131029 - Popular Music Styles
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131029 - Popular Music Styles

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  • Rappers have long been affiliated with American gang culture. Two examples include Tupac and B.I.G/Biggie Smalls – both rappers were gunned down in separate incidents but the circumstances were very similar for both. Gang feuds appear to have been at the root but no witnesses came forward!

131029 - Popular Music Styles 131029 - Popular Music Styles Presentation Transcript

  • MENU
  • Jazz Swing Gospel Ragtime Blues Rock ‘n’ Roll Rock Pop Scat singing Rapping Celtic Rock Pitch bend Repetition Vamp Key change/ Modulation Walking bass Syncopation Strophic Improvisation Middle 8 Chord progression using chords I, IV, V and I, IV, V and VI Click on a button to take you to a concept Riff Ostinato
  • Repetition Improvisation Vamp Repetition happens in all music, it is when you hear the same musical idea more than once. (As in riff and ostinato.) The performer creates music during an actual performance. There may be chords given for guidance. Improvisation forms an important part of Jazz and Popular music. It can also be an important part of the composing process where musical material gets tried out before being written down for the final composition A rhythmic accompaniment usually played on the piano or guitar. The bass note is played on the beat and the chord is played off the beat. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gNi2oxH37vo Back to Jazz
  • The main features are: Chord progression using chords I, IV and V One chord moving to a another chord (with a different name). Chords I, IV and V are built on the 1st, 4th and 5th steps of the scale. In the key of C: C = chord I F = chord IV G = chord V. For Nat 4 you need to be able to recognise chord progressions which use chords I, IV and V. The 12 Bar Blues is a good example of this. Chord progression using chords I, IV, V and VI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pO53k wEH3M http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=tDrrjbFikK o&feature=related The main features are: For Nat 5 you need to be able to recognise chord progressions which use chords I, IV, V and VI. In the key of C major: In the key of C minor: C = chord I Cm = chord I F = chord IV Fm = chord IV G = chord V Gm = chord V Am = chord VI Ab = chord VI Notice that in a major key chord VI is minor and that in a minor key chord VI is major.
  • Key change/ Modulation The main features are: A piece begins in one key and moves to another. For example a piece may begin in the key of C major and modulate to F major. Often songs can move up a tone or semitone in the last verse – this gives the music a lift/a new lease of life towards the end.
  • Syncopation The main features are: • The normal accents in a bar of 4 fall on the 1st and 3rd beats of the bar - 1 2 3 4. • Music which is syncopated plays around with these accents putting them in unusual unexpected places – as seen in the clave the accents even fall in between the beats. 1 2 + 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 + 3 4 Play video from 2.49mins Back to jazz Back to Latin American http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTQ1A 7YT1pQ
  • Walking Bass The main features are: • This sounds like the bass goes for a walk up and down the notes of the chord, • 7ths of chords are used a lot. • The walking feel is achieved through continuous crotchet movement. Moving around the notes of chord I – C7 Moving around the notes of chord IV – F7 Moving around the notes of chord V – G Back to Jazz Back to Rock ’n’ roll
  • Ostinato Riff The main features are: • A short musical pattern repeated many times. • Usually forms part of the accompaniment. Rapper’s Delight – The Sugar Hill Gang http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pl ayer_embedded&v=OZ24Z7HGlvA#! Back to Pop Back to Rapping The Kinks ‘You Really Got Me’
  • Strophic The main features are: This word describes vocal/choral music where each verse has the same music. This structure is very common in pop music as the repetition makes the music instantly memorable. Middle 8 The main features are: Common in popular music this is an eight bar section which provides a contrast to the repetition of the verse and choruses. Back to Pop
  • Pitch bend This example is of voices using pitch bend to imitate a cat. This next example is of a clarinet pitch bending in the famous Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin. The music begins with the clarinet playing a trill followed by the pitch bend. The main features are: This means to change the pitch of a note. This effect can be achieved by pushing a guitar string upwards.
  • Rock ‘n’ Roll The main features are: • Often based on a twelve Rock ‘n’ Roll is 1950’s American music bar blues chord progression which grew form the combined styles of • Featuring solo/lead instrument rhythm and blues, gospel and country. (early rock’n’roll this would have been Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry and Little Richard piano/saxophone, later replaced by were well known Rock ‘n’ Roll artists. electric guitar) Originally a string/double bass was used • Fast tempo alongside acoustic guitars, piano and • Walking bass saxophones, but Rock n Roll helped to • Accents on the 2nd and 4th beat of the establish the lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bar: bass guitar and drum kit. You Tube Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpzV_0 l5ILI Elvis Presley – Jailhouse Rock Read your background information on the Rock ‘n’ roll era and answer the questions. Walking Bass • Backing vocals • Blues scale/improvisation
  • Rock ‘n’ Roll Listen to this example and identify which of the main features of rock ’n’ roll are present. Write your answers in your workbook. What happens to the music in the final verse?
  • Mainstream pop musicians often feature rappers halfway through their 4. Why do you think pop musicians tracks to give them credibility and to often feature rappers in their tracks? appeal to a wider and younger audience. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ljUnyv5XUA8 Ostinato Listen out for the repeated bass pattern in this example. This is called an ostinato.
  • Can you match these Hip Hop / Rap artists to the correct names? Eminem Dr Dre Missy Elliott Dizzee Rascal Tupac Drake Nicki Minaj
  • Snoopafella by Snoop Dog The main features are: • Rhyming lyrics which are spoken • and performed in time to a beat. Once upon a time, in the L.B.C. On the Eastside, off of 2-1 Street There lived a young man, Cinderfella's his name To make it interesting it's me, peep ?★?★? game ……………. Well, one day, up the Avenue crew There was a man, surrounded by the Dogg Pound ?★?★? He said ah, "Hear ye! Hear ye! Come one, come all! ball The princess is having a royal ?★?★? If you can rap, also dress fresh princess You might win a date with the sweet ?★?★? "Well I, um, ran home when I heard the newsflash - dad I bust through the door, straight to my step-?★?★? I said, "Step-dad, may I?” And before I could finish, "Hell no!", he ?★?★? (Cinderfella!) replied My brothers were goin, they were gettin down crown Even Pops was goin for a piece of the ?★?★? (Cinderfella!) They all stood there, laughin’ in my face place!” And as they walked out they said, "Clean up this ?★?★?!"
  • Jazz At first this was music created by black Americans in the early 20th Century. There are many styles of jazz, which include: Blues, Ragtime, Swing, Scat singing, Dixieland The main features are: • A jazz group could include drum kit, bass, piano, saxophone and trumpet. • Walking bass • Syncopation • Improvisation Syncopation Walking bass Improvisation As you listen to this example write down which of the main features you can hear
  • Scat Singing The main features are: • This is a style of jazz singing where nonsense words, syllables and sounds are improvised by the singer. • It often sounds like the singer is imitating the sounds of instruments.
  • Ragtime This is a style of dance music which became popular at the end of the 19th Century and which helped influence jazz. Scott Joplin rags are a good example The main features are: • Written for piano (but can be performed on other instruments. • Heavily syncopated melody against • A steady vamp style accompaniment in the left hand in the Swing This style of jazz originateslarger 1930’s when people attended the ballrooms and dance halls which required large ensembles to fill the halls with sound. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bR3K5uB-wMA The main features are: • A large group of wind and brass instruments including a rhythm section provided by drum kit, guitar and bass. • Solo improvisations • Saxophone became the leading soloist for this era. • This was music for dancing to so is usually upbeat – swing rhythm an important feature • Walking bass
  • The main features are: • The 12 Bar Blues (chord progression)forms the basic structure upon which the blues is Blues music started in the southern composed. slave states of America. Slaves sang • There are usually 4 beats per bar work songs and spirituals that • The melody is based on the blues scale expressed their fears, hopes and • Lyrics of songs would often relate to the dreams, hence (feeling blue). blacks’ continuing struggle for equality The music spread to the northern and basic living and working conditions. • Typically the tempo of blues music is slow cities and became the basis of all reflecting the mood of the music. popular music today. The 12 Bar Blues chord structure in C Major looks like this: C F G C//// C//// C//// C//// F//// F //// C//// C//// G//// F//// C//// C//// Performers improvise over this structure using the blues scale:
  • Ray Charles Blues Is My Middle Name Some day people I know things will come my way Some day people I know things will come my way But as of now it seems to live it just don’t pay My body is made of heartaches, blues is my middle name My heart is made of heartaches, blues is my middle name Makes no difference how hard I try, I'm mistreated just the same As you listen answer the questions in your workbook. Everyone’s against me, I don't care where I go Yes, everyone forgets poor me, I don't care where I go But I feel that someday, somehow, hard luck will leave me, I know Now listen to Bessie Smith’s Careless Love Blues http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDyaEO d6t-w Brass instruments feature in Blues music. In this extract you will hear a trombone and a trumpet – both with mutes to portray a softer/buzzing wah wah sound.
  • Gospel Gospel music has its roots in African – American churches. It developed from spirituals. Slaves were encouraged by their plantation owners to adopt the Christian religion, but as they were not allowed to attend Church with slave-owners they developed their own forms of worship. The main features are: Example 1: Traditional • Vocal music with Religious lyrics performed gospel singing Example 2: Oh Happy Day with an emotional quality • A powerful solo singer improvising over chords • The use of melisma (singing many notes to one syllable e.g. swee – ee –ee –eet Jesus) • Strong harmonies in many parts
  • Pop music is music with mass appeal, particularly to teenagers. As a genre, pop music is very eclectic, often borrowing elements from other styles including urban, dance, rock, Latin and country. However all pop songs have the same essential ingredients. What are the essential components of a pop song? Watch this video and then complete the mind map in your workbook. http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/c omposing-a-pop-song/5337.html
  • The main features are: What are the essential components of a pop song? Riff/Ostinato Middle 8 Listen to Carley Rae Jepson singing Call Me Maybe on the next slide and follow the structure. Strophic
  • Verse 1: I threw a wish in the well, Don't ask me, I'll never tell I looked to you as it fell, and now you're in my way I trade my soul for a wish, pennies and dimes for a kiss I wasn't looking for this, but now you're in my way Pre-Chorus: Your stare was holdin', Ripped jeans, skin was showin' Hot night, wind was blowin' Where you think you're going, baby? Interlude Verse 2: You took your time with the call, I took no time with the fall You gave me nothing at all, but still, you're in my way I beg, and borrow and steal Have foresight and it's real I didn't know I would feel it, but it's in my way Pre-Chorus Chorus Middle 8 Before you came into my life I missed you so bad I missed you so bad I missed you so, so Chorus: bad Hey, I just met you, and this is crazy, but here's my number, so call me, maybe? Before you came into my life I missed you so bad It's hard to look right, at you baby, but here's my number, so call me, maybe? And you should know that I missed you so, so bad Hey, I just met you, and this is crazy, but here's my number, so call me, maybe? Interlude And all the other boys, try to chase me, but here's my number, so call me, maybe? Chorus
  • Rock The main features are: A style of popular music with a heavy, driving beat. Usually features electric guitar, bass guitar and drum kit. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5R_xNvkopk&feature=related Celtic Rock The main features are: A style of music that mixes Celtic folk music and rock together. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoYz7 S4ZUNE
  • Verse 1 When you try your best but you don't succeed When you get what you want but not what you need When you feel so tired but you can't sleep Stuck in reverse Chorus Lights will guide you home And ignite your bones And I will try to fix you Verse 2 And the tears come streaming down your face When you lose something you can't replace When you love someone but it goes to waste Could it be worse? Bridge Tears stream down your face When you lose something you cannot replace Tears stream down your face And I Chorus Lights will guide you home And ignite your bones And I will try to fix you Instrumental link Verse 3 And high up above or down below When you're too in love to let it go But if you never try you'll never know Just what you're worth Instrumental link Tears stream down your face I promise you I will learn from my mistakes Tears stream down your face And I Chorus (serves as a coda) Lights will guide you home And ignite your bones And I will try to fix you