SKILLS & TECHNIQUES A technique is a way of performing a skill A skill is a movement with a purpose Shooting Passing Dribbling Catching Marking Set Shot Jump Shot Lay-up Skill: Shooting
Skills should be carried out with maximum efficiency and performed with minimum effort.
A skilful performer is one who can control physical movement and can anticipate what is going to happen next as different skills and techniques are completed.
1) Write down some major skills and techniques involved in the activities in your course.
2) Write down a sports person that you think is the best in the world in their activity. Explain why you think they are so skilful.
Simple Skills EASY/SIMPLE SKILLS Few Sub-routines Physically Undemanding Little co-ordination needed Few judgments to be made Simple order of movements One movement at a time Easy Environment e.g. Indoors e.g. Set Shot
Simple Skills PUSH PASS CHEST PASS HEAD- STAND HEADING SET SHOT HIGH SERVE SIMPLE SKILLS
Complex Skills COMPLEX SKILLS Many Sub-routines Physically Demanding Co-ordination is vital Many judgements to be made Many movements at the same time e.g. Lay-up in Basketball
Goal Keeper save
Effects of Skills & Techniques on Performance Simple skills are made up of physical actions which are common to many activities such as kicking, jumping, striking, throwing, stretching and rotating. You learn these basic skills (moves) as you develop. Your skill level will affect how well you can refine skills through practice, use skills at the correct time, and make decisions about when to use basic and complex skills.
Effects of Skills & Techniques on Performance (EXAMPLE) When drawn to the net in badminton, a basic skill is to return the shuttle high to back of the opponent’s court with an underarm clear. A complex skill would be a tight net shot. Choose one skill from one activity. Explain how you refined the skill through practice.
What makes a skilled performance?
A skilled performance shows three characteristics:
Sequences of movements are carried out in a fluent , controlled way often with minimum effort
Correct options are selected
Skills & techniques are used which reflect the performer’s ability and experience
Learning skills involves considering:
Methods of practice
How best to practise with a partner and in a group
Safe Practice This involves ensuring practice is at the right level for your ability and completing a warm up before practice and a cool down after practice. It also involves understanding and abiding by the safety rules. E.g. Swimming * Class rules set by the teacher * Swimming pool rules * Working co-operatively with your partner or class
Learning Skills Learning Skills Gradual Build Up is when you learn a skill bit by bit e.g. Diving 1. Seated Dive 2. Kneeling Dive 3. Crouched Dive 4. Full Dive Whole Part Whole is when you try the whole skill, then, break it down and concentrate on part, before putting it all together again Repetition Drills Shadowing is when you shadow your partner and copy what they are doing. e.g. Movements in Badminton Solo/Partner/Group Conditioned Games
Methods of Practice
There are four main methods of practice that you need to know for physical education:
GRADUAL BUILD UP
WHOLE PART WHOLE
Gradual Build Up
Gradual build up is a useful practice method for learning complex skills. You learn the skill bit by bit. You build the skill up in stages. Often used when the skill is too difficult or dangerous to try.
Gradual build up is a useful practice method as it allows you to:
Make practices more demanding in small steps
Make practices challenging but achievable
Gear practices to your stage of learning
Gradual Build Up
The best example for using the gradual build up method for an individual activity is the flight dive .
Describe three different stages of building up to a flight dive in swimming
Gradual Build Up
Gradual build up practice method can also be used in team activities.
E.g. Stage 1: In indoor hockey you are working on attack. 4 v 1. The object of the practice is to get past the defender.
You must describe how you would gradually build up this practice to make it more challenging.
Whole Part Whole
Whole part whole is often used by performers who already have some experience of the activity. It works best when you can perform a version of the whole skill already.
E.g. Front Crawl - Swimming
Whole : Try the whole stroke i.e. using both arms and legs
Part : With a float in hands, practise legs only to improve leg kick
Whole : Return to the whole stroke again to see if stroke has improved.
These are often useful to practise with a partner as they can vary the degree of opposition required to help you improve. E.g. Basketball – lay up shot
1. Solo practice ensuring foot pattern and ball placement is correct.
2. With a partner – receive pass from partner and perform lay-up shot.
3. Partner passes and then uses passive defence to mark you
4. Partner passes and then becomes an active defender who is trying to get ball.
Learning Skills Tasks
1. Choose one method of practice from list A and one from list B. Explain why you would use these methods of practice.(4)
List A List B
Shadow practice Passive/Active Practice
Whole-part-whole Small sided games
Cooperative practice Repetitive Practices
2. Choose two activities and describe, in detail , how you used these methods of practice to develop a skill. (Give specific details of a practice that you have used). (4)
Learning Skills Tasks
3. Gradual build up is one method of learning and developing skills.
i) What is meant by gradual build up? /2
ii) Explain why you would use this method /2
4. Select two different skills where you used gradual build up. Choose an individual activity, a skill or technique. Describe how you learned to perform this skill or technique.
Firstly I, /1 Then I, /1 Finally I, /1
5. Choose a Team activity, a skill or technique. Describe how you learned to perform this skill or technique.
Firstly I, /1 Then I, /1 Finally I, /1
Learning Skills Exam Questions
Whole – part – whole and gradual build-up are two different methods of learning and developing skills. Explain why you used each method. (2)x2
Choose an activity. Choose a skill/technique that could be improved using whole/part/whole . Describe what you did to improve this skill/technique using whole/part/whole. (2)
ii) Now choose a different method of developing skills. (1)
iii) Describe how you used this method to improve a skill/technique in an activity of your choice. (2)
iv) Why was this an appropriate way to develop this skill/technique. (1)
One effective approach for breaking down a skill or technique is through analysing your:
P reparation is the first part of the movement
A ction is the middle part of the movement
R ecovery is the end of the movement
You would use an observation schedule to achieve this
Movement Analysis An observation schedule would be used to analyse your performance. E.g. Overhead Clear √ √ √ √ √ • Starts from base. • Performer tracks path of shuttle and begins moving towards place shuttle will be played from. • While moving, body turns side-on to net. • Racquet is taken up and back behind head. • Weight shifts mostly onto back foot. • Back shoulder drops. • Front arm balances racquet arm (both arms are raised). Preparation MY PERFORMANCE FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ PHASE OF ACTION
Movement Analysis √ √ √ Shoulder, arm and racquet are brought forward at speed to help generate power. Action resembles throwing action. Weight is transferred forward from back foot to front foot to coincide with moment of impact. Impact is with open racquet face above racquet shoulder. Performer strikes ‘through’ shuttle and body weight continues to move forward (a smooth continuous action leads naturally into recovery). Action MY PERFORMANCE FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ PHASE OF ACTION
Movement Analysis √ Racquet comes down and across body in recovery phase. Forward movement at end of stroke leads to ‘base’ and recovery of ‘ready’ position. Recovery MY PERFORMANCE FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ PHASE OF ACTION
Benefits of Using an Observation Schedule
Identifies Strengths & Weaknesses of a skill
Pinpoints specifically where weakness lies
Practice programme can be designed from the information received
You can use an observation schedule at the beginning and end of a training block to see if your technique has improved
Stages of Learning
There are three important stages in learning and developing skills:
Planning Stage (Cognitive)
Practice Stage (Associative)
Automatic Stage (Autonomous)
Planning Stage During the planning stage, you find out what the skill involves. You establish what the parts of the skill are and make your first attempts at learning each part. Errors are likely to be common at this stage in learning.
Practice Stage During the practice stage you link together all the required subroutines of the skill. Simple skills will require less practice than complex skills. Quality practice will reduce the number of mistakes made during performance.
Automatic Stage At this stage, most key subroutines have become automatic in the performance. At the automatic stage errors are less likely. You will be able to do it without thinking. Your success rate with an ‘automatic’ skill will be high and your mind will be free to concentrate on other aspects of the game. Choose one skill from an activity from the course. Explain, in detail, the characteristics of performance at each stage of skill learning.
Overcoming Problems in Skill Learning
Identify your performance strengths and weaknesses
Compare with a classmate’s ability
Compare with a model performer
Highlights fitness needs of performance
Exact requirements of different skills
Effectiveness of decision making
Highlights specific practice to overcome skill weaknesses
Principles of Effective Practice
For your practice to be effective you should set clear objectives . This will enable you to refine performance. You must consider your existing level of ability and current strengths and weaknesses and what aspects of your performance you want to improve. You must also consider:
Principles of Effective Practice WORK/ REST RATI O PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE IN THAT ACTIVITY YOUR LEVEL OF PRACTICAL ABILITY DIFFICULTY OF THE SKILL INVOLVED PHYSICAL DEMANDS OF THE PRACTICE WORK/REST RATIO IS ONE OF THE KEY ISSUES IN MAKING SKILL TRAINING SPECIFIC TO YOUR NEEDS
Principles of Effective Practice PRACTICES ARE LINKED TO YOUR CURRENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL PROGRESSION MAKE PRACTICES MORE CHALLENGING WHEN YOU ARE READY WORK AT A SUITABLY DEMANDING LEVEL AT ALL TIMES HIGH QUALITY PRACTICE FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME PROGRESSION WILL ENSURE THAT YOUR PERFORMANCE DOES NOT SUFFER FROM THE EFFECTS OF BOREDOM AND FATIGUE
Principles of Effective Practice Practising Under Pressure With skills and techniques that you can complete with a high degree of control and fluency it is important to complete practice under pressure i.e. as you improve practices must become more challenging. This will make practice relate to performing in competition. In team activities this could involve increasing the demands of opponents.
Feedback is information received by a performer about their performance .
Positive feedback helps your performance improvement
Effective feedback needs to be positive
Feedback needs to be precise and accurate
One or two points of feedback given at a time
Feedback should be given as soon as possible after performance
Feedback FEEDBACK INTERNAL Is how you feel about your own performance. E.g. You took a shot that was unsuccessful because the ball hit the front of the ring. You would know that next time you shoot you would have to shoot with more power.
Feedback Exam Questions
Choose an activity and a skill/technique. Select one type of feedback which helped you identify a problem. Describe how this feedback helped you to identify a problem. (2)
ii) For the same skill choose a different type of feedback. Describe how this feedback helped you to identify a problem. (2)
iii) Explain how feedback helped you to improve your performance in your chosen activity. (2)
iv) Explain what is meant by internal feedback. (1)
v) Explain what is meant by external feedback
2) Feedback is an important aspect of developing skills to an automatic stage. What is meant by feedback? (1)
ii) How does feedback help you to develop a skill towards the automatic stage? (1)
Co-operation It is important that you can effectively co-operate with class mates. This involves practising together and talking about how best complete tasks. Co-operation also involves observing a partner and recording information . When participating as part of a team working co-operatively involves accepting responsibility and recognising you role within a team.
What is balance , are there different types of balance?
Centre of gravity
Transfer of Weight and benefits to performance if completed effectively
Force and the application of force.
Balance is the ability to retain the centre of gravity over your base of support . There are two types of balances:
2) Dynamic balances
Centre of Gravity
Centre of gravity is to do with stability .
The heavier you are, the more stable you will be
To be balanced your centre of gravity should be inside your base
A low position with a wide base is more balanced
Centre of Gravity
Body Tension For technique to be effective it is helpful if the major muscles involved in balances have good body tension . In gymnastics explain how good body tension helped to improve the quality of your balances?
Transfer Of Weight The transfer of weight allows you to move your body from one place to another. How well you transfer your weight involves considering how well balanced you are when performing. To transfer your weight in any direction, you must apply a force in the opposite direction. The force is created when you contract your muscles. At times, this can be single actions such as throwing the javelin. At other times, for example when running, simple actions are repeated. Name 2 activities, describe one technique which requires a single transference of weight and describe another technique which requires repeated transference of weight
Application of Force When performing different skills and techniques different forces are applied and resisted. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (Newton’s third law)
Application of Force If speed is required then the greater force applied the better . Differences in the mass of the body will affect performance. If the force applied to the sprinting block ( 100m sprint) is the same the athlete with a smaller mass will accelerate at a quicker rate.
Force You must apply force in one direction to move in the opposite direction. Look at the following examples. Explain where force is applied and what direction the person or equipment moves. A. C B
Friction This is when contact between two surfaces cause a slowing down or gripping effect. This can be an advantage or disadvantage depending on the activity and the skill or technique you are trying to complete. Adv. Football boots getting a good grip on the ground to stop the player slipping and allow them to change direction quickly DisAdv. In cycling when the wind slows you down Choose four activities explain how friction affects your performance.
Rotation In different activities you rotate (turn) in order to carry out skills and techniques. When throwing the discus in athletics you turn around in a spinning back-to-front movement to generate power. This is a complex technique. You build up speed before throwing by quickly turning until you have regained balance. You can also rotate by performing a forward roll. Name two skills in which you turn head over heals.
Resistance When you apply force there will be resistance. Like friction, resistance can either be an advantage or disadvantage. Adv. When sprinting in athletics the starting blocks are an advantage. They provide resistance. DisAdv. If you are running into a headwind this slows you down. Resistance can be reduced or increased depending on your technique. In swimming if you keep your head out of the water when doing the front crawl this creates a greater resistance with the water and slows you down. Reduce resistance by putting head level with the water (streamlined)
Follow through When completing different skills and techniques it is important to have a good follow through. A good follow through is part of effective performance and follows on from the preparation and action phases in different skills and techniques. An example would be kicking a ball in football, the follow through is in the direction of the shot. In other actions the follow through involves body rotation. The ball and socket joints in the hips and shoulder help rotation in this striking action.
Mechanical Principles A. What is the importance of transfer of weight when completing an ‘overhead clear’? B. When completing a ‘headstand’ what affect would having a small base have your performance? C. Why is body tension important when completing static balances? D. Where must your centre of gravity be maintained to hold a balance? E. Give an example of a dynamic balance? F. Name two activities where equipment is used to reduce friction? G. In swimming, how did improving your technique, reduce your resistance in the water? H. Describe one technique in three different activities where follow through is important (use kicking, striking and throwing)?