Bell's palsy


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Bell's palsy

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Bell's palsy

  1. 1. Done by: Mohammed A Qazzaz
  2. 2. Bell's palsy causes sudden weakness in your facial muscles. This makes half of your face appear to droop. Your smile is one-sided, and your eye on that side resists closing.
  3. 3. The exact cause is unknown, but it's believed to be the result of swelling and inflammation of the nerve that controls the muscles on one side of your face. It may be a reaction that occurs after a viral infection.
  4. 4. Bell's palsy is temporary. Symptoms usually start to improve within a few weeks, with complete recovery in about six months. sometimes it continue to have Bell's palsy symptoms for life. Rarely, Bell's palsy can recur.
  5. 5. Right side facial palsy
  6. 6. Although the exact reason Bell's palsy occurs isn't clear, it's often linked to exposure to a viral infection.
  7. 7.  Cold sores and genital herpes (herpes simplex)  Chickenpox and shingles (herpes zoster)  Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr)  Cytomegalovirus infections  Respiratory illnesses (adenovirus)  German measles (rubella)  Mumps (mumps virus)  Flu (influenza B)  Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (coxsackievirus)
  8. 8. With Bell's palsy, the nerve that controls your facial muscles, which passes through a narrow corridor of bone on its way to your face, becomes inflamed and swollen — usually related to a viral infection. Besides facial muscles, the nerve affects tears, saliva, taste and a small bone in the middle of your ear.
  9. 9. Facial nerve anatomy
  10. 10. Signs and symptoms of Bell's palsy come on suddenly, and may include: • Rapid onset of mild weakness to total paralysis on one side of your face — occurring within hours to days — making it difficult to smile or close your eye on the affected side • Facial droop and difficulty making facial expressions • Pain around the jaw or in or behind your ear on the affected side • Increased sensitivity to sound on the affected side • Headache • A decrease in your ability to taste • Changes in the amount of tears and saliva you produce
  11. 11. Signs and symptoms
  12. 12. In rare cases, Bell's palsy can affect the nerves on both sides of your face
  13. 13. When to see a doctor. Seek immediate medical help if you experience any type of paralysis because you may be having a stroke. Bell's palsy is not caused by a stroke. See your doctor if you experience facial weakness or drooping, to determine the underlying cause and severity of the illness.
  14. 14. There's no specific test for Bell's palsy. Your doctor will look at your face and ask you to move your facial muscles by closing your eyes, lifting your brow, showing your teeth and frowning, among other movements. Test and diagnosis.
  15. 15. Other conditions — such as a stroke, infections, Lyme disease and tumors — can also cause facial muscle weakness, mimicking Bell's palsy. If it's not clear why you're having the symptoms you are
  16. 16. your doctor may recommend other tests, including: Electromyography (EMG). This test can confirm the presence of nerve damage and determine its severity. An EMG measures the electrical activity of a muscle in response to stimulation and the nature and speed of the conduction of electrical impulses along a nerve. Imaging scans. X-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) may be needed on occasion to rule out other possible sources of pressure on the facial nerve, such as a tumor or skull fracture.
  17. 17. Although a mild case of Bell's palsy normally disappears within a month, recovery from a case involving total paralysis varies. Complications may include: • Irreversible damage to your facial nerve • Misdirected regrowth of nerve fibers, resulting in involuntary contraction of certain muscles when you're trying to move others (synkinesis) — for example, when you smile, the eye on the affected side may close • Partial or complete blindness of the eye that won't close, due to excessive dryness and scratching of the cornea, the clear protective covering of the eye Complications
  18. 18. Medications : Commonly used medications to treat Bell's palsy include: • Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, are powerful anti- inflammatory agents. If they can reduce the swelling of the facial nerve, it will fit more comfortably within the bony corridor that surrounds it. Corticosteroids may work best if they're started within several days of when your symptoms started.
  19. 19. • Antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex), may stop the progression of the infection if a virus is known to have caused it. This treatment may be offered only if your facial paralysis is severe.
  20. 20. Physical therapy Paralyzed muscles can shrink and shorten, causing permanent contractures. A physical therapist can teach you how to massage and exercise your facial muscles to help prevent this from occurring.
  21. 21. Surgery In the past, decompression surgery was used to relieve the pressure on the facial nerve by opening the bony passage that the nerve passes through. Today, decompression surgery isn't recommended. Facial nerve injury and permanent hearing loss are possible risks associated with this surgery. In rare cases, plastic surgery may be needed to correct lasting facial nerve problems.