders in their surroundings?
      • What did you learn from this experience and the poem that might help you to better understand the feelings of outsiders in the future?
      • How might you act differently toward someone when you recognize that s/he might be feeling like an outsider?
    • 6. Cultural Diversity in California and the United States
      • Complete the top of page 10 introducing me to an immigrant student in you class or someone you know.
      • EL Voices
    • 7. Top 5 Non-English Languages in California
      • Without looking at page 11, can you guess what the top 5 non-English languages are in CA?
      • Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Cantonese, Tagolog
      • What are the demographics of your school and/or your neighborhood?
      • See page 12 More info: http://www.nwrel.org
    • 8. Push-Pull Factors
      • Page 13: Imagine you are going to leave the state of CA. Discuss at your table, then list some push and pull factors in the empty boxes.
      • See the boxes below to find some push/pull factors for immigrants
    • 9. The Immigrant Experience
      • Page 14 : Rank the problems from 1(easiest) to 10 (hardest)
      • I’ll read to you some answers given by a group of multilingual immigrant parents who had to make these choices.
    • 10. Immigration and Migration
      • Using the CTEL Handbook, Chapter 8 summarize the subtopics listed in your reading. Pages 15–17.
      • CTEL, CH 8, page 292-297
      • Create a poster with your findings (class size will determine group sizes)
    • 11. Immigration & Migration: Changing Face of America (292-294)
      • A shift from predominately European American population to one that is substantially non-white (1 out of 3 Americans by 2010)
      • CA is experiencing the initial wave of immigration that will soon impact the US
      • Two minority groups – immigrants & economically disadvantaged minorities within the US, face similar challenges
    • 12. Immigration & Migration: Impact of Changing Pop.
      • Poverty plays a large role in the education of America’s youth and hits minority children particularly hard.
      • Large city school populations are overwhelmingly minority.
      • The economy of the US in the future will rest more on Asian-Americans & Hispanic-Americans workers than at present. The education of these populations will become increasingly important
    • 13. Impact of Changing Pop. Continued
      • Even after Brown V. Board of Education, a student who is Black, Latino, or Native American remains much less likely to succeed in school.
      • Many minority students come to school with home languages other than English (1 out of 5 in US; 1 out of 4 in CA). Districts find themselves scrambling for teachers and staff who speak their languages.
    • 14. Economic Factors (pg 294)
      • The great disparity in the standard of living attainable in the US compared to that of many underdeveloped countries makes immigration attractive.
      • Immigration policy has corresponded with the cycles of boom and bust in the US economy
      • Most newcomers experience a period of economic hardship.
    • 15. Political Factors (pg 295)
      • People are pushed to the US because of political instability or political policies unfavorable to them in their home countries.
      • Political Conditions within the US affect whether or not immigrants are accepted or denied.
    • 16. Religious Factors (pg 295)
      • Many of the early English settlers in North American came to found colonies in which they would be free to establish their form of religious domination.
      • Today’s immigration policies permit refugees to be accepted for political rather than religious reasons ( Change : current policies permit refugees to be accepted on the basis of religion if the applicant can prove that persecution comes from the government).
    • 17. Family Unification (pg 295)
      • Immigration has been a male-dominated activity since the early settlement of North America.
      • Once settled, these immigrants seek to bring their family members.
    • 18. Migration within the US (296) (new)
      • Many immigrants are sponsored by special-interest groups that invite them to reside in their local community. Some groups find conditions too foreign and make a secondary migration to another part of the US
    • 19. Immigration Law & Policies (pg 296)
      • Economic cycles in the US have affected immigration policies. They allow for immigration when workers were needed and restricting it when jobs were scarce.
      • The immigrant preference system emphasizes family ties first, occupation second, and diversity (coming from countries other than from our principle sources) third.
    • 20. Legal Status (pg 227)
      • Many immigrants are documented –legal residents who have entered the US officially and live under the protection of legal immigration status. Some of these are refugees .
      • Undocumented immigrants are residents without any documentation, who live in fear of being identified and deported.
      • Undocumented children are legally entitled to public education and their papers cannot be solicited at school when they register.
    • 21. Resources (pg 297)
      • The Emergency Immigration Education Program (EIEP), now known as the Refugee Student Assistance Program, provides assistance to school districts whose enrollment is impacted by immigrants.
    • 22. ISSUES and CHALLENGES
      • Page 18 : We will discuss the issues and challenges faced by culturally and linguistically diverse students.
      • Begin to think about the student whom you introduced to me on page 10.
    • 23. Primary Language Maintenance and Loss
      • Primary language maintenance - refers to maintaining skills in students’ primary language as they add on new skills in English.
      • Primary language loss - refers to losing their skills in their primary language. They are replacing the primary language with English.
    • 24. Phases of Acculturation
      • These are stages one experiences as he/she acculturates or adapts to the second culture. They include the honeymoon, culture shock, adaptation, and acceptance phases (we’ll cover in depth later)
    • 25. Stereotypes and Individual Variation
      • Stereotypes – preconceived and oversimplified generalization about a particular ethnic, religious group race or gender.
      • Individual variation – need to consider people as individuals and not categorize them into groups.
    • 26. Societal and Intragroup Challenges
      • Prejudice –excessive pride in one’s own heritage, country or culture so that others are viewed negatively. (regular ballot)
      • Discrimination –actions that limit opportunities of particular groups based on race, gender, language, culture, or social class
    • 27. Societal and Intragroup Challenges
      • Economic Challenges– are a matter of survival and affect all aspects of students’ lives; viewing lower socioeconomic families’ lifestyles and perceived values.
      • Intragroup –recent immigrants versus first generation.
    • 28. Legal Status
      • Refugees, Immigrant and Undocumented workers.
      • See page 19 for a full explanation of the difference among the three.
    • 29. Reflect
      • Think about how these issues and challenges may affect the education of the student you introduced to me on page 10.
      • In the space below, finish your letter by telling me how you could adjust your instructional delivery to address the issues and challenges your student(s) face
    • 30. CULTURAL CONTACT (KSA - 002) CTEL, PG 286
    • 31. Chanrath Ou Quite
      • We have lived through genocide–we’ve lost everything including family members–and when we came to this country from Cambodia we didn’t want again to be victims of our children being torn from us and lost. We had to give them roots in our community. It’s time to get rod of the melting pot analogy. We’re a garden, and a garden of every color. And to keep a garden healthy you have to have the soil and roots of the plants that are strong. Our language is our roots.
      • Complete the quickwrite/quickdraw on page 20.
    • 32. Key Vocabulary
      • Page 21: Refer to the CTEL book, pages 287–288 and take notes on each term.
    • 33. Key Vocabulary (pg21)
      • Assimilation –a process in which members of an ethnic group are absorbed into the dominant culture, losing their culture in the process.
      • Acculturation –The process of adapting effectively to the mainstream culture. Schools are the primary places in which children of various cultures learn about the mainstream culture.
    • 34. Key Vocabulary (pg21)
      • Accommodation– a two-way process: members of the mainstream culture change in adapting to a minority culture, the members of which in turn accept some cultural change as they adapt to a mainstream
      • Biculturalism– the ability to function successfully in two cultures. The process of becoming bicultural is not without stress, especially for students who are expected to internalize dissimilar, perhaps conflicting values.
    • 35. Key Vocabulary
      • Has anyone observed or knows:
        • Someone who is bicultural
        • A teacher with an assimilationist view
        • Someone who has acculturated
        • A teacher who believes in accommodation
    • 36. Phases of Acculturation (pg 248)
      • Page 22: Although these phases are primarily about the experiences of an individual who permanently moves to another country or state, anyone who has moved at (large or sometimes small distances) or traveled has some similar experiences (although, probably to a much lesser extent)
    • 37. “ The New Americans ”
      • We will be watching the first excerpt from the subtitled video “The New Americans–Supporting Families Module” by Kartemquin Films
      • Complete the top of page 23 analyzing Nora & Pedrito’s educational experiences
    • 38. Nora & Pedrito
      • Phases of Acculturation
      Kansas California Nora Honeymoon Culture Shock Pedrito Initial culture shock, then adjustment (6mo)
    • 39. Nora & Pedrito
      • Family dynamics
        • Family unification/family first
        • Ventura’s(mom) culture shock in Kansas and then adjustment in California
        • Mother is the heart of the home
    • 40. Nora & Pedrito
      • Student Interactions :
        • Pedrito is paired with a student from Guanajuato
        • Nora–worked with adults in Kansas who really cared for her
    • 41. Nora & Pedrito
      • Problem Solving :
        • Immigrant visa issued solved cooperatively
        • Moving to US, CA, and again if needed.
    • 42. What Can I do as a Teacher?
      • Learn more about student backgrounds and experiences
      • Try to figure out where student is in terms of acculturation
      • Check-in with the students on how they are doing and whether or not they have any questions
      • See each child as an individual with individual needs and strengths
    • 43. What Can I do as a Teacher?
      • Pair up new students with buddies to befriend them and show them the ropes if they are ELs
      • Use strategies for second language acquisition
      • Make it clear that you expect all students to welcome and support newcomers
      • Create an inclusive classroom culture
      • Migrant services for family.
      • Adult Ed-ESL, GED, CBET
    • 44. CROSSCULTURAL INTERACTIONS (KSA - 004)
    • 45. Sociolinguistic Factors: Getting ready for a test . . .
      • As you listen to the following instructions, count how many idiomatic expressions you can hear. . .
    • 46. Getting ready for a test . . .
      • Alright kids, put a lid on the talking and button your lips please because I need to remind you of a few things. If you want to ace the test tomorrow, you’ll really need to hit the books tonight. Remember when you’re reading the chapters keep your eyes peeled for the key words you’ll come across. Jot down a few notes before you hit the sack, briefly review them tomorrow and you should be sitting pretty come test time tomorrow.
    • 47. Getting ready for a test . . .
      • Alright kids, put a lid on the talking and button your lips please because I need to remind you of a few things. If you want to ace the test tomorrow, you’ll really need to hit the books tonight. Remember when you’re reading the chapters keep your eyes peeled for the key words you’ll come across. Jot down a few notes before you hit the sack , briefly review them tomorrow and you should be sitting pretty come test time tomorrow.
    • 48. Sociolinguistic Factors (pg 191)
      • Page 24: There is a social component to linguistic competence that every culture has.
      • If you have never experienced what it means to learn another culture’s sociolinguistic factor’s, you might not have ever reflected on exactly what they are.
    • 49. Sociolinguistic Factors as they relate to the classroom Gestures “ OK” gesture obscene inBrazil/Turkey “ Come here” (using index finger) is the way to call dog/prostitute in some cultures Classroom gestures need to be taught Facial Expres- sions Americans are often perceived by others as being superficial because of the amount of smiling they do, even to strangers. In some cultures, smiles are reserved for close friends and family Eye Contact Lack of eye contact shows respect in many cultures. In North America, this is often interpreted as the opposite . . Students aren’t listening/don’t care/are defiant. Teacher understanding of this is critical—try NOT making eye contact with someone to see how difficult it is to do the opposite of what one feels “right”.
    • 50. Sociolinguistic Factors as they relate to the classroom Distance Proxemics Differs among cultures . .i.e. North America (20-24” is comfortable—arm’s distance) vs. Latin America (typically closer. Touching Touching is very personal and intimate in some cultures, while in others it is commonplace. Head patting is very taboo in many cultures. (this could quickly and easily cause a misunderstanding) Styles “ Registers” How you talk depends on your audience. . .i.e. boss, store clerk, students, significant other, friends (students need to know this–you can be less formal with your classmates than is appropriate with your principal)
    • 51. Sociolinguistic Factors as they relate to the classroom Dialect There is a variation among speakers of the same language. “I’m stuffed” (US-I’m full) vs. (Australia-I’m pregnant!). Speakers of certain dialects may be viewed differently (i.e. less intelligent/belonging to certain social classes, etc.) Figures of Speech “ Ya’ll come back now” said by Texan to Japanese businessman leaving on a bus. (They immediately got off!) Use fewer idioms with beginning level Els and always explain them. Fred Gwynne’s books are a resource. Silence Silence differs dramatically across cultures. In the US, it it interpreted as expressing embarrassment, regret or sorrow. In Asian cultures, it is a token of respect.
    • 52. Non-Verbal Communication Activity - Page 26
      • At your tables, complete the nonverbal communication activity.
    • 53. Oral Discourse Patterns & Practices - page 27
      • Opening & Closing Conversations :
        • Conversations are cooperative restrictions governed by rules of initiation, termination, clarification, etc.
        • Every native speaker knows them
    • 54. Oral Discourse Patterns & Practices - page 27
      • Timing of Responses :
        • In the US, we tend to “jump-in” – Some students may come from an immigrant culture that tends to be more reflective before responding.
    • 55. Oral Discourse Patterns & Practices - page 27
      • Turn Taking :
        • Attention getting rules are assimilated to avoid conversational awkwardness
        • Culturally oriented sets of rules require finely tuned perceptions.
    • 56. Oral Discourse Patterns & Practices - page 27
      • Volume of Voice :
        • Voice volume can convey different culture specific meaning that may be different from classroom culture.
    • 57. Oral Discourse Patterns & Practices - page 27
      • Use/Role of Silence :
        • Differs across cultures.
        • Can mean embarrassment, criticism, sorrow; can mean personal power; can convey self control and respect
        • See CTEL book pages 304/5
    • 58. Cultural Thought Patterns
      • Page 28: Read the excerpts from Robert Kaplan
      • Summary :
        • Discourse patterns are different based on language and culture.
        • Thinking patterns are different around the world. One is not better/worse, just different.
        • The discourse pattern used in Academic English is direct, short, and linear (to the point)
    • 59. Cultural Thought Patterns Examples
      • English : In English the story line would focus on “getting to the point” and the discourse event might sound like, “ I need a pair of shoes. I’m going to the store. I’ll buy running shoes .”
    • 60. Cultural Thought Patterns Examples
      • Semitic : Semitic languages have been described as taking “two steps forward and one step back” in their discourse structure. An example may be, “I need shoes; I’ll go to the store. I need shoes; I should measure my feet. I need shoes; my old ones are worn out.” While the storyline advances here, the is clearly a great deal of repetition that would not be found in a similar event in English.
    • 61. Cultural Thought Patterns Examples
      • Asian/Native American : These languages have a circular logic in such a way that discourse is structured around a topic many times without directly stating the topic. In fact, for speakers of these languages, being too direct is considered to be rude. An example of this structure is, “In the winter the ground is cold and frozen. In the summer it is hot and there are sand burrs. Your feet can get frostbite or burns. You need shoes.” This example talks around the subject of needing shoes but not directly to it.
    • 62. Cultural Thought Patterns Examples
      • Spanish/Romance : While these languages, like English, have linear logic, they allow for a great deal of digression that would be considered superfluous in English. “I need shoes. I’ll get some running shoes. You know my sister, she got some running shoes a while ago at J.C. Penney’s. They gave her blisters but they were cheap. Maybe we should go to Penney’s to look for shoes.”
    • 63. Cultural Thought Patterns Examples
      • Russian : Has linear logic with some digression. “I need to buy some good running shoes like Nikes. I will run on the team. The team at my school is very good and has won a lot of races and ribbons against teams from all over California. Good running shoes are important for a team to win, my team all has Nikes, and nobody has sore feet. I need to buy some Nikes this week so I can be ready to run.”
    • 64. Cultural Thought Patterns
      • Page 29: Read the essay from Jo, a 10th grade student who was asked to write about Civil Disobedience.
      • At you tables discuss:
        • His discourse style
        • His understanding of the assignment
        • How you would grade him and your rationale for doing so
      • Jo was given a “D” because he did not discuss Rosa Parks or MLK.
    • 65. Cultural Thought Patterns
      • Rebeca: Her teacher had her highlight the sections that went together to assist Rebeca in organizing her discourse style to fit American academic style.
        • First, her teacher had her highlight every place where she talked about her name in one color, about coming from Mexico in another, etc.
        • Rebeca was able to rewrite and feel successful.
    • 66. Teaching English for Social & Academic Communication
      • Page 30
      • Communication Styles :
        • Discuss cultural thought patterns
        • Model Writing (American linear)
        • Color Coding
      • Communication Strategies :
        • How to ask and answer questions (sentence frames)
        • Cooperative Learning (turn taking, active listening, etc.)
    • 67. Teaching English for Social & Academic Communication
      • Conflict Resolution Strategies :
        • Training in negotiation and mediation
        • Positive school climates w/policies and curriculum that support antiracist programs.
        • Valuing language & culture
      • Multiple Perspectives :
        • Exposing students to differences in world views
        • Recognizing multiple points of view [Columbus’ “Discovery, Invasion, or Contact”] (i.e. debate)
    • 68. Teaching English for Social & Academic Communication
      • Ethnocentrism & Cultural Relativism :
        • Discussion of how language expresses a message (i.e. using language that creates barriers versus using culturally inclusive language)
        • Explicit modeling
    • 69. Transmission & Interactive Modes
      • Two student volunteers to read Teacher A and Teacher B
    • 70. Contrasting Cultural Values
      • Interdependence-Family
      • Cooperation
      • Hierarchy, Rank, Status
      • Favoritism (Males)
      • Formality
      • Indirectness
      • Fate
      • Independence - Individual
      • Competition
      • Egalitarianism
      • Female Roles
      • Informality
      • Directness
      • Mastery of One’s own future
    • 71. Contrasting Cultural Values
      • Think of the values as a continuum
      • Which list is collectivist and which is individualist?
      • In our own classrooms there may be evidence of values from both lists, anywhere along the continuum.
    • 72. T-Chart - page 33
      • Fill in the t-chart entitled “My Class”. List the values implicit in your class on the right and how each cultural value might impact education. Share with your table. . .
    • 73. Examples My Class Impact Competition Could be a lack of congruence between the classroom culture and child’s culture Cooperation Working in groups of 4 could be difficult for kids who like to work alone. Directness Uncomfortable for some students
    • 74. CULTURAL CONCEPTS AND PERSPECTIVES (KSA - 001)
    • 75. Culture
      • What do you think of when you hear the term “culture”?
      • Look at the terms on page 34.
        • What are the differences between these two descriptions of culture?
      Surface Culture Visual, observable, external & concrete Deep Culture Who you really are - “soul” Embedded, internal, abstract Harder to change
    • 76. Culture
      • Look at the terms on page 34.
        • Which elements do we consciously address?
        • How can we more successfully negotiate and acknowledge the deeper elements in our classrooms and curriculum?
    • 77. Culture Counts
      • “ The first premise is that culture is at the heart of all we do in the name of education, whether that is curriculum, instruction, administration, or performance assessment. Culture refers to a dynamic system of social values, cognitive codes, behavioral standards, worldviews, and beliefs used to give order and meaning to our own lives as well as the lives of others
    • 78. Culture Counts
      • Even without our being consciously aware of it, culture determines how we think, believe, and behave, and these, in turn, affect how we teach, what we teach, how we relate to children and each other. Our society’s predominant worldview and cultural norms are so deeply ingrained in how we educate children that we seldom think about the possibility that there may be other different but equally legitimate and effective approaches to teaching and learning.” Geneva Gay (2000)
    • 79. Cultural Treasure Hunt
      • Page 35.
      • Complete the Cultural Treasure Hunt at your tables.
      • Page 37.
      • Why address issues of culture in the classroom?
      • Popcorn
    • 80. We Speak America (Video)
      • This video explores the complexities of identity, immigration, culture, and language issues faced by parents, young adults, teachers and students.
      • Discuss page 38 at your table, then with the group.
    • 81. Background Factors . . .
      • Language
        • How developed L1 is
        • Status
        • Resources available
        • Linguistic similarities/differences between L1 and English
        • Ability
    • 82. Background Factors . . .
      • Socioeconomic Status
        • Are basic needs met?
        • Working students
        • Care for siblings
        • Housing
        • Health care availability
    • 83. Background Factors . . .
      • Culture
        • Gender expectations
        • Support systems
        • Rank in family
        • Literacy traditions
        • Similarities/differences with American culture
        • Intragroup/Intergroup
    • 84. Background Factors . . .
      • Experience
        • Immigrant/Refugee/Undocumented (voting/citizenship status)
        • Trauma
        • Age when English acquisition began
    • 85. Background Factors . . .
      • Education
        • Prior education (Nora from the video)
        • Literacy in L1
        • Print in home
        • Parents’ background and level of education
        • Parental support for education & language acquisition goals
    • 86. Quickwrite
      • Describe two background factors that affect ELs.
      • How does each factor contribute to promoting or impeding learning, language acquisition and school adjustment for English learners?
      • What are the implications of this for your own teaching?
    • 87. ROLE OF CULTURE IN THE CLASSROOM AND SCHOOLS (KSA - 005)
    • 88. Drink Cultura - Jos é Antonio Burciaga
      • Listen as I read to you an excerpt from the chapter “All Things I learned in School. . .”
      • Can you recall a time when something you learned at school didn’t match what you’d learned or practiced at home? Share with your table.
    • 89. What do I know - page 41
      • Jot down your gut level responses regarding students from these cultures on the “What do I know?” . . .
      • How do I know these things?
    • 90. What do I know - page 41
      • What is your reaction when you hear that tomorrow you are getting a new Korean immigrant student?
      • What are your expectations?
      • Take the same student to Japan. . .
      • As there is a negative sociopolitical relationship between Japan & Korea, the results are that Korean students usually perform to the level of expectation.
    • 91. What do I know - page 41
      • Additional examples: Finnish in Sweden, Kurdish in Turkey, and the French in Vermont
    • 92. Teaching Styles - CLAD 284
      • Looking at the CLAD Handbook on page 284, consider the identified teaching styles listed. . .(chart not in CTEL book, paragraph on pg 307)
      • Where do you see yourself?
      • How can your own cultural beliefs, attitudes and assumptions affect their management style, teaching style, and interactions with students and parents.
      • Complete page 42. . .
    • 93. Ways to Find out About. . .
      • Page 43: what are some strategies for finding out about your students’ home cultures and cultural experiences?
      • Using observation, community resources, home visits, interviews, informal conversation and written & oral histories . . .
      • How have you or could you use any of these strategies?
    • 94. PROMOTING CULTURALLY INCLUSIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS (KSA - 006)
    • 95. Promoting Culturally Inclusive Learning Environments -pg 44
      • Brainstorm alone or with your table. . .
      • Share with the group.
    • 96. Factors that contribute . . .pg45
      • High Expectations
        • For ALL children
      • High Level of Respect for Cultural & Linguistic Diversity:
        • Valuing and Validating the primary language and its use.
      • High level of interactions :
        • Cooperative/collaborative group work
    • 97. Factors that contribute . . .pg45
      • Multicultural Perspective
        • Infuse throughout the curriculum
      • Use of proactive approach to cultural conflict
        • Openly discussing prejudice, discrimination, racism, stereotypes, intergroup relations
    • 98. Factors that contribute . . .pg45
      • Zero Tolerance
        • For culturally insensitive behavior
      • Strong parent/guardian and community involvement:
        • In class and school activities in school organization programs.
    • 99. Factors that Contribute . . .
      • After taking notes on the factors, come up with one concrete example for one of the factors listed. Then:
      • Record one good idea on a square on page 46
      • Give One, Get One . . .
      • Mingle and ask for ideas from classmates. . .
      • Page 47 : Quickwrite. Complete
    • 100. CULTURALLY INCLUSIVE CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (KSA - 008)
    • 101. 3-2-1 . . . Page 48
      • Fill out the 3-2-1 activity
        • Three titles of multicultural books you have read in your classroom
        • Two perspectives of involvement of immigrant parents in their child’s education
        • One social action you’ve seen your students involved themselves with. . .
    • 102. Banks: Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform -page 49 (CTEL – page 325)
      • After discussing Banks’ model, discover where you are as a teacher, a district. . .
      • Page 50. Complete self-assessment
      • Could you develop a lesson with a multicultural perspective?
        • Make sure to access the students’ prior knowledge and contextualize the language and content for students.
    • 103. FAMILY & COMMUNITY SUPPORT (KSA - 007)
    • 104. Parent Voices
      • Share your quote with as many people as possible.
      • Listen to Pat Mora’s Nepantla . . .
      • Read through and answer the questions from page 52. (CTEL, page 333)
      • ELAC/DELAC
      • Design a school policy to address one of the questions on page 52. Include a timeline & share at your tables
    • 105. So They May Speak - Video

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