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2 24 Intro To Punnet Squares

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Transcript

  • 1. Launch
    • Correct the following false statements to make them true statements:
    • “ We write the haploid number as 4N”
    • “ Somatic cells and sex cells both undergo meiosis”
    • “ An example of a somatic cell is eggs”
    • “ An example of a germline cell is a brain cell”
  • 2. Mendelian Genetics
  • 3. Mendelian Genetics
    • Mendelian Genetics is the study of how traits are passed down from parents to offspring
  • 4. Father of Genetics
    • Gregor Mendel is considered to be the
    • father of genetics
    • Gregor Mendel was an Austrian priest who made a lot of scientific discoveries about inheritance by studying peas and flowers.
  • 5. Inheritance
    • Inheritance is the passing of traits from parents to offspring
  • 6. Gene
    • A certain portion of DNA that codes for a specific protein
      • Ex: Genes for hair color, eye color, hormones, etc.
    • The rest of DNA is known as junk DNA.
  • 7. Gene
    • Some traits are complex and require multiple genes
      • Skin color
  • 8. Allele
    • Alleles are different forms of one gene.
      • Example:
        • The gene is hair color
        • The alleles might be brown hair, blonde hair, red hair, black hair, etc.
  • 9. Genotype
    • The genotype is the way we describe the genetic make-up of an individual.
    • The genotype always consists of two letters: one for the allele from the mother, one for the allele from the father
      • Rr, SS, dd
  • 10. Phenotype
    • The phenotype is the physical appearance that is made as the result of an individual’s genotype.
      • The things we see!
  • 11. Genotype
    • Alleles are either dominant or recessive .
    • When a dominant allele is present, you only see the dominant phenotype even if the recessive allele is also present.
    • Hh
  • 12. Dominant
    • Dominant genes only require one allele to express the dominant phenotype.
    • Dominant alleles are represented in genotypes with a capital letter.
    • Examples: HH, Dd, SS, Tt,
  • 13. Recessive
    • Recessive genes require both alleles to express the recessive phenotype.
    • Recessive alleles are represented in genotypes with a lower case letter.
    • Examples: hh, dd, ss, tt,
  • 14. Heterozygous
    • Individuals are heterozygous for a gene when they receive a dominant allele from one parent and a recessive allele from another parent.
      • Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu
  • 15. Think-Pair-Share
    • Why do individuals heterozygous for a gene always produce a dominant phenotype?
  • 16. Homozygous
    • Individuals are homozygous when they receive the same allele from both parents
      • Individuals are either homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive
        • RR, rr, SS, ss
  • 17. Exit Slip
    • __________ do mitosis, __________ do meiosis
      • A. brains cells, heart cells
      • B. eggs, sperm
      • C. sperm, brain cells
      • D. brain cells, eggs
    • If an individual is “Hh” for a trait
      • Is this individual homozygous or heterzygous?
      • Have a dominant or recessive trait?