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Nutrition
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  • 1. Nutrition and Your Health
  • 2. Nutrition • Nutrition – process by which the body takes in and uses food • Calories – units of heat that measure energy used by body and energy that foods supply for the body • Nutrients – substances in food that your body needs to grow, repair itself and to supply you with energy
  • 3. Hunger vs. Appetite • Hunger – natural physical drive that protects you from starvation • Appetite – desire, rather than a need, to eat
  • 4. What Influences Your Food Choices? • Emotions • Environment – Friends, family, peers – Cultural and ethnic background – Convenience and cost – Advertising • NOT affected by HUNGER
  • 5. Nutrients
  • 6. Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Fats • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
  • 7. Carbohydrates • Role: Body’s main energy source • Simple (sugars) vs. Complex (starches) • Recommended 55- 60% daily calories (mainly complex)
  • 8. Fiber • Indigestible complex carbohydrate found in vegetables, fruits and whole grains • Help prevent intestinal problems • Reduce risk of heart disease and diabetes • Eat 20-35 grams daily
  • 9. Proteins • Help build and maintain body cells • Used to make enzymes, hormones, and antibodies • Provide four calories per gram and excess is converted to body fat
  • 10. Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins • Complete: all nine essential amino acids • Incomplete: lack one or more essential amino acids
  • 11. Fats • A type of lipid, fatty substance that does not dissolve in water • Provide 2x the energy of carbs/protein = 9 calories per gram • Building blocks called fatty acids
  • 12. Saturated Fatty Acids • Usually solid at room temperature • Associated with increased risk of heart disease • Animal fats and tropical oils (palm, coconut) • Higher in beef, pork, egg yorks and dairy than chicken and fish
  • 13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids • Usually liquids at room temperature • Associated with reduced risk of heart disease • Vegetable fats – Olive, canola, soybean, corn and cottonseed oils
  • 14. Role of Fats • Concentrated form of energy • Help transport vitamins • Encourage growth and healthy skin • Add flavor and texture to food • DISCLAIMER: High in calories and excess amounts can lead to weight gain and obesity (and even DEATH) • No more than 20-30% of daily calories
  • 15. Cholesterol • Waxy lipid-like substance • Body manufactures some to make cell membranes and nerve tissues; produce hormones • Excess is deposited in arteries = risk of heart disease
  • 16. Vitamins • Compounds that help regulate many vital body processes – Digestion, absorption, and metabolism • Water-soluble: Does not store in body; constantly replenished through food • Fat-soluble: absorbed, stored and transported in fat
  • 17. Minerals • Substances that body cannot manufacture but need for forming healthy bones and teeth and for regulating body processes • Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Iron
  • 18. Water • Makes up the greatest percentage of the body • Vital to all body functions – Transport nutrients – Lubricates joints – Digestion, absorption and elimination – Perspiration
  • 19. Healthful Eating
  • 20. Managing Weight and Body Composition
  • 21. Body Image • The way you see your body is your body image. • Affected by: – Media – Friends – Family • Often tied to perception of weight
  • 22. Weight-Calorie Connection • To maintain weight: calories consumed = calories burned • Both carbs and proteins = 4 calories per gram • Fats = 9 calories per gram
  • 23. Your Weight • Body Mass Index (BMI): ratio that allows assessment body size based on height and weight • Body Composition: ratio of body fat to lean body tissue
  • 24. Body Weight vs. Body Fat • Overweight: heavier than standard weight range for height • Obesity: excess amount of body fat • Underweight: lighter than the standard weight range for height
  • 25. Weight-Related Health Risks • Overweight – High blood pressure and cholesterol – Diabetes – Asthma • Underweight – Fatigue – Decreased ability to fight illness
  • 26. Fad Diets • Weight-loss plans that are popular for a short period of time • Promise QUICK and EASY weight loss • Do NOT promote HEALTHY, gradual weight loss
  • 27. Types of Fad Diets • Fasting • Liquid Diets • Diet Pills • Severe Food Restrictions
  • 28. Eating Disorders
  • 29. Anorexia Nervosa • Disorder in which irrational fear of becoming obese results in severe weight loss from self-imposed starvation • Develops most often in teenage girls and young women
  • 30. Bulimia Nervosa • Disorder in which purging or clearing of digestive tract follows cycles of overeating/binging • Strict diet => binges of food => purging food from body
  • 31. Effects of Bulimia Nervosa • Dehydration • Kidney damage • Irregular heartbeat • Tooth decay • Damage to stomach tissue, esophagus and mouth • Nutrient deficiencies
  • 32. Binge Eating Disorder • Characterized by compulsive overeating – No attempt to purge • Food may be used as coping mechanism for depression or stress

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