history of bangladesh


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history of bangladesh

  2. 2. PRESENTATION BY GROUP- 11 Number of slides : 20 GROUP MEMBERS : Roll Name number 84 Tanjil Mahmud 80 Md. Abdur Rahim Shohagh 12 Nishat Jainab Sultana 13 Arifuzzaman 14 Zakia Sultana 82 Mrinmoy Acharjee Ashraf RahmanGroup-11
  3. 3. CONTENTS Muslims in Bengal The arrival of the Europeans The Mughal period The Nawabs of Bengal The British rule in Bengal Partition of British India Creation of two states India and Pakistan Bengali language movement in East Pakistan Call for Independence The war for Independence Timeline for Bangladesh history after independence (1972-1990) Political parties forming government since 1990 ReferencesGroup-11
  4. 4. Muslims in Bengal : Muslims first arrived in Bengal in the 12th century. The Turks managed to capture the Northern part of India. Khalji, Shahi and few other dinasties managed to extend Muslim empire until 14th century Art and literature flourished during the Muslim period.Group-11
  5. 5. The arrival of the Europeans: From the 15th century many Europeans arrived: Trade and economics flourished after their arrival.Group-11
  6. 6. The Mughal Period : •The Mughals conquered Bengal in 1576 & it became under the control of Delhi. •Bengal was allowed to practice their own culture and literature. •In 1612 emperor Jahangir completed the conquest of Muhgals after capturing Shylet. •Later in 1707 the Bengal broke of the Delhi based empire after the death of Aurangzeb.Group-11
  7. 7. The Nawabs of Bengal (1717–1880): Murshid Quli Khan ended the nominal Mughal rule in 1717 when he declared Bengals independence from the Mughal empire. Capital : Murshidabad.  Three successive Islamic dynasties ruled Bengal in this period. They were: Nasiri Afshar • From • From 1717 1740 to until 1757 1740 Najafi • From 1757 to 1880Group-11
  8. 8. The British rule in Bengal: During Aurangzeb`s reign , the local Nawab sold three villages to the British. One of the villages sold was in Calcutta and this was the first foothold of the British. Calcutta was the focal point of the British economic activity and soon they started to extend their activities beyond Calcutta. The British started to dream an empire in Bengal and this ultimately led to battles with the Mughals. The war for Bengal took place from 1686-1690 and the Nawab of Bengal Shaista Khan defeated the British in the battle of Hoogly and Baleshwar.Group-11
  9. 9. After a decisive victory at the Battle of Paulashy over the Nawab of Bengal in1757 the British East India Company established rule in India and Bengal. Calcutta became their major trading port for bamboo, tea sugar cane , muslin and jute which were produced in Dhaka , Rajshahi, Khulna . The British managed to control Bengal for nearly 200 years.Group-11
  10. 10. Partition of British India: After World War II British were pressured to reduce size of their empire. Lord Mountbatten and Mahatma Gandhi worked together to combine Hindus and Muslims They were unsuccessful. Lord Mountbatten decided to partition British IndiaGroup-11
  11. 11. Creation of two states India and Pakistan (1947): •In July 1947 United Kingdom declared two separate states Pakistan and India. •Pakistan was the Muslim state and India became the Hindu state.Group-11
  12. 12. Pakistan had two states: Panjab in west Pakistan Bengal in east East and west Pakistan was separated by 1600 km of Indian land.  Urdu was spoken in the west and Bangla was spoken in the east.Group-11
  13. 13. Bengali language movement in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) 1952: East and west Pakistan were split along cultural, geographical, and linguistic lines. In 1948 Government of Pakistan declared Urdu as state language Protests sparked among Bengali speaking East Pakistanis. In 1952 the protests reached its peak. Due to massive unrest the government outlawed meetings and rallies. The students of the University of Dhaka and several other political groups defied the laws and organized protests on 21 February 1952. When the protests reached its climax the police open fired and killed several students. Massive civil unrest broke out due to those killings Finally after years of conflict the central government granted official status of Bengali language in 1956. 21 February is now observed as the “International Mother Language Day” in the whole world and this was granted by UNESCO in 2000.Group-11
  14. 14. Call for independence:•As the capital was located in West Pakistan , the East Pakistan was unfairlyruled.•Very little was spent on the development of East Pakistan.•Protests continued and martial law was imposed.•Finally after several years of political unrest the first election of Pakistan in7 December 1970 was called.•Awami League, the political party won all the seats in East Pakistan.•West Pakistan opened talks with East Pakistan over division of powerbetween the central governments.•Talks proved to be unsuccessful and the President of Pakistan refused tolet Awami League form government.•On March 2, 1971, a group of students, led by A S M Abdur Rob, studentleader & VP of DUCSU (Dhaka University Central Students Union) raised thenew (proposed) flag of Bangladesh under the direction of Swadhin BanglaNucleus.•On 7 March 1971 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, made his historic freedomspeech, which called for the revolution for freedom and liberation.Group-11
  15. 15. The war for independence: On 25 March 1971 the Pakistan army launched “Operation Searchlight” which killed thousands of innocent unarmed Bangladeshis. This led to the formation of Mukti Bahini which fought for independence. Many battles took place in different parts of East Pakistan. Over nine months of bloodiest war an estimated 3 millions Bangladeshis were killed. Women and children were tortured and murdered. Two days before independence the Pakistan army captured many physicians, professors, writers and engineers in Dhaka, and murdered them, leaving the dead bodies in a mass grave. Finally in 16 December 1971 the Pakistan army signed the “Instrument of Surrender” and Bangladesh officially came into existence as the 139thGroup-11 county in the world.
  16. 16. Time line Bangladesh history afterindependence (1972-1990): 1972 •10 February- Sheikh Mujibur returns to Bangladesh after being captured during war. •16 December- The constitution of Bangladesh comes into effect. 1973 •The first general election of Bangladesh was held and Bangladesh Awami League secured majority. 1975 •15 August- Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated along with most of his family members.Group-11
  17. 17. 1975–81 •Ziaur Rahman managed gain support of Ziaur Rahman the army. •Then in 1977 he formed the political party BNP (Bangladesh Nationalist Party) and won the election in June 1978. •In May 1981 he was assassinated in Chittagong. 1982–90 •In March 1982 Army Chief of Staff Lt. Hussain Gen. H.M. Ershad suspended the Mohammed constitution and declared martial law. Ershad •He later declared democracy. •He retired from army and won several elections during this period and ruled Bangladesh. •On December 6, 1990, following general strikes, increased campus protests, public rallies, and a general disintegration of law and order, Ershad was forced to resign .Group-11
  18. 18. Political parties forming government since1990: 1991–1996 BNP led by Khaleda Zia 1996–2001 Awami league, led by Sheikh Hasina 2001–2006 Four Party Aliiance led by BNP Oct. 2006–Jan. 2009 Caretaker Government 2009–present Grand Alliance, led mainly by Awami League and Jatiya Party.Group-11
  19. 19. References: 1. Bangla2000 http://www.bangla2000.com/bangladesh/history.shtm 2. Connect Bangladesh http://www.connect-bangladesh.org/bd/bangladesh/introduction_bn.php 3. Wiki pedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bangladesh 4. Materials provided by the course teacherGroup-11
  20. 20. THANK YOU THE ENDGroup-11