In 1920-21, some 800,000 Europeans (mostly from the southeastern regions) came to the U.S.,
Demonstrating their political power, Klansmen triumphantly parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., on September 13, 1926, in full regalia.
The new Ku Klux Klan was anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, and anti-birth control.
Immigration Objective: compare the KKK, and immigration quotas to the Americanization movement
After the war, “new” immigration pattern resumed, but based more on isolationist ideas. Emergency Quota Act of 1921: restricted immigration to 3% of nationality living in U.S. as of 1910 – relatively favorable to new immigrant groups such as Mexicans and Germans. Immigration How does this Act reflect isolationist views? Would the KKK support this Act? Why or why not? Is this Act morally acceptable to you? Why or why not? Whoa Elmer! What did you eat?
In 1921, the Act was replaced by Immigration Act of 1924: cut quota to 2%, and based it on 1890 population. Immigration Why would this change be made? Keep the number of immigrants low but maintain a U.S. culture dominated by Western/Northern Europeans. The Act also barred any Japanese immigration, but exempted Canadians & Latin Americans for work purposes. Why bar Japanese from entering the country? By 1931, more foreigners left U.S. than arrived. What other factors besides the Immigration Acts may account for this reversal in immigration/emigration.
Immigration The immigrant tide was now cut off, but those that were in America struggled to adapt. Immigrants continued to make up a large portion of the work force. What impact would you expect this to have on labor unions? Differences in race, culture, and nationality made it difficult for unions to organize, hurting membership. Italian section German section Irish section There’s Locke’s great-grandfather. (You can see the family resemblance In the forehead region.)
The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S.
Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 , in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910.
Immigration Act of 1924 , the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.
Construction of Racial Difference > Supreme Court Decisions In re Balsara, 1909 Asian Indians are probably not White Congressional intent U.S. v. Dolla, 1910 Asian Indians are White Inspection of skin U.S. v. Balsara 1910 Asian Indians are White Scientific evidence In re Sadar Bhagwab Singh, 1917 Asian Indians are not White Common knowledge Congressional intent In re Mohan Singh, 1919 Asian Indians are White Scientific evidence In re Thind, 1920 Asian Indians are White Legal precedent U.S. v. Thind, 1923 Asian Indians are not White Common knowledge Congressional intent In re Najour, 1909 Syrians are White Scientific evidence In re Mudarri, 1910 Syrians are White Scientific evidence Legal precedent In re Ellis, 1910 Syrians are White Common knowledge Congressional intent Ex parte Shahid, 1913 Syrians are not White Common knowledge Ex parte Dow, 1914 Syrians are not White Common knowledge In re Dow, 1914 Syrians are not White Common knowledge Congressional intent Dow v. U.S., 1915 Syrians are White Scientific evidence Congressional intent Legal precedent
Construction of Racial Difference > Supreme Court Decisions In re Mallari, 1916 Filipinos are not White No explanation In re Rallos, 1917 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent U.S. v. Javier, 1927 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent De La Ysla v. U.S., 1935 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent De Cano v. State, 1941 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent In re Halladjian, 1909 Armenians are White Scientific evidence Legal precedent U.S. v. Cartozian, 1925 Armenians are White Scientific evidence Common knowledge Legal precedent In re Feroz Din, 1928 Afghanis are not White Common knowledge In re Ahmed Hassan, 1942 Arabians are not White Common knowledge Ex parte Mohriez, 1944 Arabians are not White Legal precedent
Construction of Racial Difference > U.S. v Bhagat Singh Thind, 1923
The name was constructed by combining the Greek "kuklos" (circle) with "clan." It was at first a humorous social club centering on practical jokes and hazing rituals but soon spread into nearly every Southern state, launching a "reign of terror" against Republican leaders both black and white.