3 8 Main Pp


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3 8 Main Pp

  1. 1. Launch <ul><li>What are some differences between autosomal and sex-linked traits? </li></ul><ul><li>The offspring of two individuals produce 775 children with a dominant phenotype and 236 children with a recessive phenotype. What are the genotypes of the parents? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Molecular Genetics, Review 7 March 2010
  3. 3. Our Goals <ul><li>80% Class Averages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class Celebrations for every block that makes it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each individual will score at least one grade higher on the unit exam than their mock quiz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High fliers list for everyone who scores 80% or higher </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Molecular Genetics is the study of how DNA is changed into workable substances that control our bodies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Molecular Structures <ul><li>The three structures that we work with the most are DNA , RNA and Protein </li></ul>
  6. 6. DNA Structure <ul><li>The structure of DNA is a double helix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strands of the helix are made of sugar and phosphates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine) connect the strands of the helix </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Central Dogma <ul><li>The central dogma states that DNA is changed into RNA and then into protein </li></ul><ul><li>DNA RNA Protein </li></ul>Transcription Translation
  8. 8. Complimentary Base Pairing <ul><li>When converting DNA to DNA we use the following base pairing rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pairs with T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T pairs with A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G pairs with C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C pairs with G </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Complimentary Base Pairing <ul><li>When converting DNA to RNA, we use the following base pairing rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pairs with U </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T pairs with A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G pairs with C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C pairs with G </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. CFU
  11. 11. Translation <ul><li>Translation is the process of converting RNA into proteins </li></ul>
  12. 12. Codons <ul><li>Three nucleotides (bases) on an mRNA sequence form a codon </li></ul><ul><li>One codon codes for one amino acid </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: mRNA: AUG-CUU-CUC </li></ul>
  13. 13. Codons <ul><li>Because codons come from RNA and RNA is determined by DNA, the order of nitrogenous bases determines what proteins are produced </li></ul>
  14. 14. CFU
  15. 15. Codons <ul><li>Using a codon chart, find the amino acid sequence using the following DNA sequence </li></ul><ul><li>DNA: TAC-GTC-CCC-AAA-ATT-TTT </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA: AUG </li></ul><ul><li>Proteine MET </li></ul>
  16. 16. Codons <ul><li>Why is it important that different codons can produce the same amino acid? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCC  UCA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ser Ser </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The reason for this is so that proteins wont be changed in the case of mutation ! </li></ul>
  17. 17. CFU
  18. 18. Mutations <ul><li>Mutations are the result of one or more nucleotide (base) changes in DNA </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mutations <ul><li>All mutations happen in DNA but they also effect the amino acid sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Types of DNA Mutations Amino acid effects </li></ul>Frameshift Point Silent Missense Nonsense
  20. 20. Mutations <ul><li>A frameshift mutation results in either the addition or deletion of bases </li></ul><ul><li>A point mutation results in the change of one amino acid to another </li></ul>
  21. 21. Mutations <ul><li>A silent mutation does not change the protein being made </li></ul><ul><li>A nonsense mutation results in an early stop for the protein </li></ul><ul><li>A missense mutation results in a different protein being made </li></ul>
  22. 22. CFU