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Reproductive health anantomy



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  • 1. Melissa Rodgers JIA Reproductive Health: Female and Male Anatomy
  • 2. Good Sexual Health  Good sexual health involves understanding, respecting, and protecting your reproductive system. It is important to keep your reproductive system healthy to enable sexual intimacy and reproduction. It involves:  Maintaining overall good health  Practicing personal hygiene  Abstaining from sex to avoid STDs  Abstaining from sex to avoid unplanned pregnancy  Abstaining from drugs and alcohol
  • 3. In the class folder, check out the weblink to further explain the female diagram.
  • 4. Female Reproduction Definitions  Gynecologist – A medical doctor who specializes in the treatment and management of problems affecting the female reproductive system.  Obstetrician- A doctor who specializes in prenatal care, labor, delivery, and postnatal care.  Genitals – General terms for the organs of reproductive health in both the male and female.  Estrogen – Hormone produced by the ovaries and responsible for female characteristics. Also produced in small amounts in the male body.
  • 5. Female Reproduction Definitions  Vulva – Name of the female sex organs located outside the body.  Outer Lips – Labia Majora Function: protects inner organs and secretion during sexual excitement.  Inner Lips – Labia Minora – Function: the same as outer lips.  Clitoris – A small organ about the size of the tip of a wooden match. It is located at the top of the inner lips. Because it contains many sensitive nerve endings, it is the center for sexual excitement and pleasure for the female.  Urethra – The passageway for urine leading from the bladder to outside the body. (The first of three openings)  Hymen – A thin mucous membrane which usually partially covers the opening to the vagina. Note: The hymen is not equated to virginity, nor is absence of the hymen definite proof that the women has had sexual intercourse.
  • 6. Female Reproduction Definitions  Vagina – Is like a flat hose or collapsed passageway extending from the uterus to the outside of the body. It is also called the birth canal.  Functions:  1. Birth passageway  2. Houses the penis during sexual intercourse  3. Holds tampons during menstruation  4. Passage of menstrual flow  (second of three openings)  Pituitary Gland – The master gland which triggers puberty in both males and females.  Orgasm – The peak of sexual excitement.
  • 7. Female Reproduction Definitions  Uterus – Also called womb. A pear-shaped muscular reproductive organ. It is hollow with thick walls that can stretch to become very thin during pregnancy. Functions:  1. It is where the fertilized egg implants  2. It holds and protects the baby until birth  It stretches many times its original size (smaller than a fist) and then returns to normal size after birth  Endometrium – the lining of the uterus. Blood and tissue build in preparation for pregnancy  Cervix – serves as the neck of the uterus and connects with the vagina. It dilates (enlarges) to ten centimeters during labor to prepare to accommodate the delivery of the baby. Note: It is a potential cancer site in women. Therefore, it is recommended that every female have a pap smear test done annually  Fundus – The top of the uterus.
  • 8. Female Reproduction Definitions  Fallopian tubes – Attached on each of the uterus are two very thin (threadlike) tubes. They serve as a connection between the uterus and the ovaries. Function: Passageway for the egg. It is where conception (joining of the egg and sperm takes place). They are approximately 4-5 inches in length.  Fimbria – fingerlike fringe bordering the opening to the tubes. They guide the mature egg in the fallopian tubes.  Ovary – The plural is ovaries. The female sex gland (Gonad). It stores ova or eggs inside the body. Each ovary is about the size of a peach pit. Each lies tucked under one of the fallopian tubes (not attached). Function: About once every 28 days from early adolescence on, hormones direct one ovary to release one egg or ovum. This release is called ovulation. It must take place to start a pregnancy.
  • 9. Female Reproduction Definitions  Ovum or Egg – The plural is ova. The female sex cell produced by the ovaries. At birth female has all the eggs she will ever have. Function: Ovulation. A potential human being, containing one-half the genetic makeup (23 chromosomes). The female has 100,000 – 300,000 eggs at birth.  Follicles – Little pockets that store the ova  Ova are very fragile and can live only 12 – 24 hours  Menstruation – The shedding of the endometrium. It occurs approximately every 28 days. Begins ages 9-12. However, ovulation does not first occur until several months or even a couple years after menstruation begins.  Menopause – (Change of Life) The cessation (stopping) of menstruation.
  • 10. Female Reproduction Definitions Menstrual Cycle
  • 11. Take the Female Reproductive System quiz now.
  • 12. In the class folder, check out the weblink to further explain the male diagram.
  • 13. Male Reproduction Definitions  Penis - The organ introduced into the vagina of the female through which semen is discharged. It is composed of two parts, a. and d.  a. Glans Penis - Is the rounded head or tip of the penis and is most sensitive to touch.  b. Foreskin - The skin covering the glans at birth.  c. Circumcision - Removal of the foreskin. A simple operation performed a few days after birth (for most people).  d. Shaft - This is the long part of the penis that becomes firm during erection.  e. Erection - This is when the vessels of the penis fills quickly with blood. This pressure causes the penis to become larger and firm. This can happen to males at any time from infancy through old age.  f. Ejaculation - The release of semen through the urethra.  g. Nocturnal emission - Involuntary release of semen during sleep. (Wet Dream)  h. Semen - A white fluid produced in the reproductive tract composed of sperm and secretions.
  • 14. Male Reproduction Definitions  Scrotum - A muscular sac behind the penis that holds the testes and maintains them at a constant temperature. This temperature needs to be cooler than body temperature.  Testes - Singular: Testis. The male sex gland (Gonad). Function:  1. To produce sperm. The testes of the male continue to produce sperm and testosterone to the end of the life cycle (barring disease). This is in contrast to the female, where the ovaries cease to ovulate after the period of menopause.  2. To produce Testosterone, the male sex hormone which is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics.
  • 15. Male Reproduction Definitions  Sperm - The male sex cell produced by the testes. Function:  1. Conception - to fertilize the egg.  2. Potential human being, containing one-half of the genetic makeup (23 chromosomes). The sperm is the smallest cell in the male body. The ovum is the largest cell in the female body. Each sperm has two parts: a tiny oval head and a long whiplike tail use to propel it for traveling. A healthy male makes about 50 million sperm each day. Most males do not have fully mature sperm until they are 15 or 16. On average, a healthy mature male will release 100 - 350 million sperm with each ejaculation. Once inside the female body, the sperm may live for as long as six days. Sperm type X produce a female baby. Sperm type Y produce a male baby.
  • 16. Male Reproduction Definitions  Epididymis - An elongated structure that forms a mass over the back and upper part of each testis. Once made, the sperm move into this special compartment - the epididymis - and are ripened (matured), usually six weeks. When the sperm mature and are ready to fertilize an egg, they go from the epididymis into a tube called the vas deferens.  Vas Deferens -Two tubes leading from the epididymis of each testis to one of the seminal vesicles. When sperm cells leave the epididymis, they are propelled by muscular contractions of the vas deferens. (Male tubes)  Seminal Vesicle - A sac-like structure that secretes a slightly alkaline fluid. The secretion contains a variety of nutrients and is rich in fructose, which is thought to provide sperm with an energy source.
  • 17. Male Reproduction Definitions  Ejaculatory Duct - A single tube which connects the two vas deferens to the urethra.  Bladder Sphincter - A small muscular valve at the base of the bladder which opens to permit elimination of urine but closes during sexual excitement to prevent urine from mixing with the seminal fluid.  Prostate Gland - Surrounds the urethra. Function:  1. Adds secretions to the semen. These prostate secretions are alkaline in chemical reaction and serve to neutralize the acid condition of the urethra (in the male) and the vagina (in the female). This is important because sperm are readily destroyed in an acid medium.  2. Swells to help cut off urine during sexual excitement. It is a potential cancer site.
  • 18. Male Reproduction Definitions  Cowper's Gland - They serve the same purpose as secretions of the prostate gland, and also lubricate the urethra, to help the sperm move freely.  Urethra - A tube that connects with the bladder and opens to the outside. In the male it serves two purposes:  1. To carry urine for elimination.  2. To transport sperm cells through the penis and outside the body.
  • 19. Take the Male Reproductive System quiz now
  • 20. What can damage the reproductive system?  Drugs  STDs (we will get more information on STDs in our next lesson)
  • 21. Marijuana  For intermittent or weekend female users, the menstrual cycle may be interrupted and ovulation may fail to occur. Moderate to heavy users may find their pregnancies resulting in miscarriage, stillbirth, or death shortly after birth.  In the male, the evidence of damage to the reproductive system by marijuana is also significant. Marijuana reduces the level of the hormone testosterone which may prevent the genitals from developing and functioning properly. The sperm that are produced are not as active or mobile as those produced without the adverse effect of marijuana. This condition may interfere with fertility.  In babies whose mothers used marijuana, there is evidence of hyperactivity and short attention span.
  • 22. Tobacco  Tobacco use in females can damage ovaries and disrupt estrogen production.  In males, it can lower sperm mobility, affect the shape of sperm, lower the amount of semen, and cause impotence.  In both genders tobacco can cause infertility.
  • 23. Steroids  Steroids can cause males’ breasts to enlarge and impotency.  Females may experience irregular periods or menstruation ending altogether.
  • 24. Alcohol  There is a direct relationship between alcohol and arousal: the more alcohol that is consumed the lower the body’s level of physical arousal becomes. Prolonged alcohol use can cause impotence in males. Alcohol can cause infertility in both sexes.