INFO 1 unit 1.6 - Selection and use of output methods, media and devices
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INFO 1 unit 1.6 - Selection and use of output methods, media and devices

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Theory presentation on AQA INFO 1 unit 1.6 Selection and use of output methods, media and devices

Theory presentation on AQA INFO 1 unit 1.6 Selection and use of output methods, media and devices

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  • 1. Selection and use of output methods, media and devices INFO 1 – Unit 6
  • 2. Selection and use of output methods, media and devices
  • 3. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Output devices allow the computer system to provide the user with the results of processing the data.
    • The particular application may require this to be in permanent form or the information may be temporarily displayed on a screen.
    • The following factors will need to be considered when selecting an output device.
      • Whether or not a permanent copy is required.
      • Medium to be used (screen , paper, sound etc.)
      • Initial cost of hardware.
      • Running costs - consumables and maintenance.
      • Speed at which output is produced.
      • Quality or resolution of output.
      • Working environment - size of and noise produced by the hardware.
  • 4. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Monitors
      • There are the following types of monitors to choose from:
        • LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) – commonly used fro laptop computers because they have low power consumption. They are lighter than CRT displays and have a flat profile.
        • CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) – commonly used in desktop displays
        • TFT (Thin Film Transistor) – a type of LCD flat panel display screen.
      • VGA (Video Graphics Array) – a graphics display system for PC’s developed by IBM – Provides a resolution up to 640x480 and a palette of 256 colours.
      • SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array) – provides greater resolution, a larger colour palette and faster refresh rate.
      • The resolution of a monitor indicates how densely packed the pixels are. In general, the more pixels (often expressed in dots per inch), the sharper the image.
  • 5. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Projectors
      • Projects the computer output onto a large screen.
      • They are commonly used when giving presentations or demonstrations, along with a white screen or interactive whiteboard.
      • Prices are continuing to fall and quality is improving
      • Pros
        • Used to present to large audiences
        • Increase the size of the display
      • Cons
        • Can be expensive for high quality devices
        • External/Internal light reflection can effect quality of image presented (New Devices are combating this issue)
  • 6. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
      • Various types of printers are suitable for different tasks.
      • Things to consider with printers are:
        • the resolution
        • Speed
        • compatibility (e.g. the need for printer drivers )
        • use of consumables (toner/ink/ribbon)
        • paper handling qualities
        • Robustness - ( The degree to which a component can still function in the presence of partial failures)
      • A printer driver is required in order to use the printer
        • A printer driver is a software routine which stores the setup/page configuration for a particular model of printer
        • A printer drivers function is to:
          • Provide interface/communication between the operating system/ computer/ application package and the printer
          • Translate formatting and highlighting information into a form that the printer can understand
  • 7. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • Dot Matrix
      • Have a number of pins which strike the paper through a printer ribbon similar to a typewriter ribbon.
      • Pros
        • Cheap
        • Reliable
        • Used when output is printed onto carbonated paper
      • Cons
        • Letters look rough as they are made out of visible dots
        • Noisy
        • Slow
  • 8. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • Ink-Jet
      • Have tiny nozzles filled with ink from a cartridge
      • The nozzles are heated causing a tiny bubble of ink to touch the paper, thus printing
      • Pros
        • Quality of print is better than dot matrix
        • Some ink jet printers can out perform laser printers
        • The Printer is usually cheap*
      • Cons
        • Slower than laser printers
        • Do not cope well with large volumes of printing
        • *Becomes expensive when cartridges are taken in to account
  • 9. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • Laser
      • A laser and mirror is used to “paint” light on a rotating drum
      • The drum is covered by a film of zinc oxide which becomes electronically charged by the light
      • The laser is turned on and off to paint the correct pattern of the drum.
      • The charged areas pick up black powder from the print cartridge
      • The toner is deposited on the paper and is fixed by heat
      • Pros
        • Quick
        • Produce high quality printouts
        • They perform well when dealing with volume printing
      • Cons
        • The printers are usually expensive
        • The toner cartridges are expensive (each cartridge does have a high capacity)
  • 10. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • Plotters
      • Specialised printers usually used to produce copies which are A1 or larger.
      • They are used to create technical printouts such as those used by engineers or architects.
      • There are two different types of plotters a Flatbed and a Drum Plotter both work in different ways
      • Pros
        • The quality of output is very high
        • Can print larger than A3
      • Cons
        • Initial purchase price is high and running costs are moderate.
        • Slow
  • 11. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • Thermal Transfer
      • Non-impact printer.
      • Uses heat to heat to make an impression on paper.
      • Used to print barcodes, price tags and labels, mobile POS (receipt or ticket printing)
      • Found in restaurants
      • Pros
        • Quiet
        • Small
        • Cheap to maintain (runs off battery)
      • Cons
        • Quality is limited to size
        • Tends to be only black and white prining
  • 12. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • Dye-Sublimation
      • Used to produces excellent colour reproduction e.g. printing Art work
      • Pros
        • Excellent Quality
      • Cons
        • Purchase price high
        • Consumables high
  • 13. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Printers
    • 3D Printer
      • Consider
        • Uses of
        • Function (How does it work?)
        • Practicality (Size, materials required)
        • Cost (Initial and maintenance)
        • Quality of output
        • Limitations
          • "It doesn't print every last single part. There are some which, at the moment, are a little bit difficult for the machine to manage - so things like electric motors and the electronics circuitry the machine can't do for itself - but it prints out a lot of the rest.“
            • Dr Adrian Bowyer from the University of Bath ( http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11834044 )
        • Ethics
          • In the past, the ability to print, burn CDs or DVDs have been seen as a serious threat to intellectual property, making the act of piracy easier. 3D printing is no different. Public Knowledge, a Washington-based public interest group "working to defend citizens' rights in the emerging digital culture" referred to the advancements as the "next great technological disruption”
    http://printo3d.com/
  • 14. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Speakers
      • Commonly use to output sound e.g.
        • Music
        • Audible warnings
        • Loading
        • Shutting Down
  • 15. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Headsets
      • Combination of an input device and an output device
      • Development of VoIP has increased their use
      • Also often used in gaming
  • 16. Output devices Output devices present the information to the user
    • Speech Synthesis
      • Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.
      • A system used for this purpose is termed a speech synthesizer
      • Speech synthesis systems are often called text-to-speech (TTS) systems in reference to their ability to convert text into speech.
      • It is an expanding area of output, common in a range of applications including computer games.
      • If you phone up directory enquiries or the speaking clock, you will be told the number you require or the time by the computer in synthesised speech.