Fitness assessment in relation topersonal performance Gathering data within the activity provides general information on a performers fitness level. It begins to highlight general strengths and weaknesses which can then be analysed in a more specific/focussed way, normally out with the activity through standardised tests.
Video AnalysisCoach videos whole performance or a period ofperformanceWhy= Slow motion, paused, replay Accurate and detailed Visual evidence Compare to model performer Permanent record
Observation scheduleRecording sheet (normally tally marks) that is created to gatherinformation on the requirements of a particular activity.Why= Can be general or focused Identify strengths and weaknesses Permanent record Easy to administrate, compare and repeat Used alongside video analysis
Thoughts and feelingsPerformer notes down their own reflections of theirperformanceWhy= Simple to do Identifies general weaknesses Not factual (can be biased)
Heart rate monitor Wearing a heart rate monitor throughout a performance, readings can then be plotted and analysed WHY=Specific and accuratePermanent recordCan be used to set training zones
Gathering data outwith theactivity It is also possible to gather information on fitness levels outwith the activity through standardised fitness tests. Aspect of fitness Example of test Cardio-respiratory endurance 12 min Cooper test/Leger test Muscular endurance Maximal press-up / sit-up test Speed Times 20m, 30m, 60m, 100m run Power Sergeant vertical jump/standing Strength 1 rep max test/Dynamometer Flexibility Sit and reach test/Shoulder lift Trunk extension
Why are test appropriate? Each test is specific to a particular aspect of fitness Tests are widely recognised Norms are established Provide a permanent record, therefore can be repeated and compared Compare to elite performer Can set training intensity and goals Identify strengths and weaknesses Can set training intensity and set targets
How to ensure a test is valid: Strict guidelines on test procedure should be followed, to make sure test is accurate When retesting conditions must be constant, to ensure reliability Results must be non biased Test must measure the correct aspect of fitness
Analysing data collected Data from a movement analysis chart may show for example that towards the end of each basketball quarter, overall involvement in the game started to decline (ie. fewer sprints made, less lay ups attempted etc). This would suggest that there was a problem with cardiovascular endurance. This could then be backed up by completing the 12 minute Cooper test and comparing results to norms. Similarly video analysis and an observation schedule of the long jump could suggest a lack of power in the take off phase. This could be backed up from results of the vertical jump Test.
Demands of activity - long jump Power Power is one of the main physical aspects of fitness that is required for an effective long jump take-off. Power is a combination of speed and strength. To gain maximum power the athlete must reach an optimum maximum speed in their approach. By gaining maximum speed you will gain greater power at take off. Maximum speed will initiate maximum momentum and will in turn give you more height (arched flight path) and a resulting greater flight time. Having longer in the air (flight) will result in more time to adjust to a long flight shape, and enable a greater leg shoot. Overall this will result in a greater distance. As well as speed, power requires strength. At the point of take off an explosive downward force (explosive strength) is required on the take-off board. Due to Newton’s Third Law of Motion (for every force there is an equal and opposite reaction force), this means the greater the maximum force that you apply downwards, with your flat take-off foot, will result in a maximum force pushing you upwards. This upward force combined with the fast run up approach will create the optimum take-off propulsion. This upward force, is applied downwards via the hips, knee and ankle and hence these joints and related muscles must be strong. Bitesize Physics has more more information on Newton’s Third Law of Motion. When performing the long jump, your free leg must quickly drive up and out with a powerful force to help create an up and outwards forward motion.
Co-ordination Coordination is the ability for different muscle groups to work together to perform a series of movements/actions smoothly and fluently. This is needed in the stride pattern of the run up prior to the jump as the arms need to move in sync with the legs to form a fast rhythm that is consistent for each jump. The consistent, rhythmic stride pattern is required to accurately place the correct foot at speed on a narrow take-off board. It is also required at the take-off stage as both legs are moving in opposite directions, one forcing downwards to help create impact against the ground and the other is bent upwards pushing the body forward. Once in the air the arms must be able to freely move forwards in a downwards circular motion whilst the legs push through to help form a streamline position in front of the body which helps the entire body move forwards, (leg shoot) increasing the distance of the overall jump.
Timing Timing is the ability to perform a skill at exactly the right time in an activity. This aspect is needed in the long jump when the jumper hits the board they need to know that this is the time to strike down hard off the board to help create a force that will push them upwards into the air. Also the legs must be straightened out in the air quickly as soon as both feet are off the ground to help make sure both legs are straight out in front of the jumper’s upper body. The timing is crucial in this performance for the performer to execute the jump effectively.
Mental Rehearsal Mental rehearsal is key for mental preparation in the long jump. This is when you rehearse in your head exactly what you plan to do and block everything else out. I may visualise the perfect jump and exactly how it will feel so that I know what to do when actually executing the jump. If I am able to block everything else out, such as the noise / movement of other athletes / spectators, then it allows me to think about nothing but my jump and makes me focus on my run up, striding, take-off, flight and landing. If I have not rehearsed the jump in my head, what I plan to do, then I may rush into my run-up without striding correctly which means that I may place the wrong foot on the board or over/under place my take-off foot. Either way, my foot plant, take-off, flight and landing would be all wrong and the jump would be poorly executed and this would result in a loss of distance. I must spent adequate time rehearsing a jump in my head in order to ensure that I have planned the jump and know exactly what I need to do.
Level of mental arousal Level of mental arousal is key to success in the long jump. The level of mental arousal is the level of excitement, anticipation, stress, aggression, apprehension and nervousness. It refers to the state of mental preparedness for participation in the activity. This is important for long jump as the athlete must be prepared to perform in front of a crowd and be able to deal with everyone focussing their attention solely on them. If our mental arousal is too low then we may not perform at our highest level, we may appear to be tired, disinterested or distracted. Then again if it is too high, we may become stressed due to expectations, the importance of the occasion or the number of people watching. Having too high or too low a level or arousal may result in loss of distance. I must find the correct level of mental arousal to perform at my best, so that I am excited enough, yet calm enough to execute the long jump perfectly. Level of mental arousal is key to success in the long jump. The level of mental arousal is the level of excitement, anticipation, stress, aggression, apprehension and nervousness. It refers to the state of mental preparedness for participation in the activity. This is important for long jump as the athlete must be prepared to perform in front of a crowd and be able to deal with everyone focussing their attention solely on them. If our mental arousal is too low then we may not perform at our highest level, we may appear to be tired, disinterested or distracted. Then again if it is too high, we may become stressed due to expectations, the importance of the occasion or the number of people watching. Having too high or too low a level or arousal may result in loss of distance. I must find the correct level of mental arousal to perform at my best, so that I am excited enough, yet calm enough to execute the long jump perfectly.
Physical, skill related and mentalaspects of fitnessFitness is the ability to take part and meet the demands ofan activity. In terms of sport and physical education, fitnessis the body’s ability to function effectively and efficientlywithout becoming fatigued. Fitness is very much sport-specific or activity-specific. You cannot state that a marathon runner is fitter than a 100m freestyle swimmer. In order to perform effectively in any activity there are three areas of fitness: Physical Skill related Mental
Physical aspects of fitness Cardio-respiratory endurance Cardio-respiratory endurance is the ability of the heart and lungs to provide the working muscles with oxygenated blood for a prolonged period of time. Poor CRE will result in the player becoming breathless more quickly and unable to keep up with play or maintain a high skill level. Decision making will also be affected and longer rest periods will be needed to aid recovery. Strength Strength is the maximal force that a muscle can exert as it contracts. Strength can be further divided into static (the muscles contract and hold one position), dynamic (the muscles move contracting and extending) and explosive strength or power (the muscle contraction happens at high speed).
Physical Aspects of fitness Muscular endurance Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to perform repeated contractions for extended periods of time without tiring. If the muscles tire, due to poor muscular endurance, then the performer will be unable to make effective use of the muscles. A swimmer requires muscular endurance in the upper body to be able to consistently use the arms for the duration of the race. Flexibility Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further. Also known as suppleness. Speed Speed allows the whole body to move quickly eg. in sprinting, or part of the body may move quickly eg. in throwing a cricket ball. Power Power is a combination of using strength and speed at the same time. Activities that involve jumping require power in the legs.
Skill-related aspects of fitness Agility Agility is the ability to change the position of the body quickly, precisely and with control. This uses a combination of speed and flexibility. This helps team players dodge their opponents or turn to track back in defence. Balance Balance is the ability to retain the centre of gravity above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance). This helps gymnasts maintain their position and prevents games players from falling over at speed. Muscles work together to keep the body in a balanced position.
Skill aspects of fitness Timing Timing is the ability apply an action or movement at an exact moment and with the correct emphasis. The helps long jumpers take off at the board. Coordination Coordination is the ability to move two or more body parts together, in a smooth and fluent action. Reaction time Reaction time is the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. This helps swimmers to make a fast start.
Mental aspects of fitness Mental preparation (or mental rehearsal) This is when a performer thinks about and visualises a successful performance before they carry it out. For example, in a basketball free throw I visualised the timing of the action I would be using and imagined the flight of the ball and the ball going into the basket. Concentration Concentration is the ability to stay focussed on and be fully aware of what is going on around you. For example, in performing a drop shot in badminton, I had to judge the flight of the shuttle, the positioning of my body and the movement of my opponent.
Mental aspects of fitness Confidence Confidence is having a positive frame of mind, in which you feel that you can perform successfully. For example in football, I was confident I could control the ball with one touch, dribble past the defender and strike the ball at goal on target. Motivation Motivation is the internal feelings and/or external encouragement by coach/spectators, which make you want to do well. For example, despite being very tired during a marathon, I wanted to succeed; I knew I had trained hard for the event, so I kept going. Level of arousal Level of arousal is the level of excitement, stress, nervousness and aggression as you get prepared to participate in an activity. Arousal levels can peak too high or dip too low. Relaxation Relaxation is the ability to free the mind from tension and anxiety when under pressure.
Principles of Training Getting the best out of your training requires planning. The best training programmes are built on principles of Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Rest and Tedium (acronym SPORRT). You can also use the FITT acronym to help remember the key things to consider when tailoring programmes for individual sporting goals. It stands for: Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type.
They key principles whenplanning a programme are: Specificity - training must be matched to the needs and demands of the activity. It must also be specific to the individual in terms of initial fitness levels and their strengths and weaknesses. Progression - start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading. It is important not to progress to quickly as you may risk injury or over train. Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do (overloading). You must work harder to allow your body to adapt and improve. Overload is possible by varying the frequency, intensity or time of training.
They key principles whenplanning a programme are: Reversibility - any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or dont train often enough you will lose fitness. Rest (recovery) – It is important to have rest in your programme to allow your body to recover. This could include rest between sets or complete rest days. Tedium - Using a variety of training methods (or exercises) relieves tedium and avoids boredom in training.
In planning a programme, applythe FITT principles: Frequency - decide how often to train per week. (Beginners 2-3, elite 4-5) Intensity - choose how hard to train. Time - decide for how long to train per session. (Also the time for the whole programme such as how many weeks) Type - decide which methods of training to use.
Types of training Circuit training This involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a station. Each station involves a different exercise for a set number of repetitions, or a set time. It can be designed to aerobic or anaerobic energy systems. The circuit could be made more demanding by either, increasing the number of repetitions of each exercise, or by decreasing the rest period.
Types of Training Continuous training This involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness (aerobic energy system). Sessions need to keep the heart rate within the training zone for a minimum of 20-30 minutes, 3 times per week. Fartlek training This speed play training involves varying your speed over which you run. (Sprinting, jogging, walking). It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness. This training should replicate the pace of running required in a particular activity. There could also be a change in terrain to increase/decrease intensity (flat/incline/decline).
Types of Training Interval training This involves alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest. For example working for a set time/distance and then resting for a set time/distance. Interval training can be made harder by increasing the intensity or period of work, or by decreasing the rest period. It can improve speed, muscular endurance or power with a large work to ratio (1:4), or it can improve CRE with a shorter work to rest ratio (1:1) but over a longer period of time. Weight training This involves using weights to provide resistance to the muscles. This is when you use isotonic contractions (i.e. the muscles contract and extend) to improve your muscle strength or endurance. Press-ups, sit-ups, chins and weight lifting are all isotonic exercises.
Types of Training Muscular endurance This training involves using light workloads 40-60% of max with many reps and sets. This does not make your muscles bigger but makes muscles work for longer. Flexibility training This training involves holding a specific stretch for 10–30 seconds to improve the range of motion about a joint. Plyometric training This involves working explosively at maximal intensity using hopping, jumping, skipping, and throwing activities. This type of training improves speed and power it is very demanding and produces high levels of lactic acid. This type of training would improve your performance in activities such as sprinting, long jump or javelin. Conditioned approach This is when you train within the activity. This approach will not only improve a specific fitness area, but will improve skill level in a game-like situation. It also helps to keep skill level high, whilst coping with fatigue. This method also prevents boredom and performers will tend to work harder for longer.
Training phases A training year can be split into different phases, working back chronologically from a date where you wish to peak and the current date, this is known as periodisation. The three main phases are: off season (transition period) pre season (preparation period) in season (competition period)
Phases of Training Off season (transition period) This begins immediately at the end of the season and bridges the gap to the start of the next training year. During this period the performer is involved in rest and recovery. This however should not be a period of inactivity but rather it should be active rest with low intensity aerobic work such as cycling or swimming. Pre season (preparation period) This marks the return to a regular pattern of targeted training. In the early stages of pre season the training will focus on improving general fitness levels for the activity with the major emphasis being physical fitness such as strength and aerobic work. As the pre season progresses the emphasis shifts to higher intensity speed and power work and then in to skill related fitness as the start of the season approaches.
Phases of Training In season (competition period) This involves maintaining the fitness levels built up during the pre season. Remember the principle of reversibility - if you stop your fitness training your fitness levels will start to drop rapidly. The number of fitness sessions is reduced to the minimum required to maintain your fitness levels this will depend on the activity you are training for. For example a distance runner will still have to train at a high level to stay fit for competition. However in team sports there is a conflict between maintaining fitness and working on skill and tactics and having time to recover for the next game. This is where the combined conditioning approach can be most effective as skill and fitness can be worked on simultaneously this saves time and makes the training specific. In individual activities such as athletics, an athlete may have several league meetings during the season and also important competitions. To take account of this, they train less intensely prior to the competitions so that their body is not fatigued from training. This involves planning ahead so that the overall programme is prepared with this spell of tapering down built in.
Goal-setting Always set SMARTER targets: Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-phased Exciting Recorded Targets must be specific to your ability and be easily measurable. It also important that the targets set are achievable and realistic. Targets must also be time-phased. Short-term targets influence long-term targets. Short-term targets usually relate to specific areas of development. Try to ensure that achieving short term goals provides satisfaction and that they are linked to daily and weekly action plans. Long-term goals are often classified as outcome goals. Try to use outcome goals such as improving your performance.
Examples Short-term example An example of a realistic short-term target could be to develop your cardio-respiratory endurance by increasing your training zone from 70% to 75% of your maximum after 2 weeks training. Long-term example An example of a realistic long-term target could be to develop your cardio-respiratory endurance to a level that will improve your overall performance and win a certain event.
Benefits of setting targets It increases motivation and determination ie. if you reach your first short term target this will motivate you to continue It reinforces the desire to keep working and builds self- confidence It provides valuable feedback which will help identify development needs, training requirements and provide a starting point to monitor progress
Planning, monitoring and implementing trainingWhen creating a training programme it is important toconsider all of the following points: The individual needs The demands of the activity The principles of training The methods of training The training year Goal setting
Example of Training programme See link http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/higher/ pe/preparation_of_body/training_rev5.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/higher/ pe/preparation_of_body/training_rev6.shtml http://www.swimplan.com/index.php?pg=wrk1 http://www.brianmac.co.uk/swimming/swimplan.htm
Monitoring and evaluating training It is important that throughout your training you re-test at regular intervals to ensure that progress is being made (approximately every 4 weeks). By re-testing you can find out if your programme needs to be adjusted in order to maintain improvement. Without adjustments, you may improve to a certain point and then plateau (stay the same) because your body is not being challenged. Comparing your re-test results with your initial tests will identify what adjustments may need to be made to your programme and what your new strengths and weaknesses may be.
Monitoring and evaluating training It is important that throughout and at the end of your programme to repeat the same specific Standard Tests to check for improvement against your previous results and to compare yourself again with the National Norms. You should also analyse whether or not it has improved your overall performance by re-completing the same methods you used to gather information within the activity. Keeping a diary of your programme can also help monitor your programme and can give details of how you felt the programme was progressing, where you adapted the programme or any problems you may have had. The training diary method is a valuable method of monitoring performance which enables performers to be actively involved in recording and monitoring their training activities. This should be completed following each training session.
Link to Test http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/higher/ pe/preparation_of_body/