Copyright designs and patents act
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Copyright designs and patents act






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Copyright designs and patents act Copyright designs and patents act Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright Law
    • Software and copyright
    • Licensing
    • Software Piracy
    • Copyright and the Internet
    • Copyright gives certain legal protection to authors of materials
    • Originally intended for books, sheet music, photographs etc.
    • In the U.K. it is covered by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1998
    • This is the U.K. form of the Intellectual Property Rights (IRP) legislation which exist in most countries
    • The legislation exists to both
      • ensure people are rewarded for the endeavours
      • give protection to the copyright holder if there is an infringement
    • Current legislation embodies
    • Moral Rights - copyright holder has a right to ensure works are not used in an inappropriate way
    • ‘ fair use’ clauses - e.g. schools allowed to copy 1% of a published work
    • Literary works - includes books, poetry, telephone directories, computer programs
    • Musical works - of all kinds
    • Dramatic works - not only plays but adverts etc.
    • Artistic works - including crafts e.g. jewellery designs
    • Sound recordings - discs, tapes, CDs etc.
    • Film recordings - on all media
    • Broadcasts - both audio and video
    • Cable broadcasts - e.g. cable TV programmes
    • Typographical arrangements - e.g. e-books, web pages (of text) etc.
      • Multimedia not specifically covered
      • Computer graphics cause particular problems.
      • Local copyright laws take precedence - important in Internet disputes
      • ‘ Look and feel’ - difficult to prove that software is a copy
      • ‘ Reverse engineering’ - write a computer program so that it looks the same but uses different code
    • Copying of pictures, sound files, music is rife esp. Fan sites
    • Many believe, mistakenly, that internet is copyright free.
    • Site ‘cloning’ becoming widespread
    • Only large companies have resources to pursue claims e.g. Disney
    • Napster case very important development
    • A software licensing agreement is a legal contract between the software producer and the user that sets out how the piece of software may be used.
    • Single-user licence
      • Allows a copy of the software to be installed on one machine
      • Might specifies ‘one copy may be in use at one time’ – install on two machines
    • Multi-user licence
      • Allows an organisation to install the software package on an agreed number of machines
      • Costs less as several single-user licences
    • Site Licence
      • Allows the user to purchase a single copy of the software with permission to install it on all the computers at a single location.
      • Common in education sector
    • Licence by use
      • Allows the software to be installed on a large number of stand alone computers.
      • However, only an agreed number of users are allowed to run the software at any given time.
    • Network Licence
      • One copy of the software stored on the file server
      • An agreed number of users e.g. 10
      • Software accessible to all computers e.g. 100
      • However, when the 11 th person tries to use the software, access will be denied
    • Multi user licence - can be used by a set number of people
    • Site licence - can be used on all computers on one site e.g. a school
    • Academic licence - for students and teachers, usually single user
    • Education licence - for schools, colleges; cheap, multi user
    • Shareware - have to pay for updates, support, sometime time limited
    • Freeware - no cost at all
    • Charity ware - donation to charity encouraged
    • Post card ware - send a postcard to the author
    • Free software movement - encourages freeware authors
    • Essentially the copying of software without an appropriate licence
    • Multi £ billion business esp. in Far East e.g. all major graphics programs - normal cost ~£6, 000 - pirate copy £5
    • In UK and USA video games (on CD) very popular
    • CD-R and Internet has made process very easy
    • At basic level
      • Serial no.
      • legal protection (copyright act)
    • More advanced
      • Dongles
      • Electronic copy protection - code scrambler
      • Regionalisation e.g DVD
    • Systems do not work
      • Copyright act - legal mine field
      • Serial No . - web site specialise in publishing serial No.s for popular software
      • Dongles - reverse engineering of device
      • Electronic methods - broken within hours of publication
      • Regionalisation - code breakers widely available
    • Software piracy will remain major problem
    • Internet and CD-R exacerbate problem
    • Piracy keeps software prices high
    • Encourages more piracy - catch 22
    • Music, video and game copying increasingly common, will increase with advent of DVD-R