traditional games
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traditional games Document Transcript

  • 1. PE 208: MODULE 2 TRADTIONAL GAME Traditional games are those games within a society that people have played for many years, because participation gives them a chance to practice something that has meaning within their society (Bressan, & Van Der Merwe, 1992). As a form of play, traditional games includes participants, some sort of challenge or goal and rules although they are not as formal or organized as sports. Today traditional game in Africa has survived in Nomadic, Hunters, Gatherers and Pastoral societies least touched by European influence. Many of these games are linked with work, religion, celebrations, family life, birth, coming of age and death. They are central to cultural experience of a people (Cheska, 1987). CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL GAMES As a game is structured playing, undertaken for enjoyment and educational purposes, it is characterized by rules, challenge and interaction. With respect this structured play role of game, the following are the characteristics of traditional game: 1. It is locally organized. 2. Have few rules. The rules are not written and enforced. 3. Have few roles or positions for players. 4. Use simple skills. 9. Give men (boys) the opportunity for competition and self-testing, but give women (girls) the opportunity to practice cooperation. 10. Utilize the observation and imitation 5. Have participations restricted to either boys or girls or men or women. 6. It lack of precise boundaries or special methods of learning rather than any kind of sophisticated teaching or coaching. facilities. 7. Use little or no equipment. 8. It is controlled by players rather than by referee. 1.Ndee 2003, Sport History: revisionism approach for game naga, rolling target and Mdako. 2. http://www.tingatingastudio.com/handicraft-african-games.html for mamba game 3. www.alibaba.com/Playground for game ngapi? 4. Bressan, E. S & Van Der Merwe, (1992). An historical sketch of the development of Games, Sport, Dance and Physical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research report for the Milwaukee Public School, Milwaukee, USA, Stellenbosc. Page 1
  • 2. ROLE OF TRADITIONAL GAMES The major roles of participation in traditional are: 1. Physical development of the players. 2. Skills training and Skills maintenance for adult behavior. Traditional game play develops physical and cognitive skills, social decorum and respect for others. 3. The enhancement of the community values about age and gender roles. 4. Create opportunities for interaction within a community and between communities. 5. Perpetuation of heritage and sense of origin. Traditional game offer continuity and contextuality of ethnicity. Knowing these games helps in understanding of ones symbolic, social and physical culture. Local communal affiliation patterns such as age-set are reinforced as game participation helps strengthen long life affliation. TYPES OF TRADITIONAL GAME According Cheska(1978) the main categories of traditional games are Games of physical skill, Games of strategy, Games of chance, Games of memory, Rhythm games, Simulation games and verbal games. Each of these is described in the following sections: 1. Games of Physical Skill The outcome is determined by physical and motor skills of the players e.g. endurance, strength, coordination, agility etc. These games can be divided in four types: i. Games that require only physical skills e.g. running a race. ii. Games that combine physical skill with strategy e.g. wrestling. iii. Games that combine physical skill with luck iv. Games that combine physical skills with rhythm, e.g. clapping games. 2. Games of Strategy The game is determined by the success achieved through the rational choices of the players. Example of games of strategy includes military games such the defense of targets against attack. This game allows the player to make use of their ingenuity in order to
  • 3. influence the outcome. Many games of strategy are combined with physical skills; however, there are two types: i. Games where element of luck is absent ii. Games of chance where the element of luck is a factor in the outcome. 3. Games of Chance The outcome is determined by players luck (good or bad). These games combine luck with physical skills and/or strategy. It is usually played for money or stakes, in which the winner is determined by a chance event, as by drawing numbers or throwing dice. The two types of these games are Guessing and gambling Game. i. Guessing game A guessing game is a game in which the object is to guess some kind of information, such as a word, a phrase, a title, or the location of an object. ii. Gambling games The game played for stakes in the hope of winning including the payment of a price for a chance to win a prize. 4. Games of Memory The outcome is determined by player’s ability to remember. This challenge to memory is usually found combined with verbal game, rhythm games and even physical skill games. 5. Rhythm Games The outcome is determined by players’ musical skills combined with skills, e.g. chanting, clapping hands or playing an instrument to provide the beat or cadence for performance. 6. Simulation Games The outcome is determined by players’ ability to copy either one another or some other person or thing. This type of game is an attempt to simulate the decisions and processes
  • 4. inherent to some real-world situation. Most of the mechanics are chosen to reflect what the real-world consequences would be of each player action and decision. There are three different types of simulation: i. Mimicry games, where players copy actions, sounds or appearance of people, objects or animals from their environment. ii. Imitation games, where players copy the skill performance of others, usually in an effort to become skillful themselves. iii. Dramatic play, where players act out situations and to try different ‘roles’. 7. Verbal Games The outcome is determined by players’ ability to combine their memory with their use of words. Verbal games are considered especially important means for practicing oral skills in those societies where writing has yet to develop. Perceptive awareness, association and logic are components of cognitive skills. These skills are extremely important. However, verbal games combine memory and strategy skills. DISTINCTIONs OF TRADITIONAL GAMES FROM MODERN SPORTS
  • 5. Based on structures and function of traditional game and modern sports one can recognizes a variations. These differences between traditional games and modern sports can be described in terms of what characterizes a game as shown in the following table. Characteristics Organization Traditional games Informal, local level Modern sports Formal, institutionalized, local to Rules Skills Gender of players Few, simple and oral Simple, common Gender specific international level. Many, elaborate and written. Complex and specialized. games; Both gender play same sports, some Procedures seldom played together. times together. No precise boundaries, Definite boundaries, time limits, duration, Equipment or number of number of player. players. Common, low or no cost, Specialized, High cost, made by players. Manufactured. Social control By players in the game Outside officials and bureaucracy. Social interaction For males: Self-testing. For For both genders: competitive. model Learning process Outcome females: cooperative. Observation and imitation. Formal instruction and coaching. Process oriented meaning that Results oriented meaning that there the activity itself is more are clear cut winner and losers as important than the end results. results of a play. Table1: Difference between traditional game and modern sports
  • 6. Based on structures and function of traditional game and modern sports one can recognizes a variations. These differences between traditional games and modern sports can be described in terms of what characterizes a game as shown in the following table. Characteristics Organization Traditional games Informal, local level Modern sports Formal, institutionalized, local to Rules Skills Gender of players Few, simple and oral Simple, common Gender specific international level. Many, elaborate and written. Complex and specialized. games; Both gender play same sports, some Procedures seldom played together. times together. No precise boundaries, Definite boundaries, time limits, duration, Equipment or number of number of player. players. Common, low or no cost, Specialized, High cost, made by players. Manufactured. Social control By players in the game Outside officials and bureaucracy. Social interaction For males: Self-testing. For For both genders: competitive. model Learning process Outcome females: cooperative. Observation and imitation. Formal instruction and coaching. Process oriented meaning that Results oriented meaning that there the activity itself is more are clear cut winner and losers as important than the end results. results of a play. Table1: Difference between traditional game and modern sports