kkk Immigration


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  • In 1920-21, some 800,000 Europeans (mostly from the southeastern regions) came to the U.S.,
  • Demonstrating their political power, Klansmen triumphantly parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., on September 13, 1926, in full regalia.
  • The new Ku Klux Klan was anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, and anti-birth control.
  • kkk Immigration

    1. 1. Immigration Objective: compare the KKK, and immigration quotas to the Americanization movement
    2. 3. Social Tensions Review (ch.26) <ul><li>Rise in immigration after World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of Immigrants from </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern and Southern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>(Poland, USSR, Italy, Greece) </li></ul>
    3. 4. After the war, “new” immigration pattern resumed, but based more on isolationist ideas. Emergency Quota Act of 1921: restricted immigration to 3% of nationality living in U.S. as of 1910 – relatively favorable to new immigrant groups such as Mexicans and Germans. Immigration How does this Act reflect isolationist views? Would the KKK support this Act? Why or why not? Is this Act morally acceptable to you? Why or why not? Whoa Elmer! What did you eat?
    4. 5. In 1921, the Act was replaced by Immigration Act of 1924: cut quota to 2%, and based it on 1890 population. Immigration Why would this change be made? Keep the number of immigrants low but maintain a U.S. culture dominated by Western/Northern Europeans. The Act also barred any Japanese immigration, but exempted Canadians & Latin Americans for work purposes. Why bar Japanese from entering the country? By 1931, more foreigners left U.S. than arrived. What other factors besides the Immigration Acts may account for this reversal in immigration/emigration.
    5. 6. Immigration The immigrant tide was now cut off, but those that were in America struggled to adapt. Immigrants continued to make up a large portion of the work force. What impact would you expect this to have on labor unions? Differences in race, culture, and nationality made it difficult for unions to organize, hurting membership. Italian section German section Irish section There’s Locke’s great-grandfather. (You can see the family resemblance In the forehead region.)
    6. 7. <ul><li>The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe. </li></ul>IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS
    7. 8. <ul><li>The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 , in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Act of 1924 , the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America. </li></ul>IMMIGRATION QUOTAS
    9. 10. Cartoon from 1919: “Put them out and keep them out”
    10. 11. Anti-immigrant Culture <ul><li>Despite national culture and rising consumption rates, social and ethnic tensions remained </li></ul><ul><li>Post-World War I fears and hatred continued </li></ul><ul><li>Red Scare, Alien & Sedition </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisements and mass communication distributed fears across the country </li></ul>
    11. 12. Anti-Immigrant Fears <ul><li>Sons of the Golden West </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Exclusion League </li></ul><ul><li>KKK </li></ul><ul><li>Border Patrol </li></ul><ul><li>Texas and Arizona Rangers </li></ul>
    12. 13. Construction of Racial Difference > Supreme Court Decisions In re Balsara, 1909 Asian Indians are probably not White Congressional intent U.S. v. Dolla, 1910 Asian Indians are White Inspection of skin U.S. v. Balsara 1910 Asian Indians are White Scientific evidence  In re Sadar Bhagwab Singh, 1917 Asian Indians are not White Common knowledge  Congressional intent In re Mohan Singh, 1919 Asian Indians are White Scientific evidence  In re Thind, 1920 Asian Indians are White Legal precedent U.S. v. Thind, 1923 Asian Indians are not White Common knowledge  Congressional intent In re Najour, 1909 Syrians are White Scientific evidence In re Mudarri, 1910 Syrians are White Scientific evidence  Legal precedent In re Ellis, 1910 Syrians are White Common knowledge  Congressional intent Ex parte Shahid, 1913 Syrians are not White Common knowledge Ex parte Dow, 1914 Syrians are not White Common knowledge In re Dow, 1914 Syrians are not White Common knowledge  Congressional intent Dow v. U.S., 1915 Syrians are White Scientific evidence  Congressional intent  Legal precedent
    13. 14. Construction of Racial Difference > Supreme Court Decisions In re Mallari, 1916 Filipinos are not White No explanation In re Rallos, 1917 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent U.S. v. Javier, 1927 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent De La Ysla v. U.S., 1935 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent De Cano v. State, 1941 Filipinos are not White Legal precedent In re Halladjian, 1909 Armenians are White Scientific evidence  Legal precedent U.S. v. Cartozian, 1925 Armenians are White Scientific evidence  Common knowledge   Legal precedent In re Feroz Din, 1928 Afghanis are not White Common knowledge In re Ahmed Hassan, 1942 Arabians are not White Common knowledge  Ex parte Mohriez, 1944 Arabians are not White Legal precedent
    14. 15. Construction of Racial Difference > U.S. v Bhagat Singh Thind, 1923
    15. 16. Immigration Restriction > Annual Immigration Quotas, 1924 <ul><li>Germany - 51,227 </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain - 34,007 </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland - 28,567 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy - 3,845 </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary - 473 </li></ul><ul><li>Greece - 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt - 100 </li></ul>
    16. 17. Texas Rangers, 1915-1919
    17. 20. Stemming the Foreign Flood <ul><li>After the World War, South Eastern European immigration rose 600% </li></ul><ul><li>“ 100% Americans” Did not like this </li></ul><ul><li>The first political party against immigration was the Know Nothing Party </li></ul>
    18. 21. Stemming the Foreign Flood <ul><li>D. Emergency Quota Act of 1921 limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>E. Johnson Reid Act, or Immigration Act of 1924, changed the 1921 act to 1890 census and changed the limit from 3% to 2%. </li></ul>
    19. 22. Stemming the Foreign Food <ul><li>F. The Immigration Act of 1929 further changed the law because it limited the total immigration to 152,574. </li></ul>
    20. 23. Stemming the Foreign Flood <ul><li>G. In 1965, the national-origins system was abolished by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>H. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921, Johnson Reid Act of 1924, and the Immigration Act of 1929 were known as the National Origins system. </li></ul>
    21. 24. Stemming the Foreign Flood <ul><li>I. The system favored Western European over Eastern European. Japanese Immigration was completely shut off while the law allowed unlimited immigration from Canada and Central America. </li></ul>
    22. 25. Nativism and Racism <ul><li>Eugenics movement – false scientific movement that deals with the ability to improve hereditary traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism in its scientific form. Human inequalities are inherited and the ending of the procreation of the “unfit” and “inferior.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced sterilization of African American women </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 26. Political Cartoons – On Immigration <ul><li>1921 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 </li></ul>
    24. 27.                                
    25. 28. Rise of KKK Objective: compare the KKK, and immigration quotas to the Americanization movement
    26. 29. KKK and the Immigration Restriction <ul><li>The name was constructed by combining the Greek &quot;kuklos&quot; (circle) with &quot;clan.&quot; It was at first a humorous social club centering on practical jokes and hazing rituals but soon spread into nearly every Southern state, launching a &quot;reign of terror&quot; against Republican leaders both black and white. </li></ul>
    27. 30. Conflicts over Values <ul><li>Americans lived in larger communities, which produced a shift in values , or a person’s key beliefs and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1920s, many people in urban areas had values that differed from those in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural America represented the traditional spirit of hard work, self-reliance, religion, and independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities represented changes that threatened those values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ku Klux Klan grew dramatically in the 1920s, and many of its members were people from rural America who saw their status declining. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of the Klan continued to use violence, targeting African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and all immigrants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1920s, the Klan focused on influencing politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Klan’s membership was mostly in the South but spread nationwide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Klan’s peak membership was in the millions, many from Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership declined in the late 1920s because of a series of scandals affecting Klan leaders. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. KKK <ul><li>The KKK was a big problem during the 1920’s because they would terrorize people. </li></ul><ul><li>The Klan boycotted Jewish merchants, destroyed their stores and burned crosses in front of their Synagogues. </li></ul>
    29. 32. Media ,Propaganda & Gov <ul><li>There were numerous attacks on Jews during these times through the media. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ford’s news paper article, “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”. </li></ul><ul><li>There was propaganda made, making fun of the way Jews looked. </li></ul>
    30. 33. Immigration Restriction > Ku Klux Klan Marching in DC
    31. 34. Virginia, 1928
    32. 35. The KKK <ul><li>Targeted and terrorized the ‘un-American’ </li></ul><ul><li>Gained strong political influence during the 1920s </li></ul>
    33. 36. Violence <ul><li>The KKK started ~1867. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1920s they expand their targets to include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The leader (Imperial wizard) in the 1920’s was Hiram Wesley Evans. </li></ul><ul><li>The KKK was most violent during this period of time; 70 lynched in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>KKK marched in Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>Race riots occurred in the North as well (Chicago 38 killed, 500 injured) </li></ul>
    34. 37. Background Information <ul><li>Lynching- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: To execute without due process of law, especially to hang, as by a mob. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. THE KLAN RISES AGAIN <ul><li>As the Red Scare and anti-immigrant attitudes reached a peak, the KKK was more popular than ever </li></ul><ul><li>By 1924, the Klan had 4.5 million members </li></ul>
    36. 39. The Rebirth of the KKK <ul><li>Anti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacifist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Evolutionalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bootlegger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adultery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Native” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. <ul><li>KKK revival was more “nativist” than just antiblack. </li></ul><ul><li>What does that mean? </li></ul><ul><li>At peak in mid-20s it had 5 Million members with large political influence, especially in the Midwest and South. </li></ul><ul><li>KKK used secrecy, parades, lynchings, burning of crosses, rally songs, and other events to advance their agenda. </li></ul>During the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan, which had been all but wiped out during Reconstruction, underwent a large-scale revivial.
    38. 41. KKK collapsed suddenly in late 20s <ul><li>Terror tactics eventually turned off most Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Embezzlement became widespread throughout the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A Congressional investigation showed that the organization was basically a membership fee racket. (Similar to a Pyramid Scheme) </li></ul>Most historians credit the fraud within the organization for the downfall, not the reaction to the violence. Why would it take corruption to decrease membership?
    39. 42. IKA Imperial Klans of America
    40. 44. The Re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>Original KKK response to emancipation of the slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Re-emergence included hatred towards Catholics, Jews, and Immigrants. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations campaign claiming that the Klan was fighting for “Americanism” solicited 4 million members nationwide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Political cartoon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 45. Klan in the 1920s > Social Movements Supported by the Klan <ul><li>prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>anti-immigrant sentiments </li></ul><ul><li>anti-radicalism </li></ul><ul><li>religious fundamentalism </li></ul><ul><li>morality and family values </li></ul>
    42. 46. Klan in the 1920s > Different Historical Explanations of the Klan <ul><li>racist and nativist movement </li></ul><ul><li>populist movement </li></ul><ul><li>reform movement </li></ul><ul><li>reactionary movement </li></ul>
    43. 47. The Ku Klux Klan Great increase In power Anti-black Anti-immigrant Anti-women’s suffrage Anti-bootleggers Anti-Semitic Anti-Catholic