3 19 Mutations

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3 19 Mutations

  1. 1. <ul><li>What is crossing over? </li></ul><ul><li>When does crossing over happen? </li></ul><ul><li>How are mutation and crossing over similar? </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>We’ve studied how mutations affect the DNA level (frameshift and point) </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve studied how mutations affect the amino acid chain (silent, missense and nonsense) </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inheritance is the passing down from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something that is “heritable” is passed down </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Mutations can be random or caused by the environment </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Random mutations are the result of a failure of the cell machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Mutagens are agents in the environment that cause mutation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UV light, X-Rays, smoking, </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Gain -of-function mutations result in a protein having a new or different function </li></ul><ul><li>Loss- of-function mutations result in a protein that no longer performs its job. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Are all mutations bad? </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Mutations are negative when they cause disorders or prevent the cell from maintaining homeostasis </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Mutations are beneficial (positive) because they can lead to proteins better for an environment . </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations create genetic diversity , or variation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They might sometimes affect the phenotype, but always affect the genotype </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Germline mutations are able to be passed onto offspring because they are mutations in the DNA of sex cells </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Somatic mutations are not able to be passed onto offspring because they are mutations in the DNA of body cells </li></ul>

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