Designing your training programme Training programmes do not come as a standard package to suit everyone. To be effective they must be designed to suit the individual. A sprinter would require a different programme from a marathon runner……..Even within the same sport different positions will require different fitness programmes. A prop forward and a winger in rugby have very different fitness requirements. In order for a programme to be effective the following factors must be taken into account. The performers needs The fitness demands of the activity The principles of training The methods of training The training year Goal setting Having covered the first four factors we now need to consider factors five and six.
The training year The training year can be divided into 3 different periods – this is known as PERIODISATION . The three periods are the TRANSITION (off season), PREPARATION (pre season) and the COMPETITION period (off season). TRANSITION PERIOD This begins immediately at the end off the season and bridges the cap to the start of the next training year. During this period you are involved in rest and recovery. However, it should not be a period of inactivity but rather an active rest, with low intensity aerobic work. PREPARATION PERIOD This marks the return to a regular pattern of targeted training. In the early stages the training will focus on improving general fitness levels for the activity with the major emphasis being physical fitness. As the period progresses the emphasis shifts to a higher intensity work then into skill related fitness as the start of the season approaches. COMPETITION PERIOD This involves maintaining fitness levels built up during the preparation period. The principle of reversibility needs to be considered here. The number of sessions is reduced to the minimum to maintain levels. Within team activities there can be the conflict between maintaining fitness and developing skills and tactics. This is when a combined approach is most effective.
Training cycles Within the training year you will have training cycles. The whole training year is known as the MACROCYCLE. This will detail your training priorities for the year based on the activities requirements. Within the macrocycle there is the MESOCYCLE . These are medium term plans that are linked to specific periods of the year. You may have several mesocycles in a years training. These can last from anything between 1-3 months. Finally you will have MICROCYCLES . These are short term weekly training plans.
Goal setting During your training programme it is vitally important that you set yourselves goals. These goals will enhance your training and help motivate you. Training goals can be little steps on your way to achieving your ultimate goal. Goals can be broken down into Long, Medium and Short term goals. For example A badminton player may want to win the Scottish Championship and set this as their long term goal. To help them achieve this they have set a medium term goal of improving their CRE. In order to achieve this medium term goal then have established several short term gaols such as completing 10 x 2 minute court movement drills, improve multi stage shuttle run by 2 shuttles every 3 weeks. In order for goal setting to enhance training the goals set need to be SMART S – Specific M – Measurable A – Attainable R – Realistic T – Timed.